SlideShare a Scribd company logo

Hydrocephalus, meningitis and encephalitis - Pathology

This presentation covers in brief the CNS pathology for nurses according to sem 4 syllabus. This covers disorders such as meningitis, encephalitis and also includes hydrocephalus.

1 of 48
Download to read offline
CNS PATHOLOGY
BY : MS. SAILI GAUDE
PRINCIPAL
SHIVAM COLLEGE OF NURSING, AMIRGADH
1)HYDROCEPHALUS
Definition
• Increased volume of Cerebrospinal fluid within the skull along with dilatation of
the ventricles
Hydrocephalus, meningitis and encephalitis - Pathology
INTERNAL HYDROCEPHALUS
• Hydrocephalus involving ventricular dilatation
EXTERNAL HYDROCEPHALUS
• Hydrocephalus without ventricular dilatation
• Localised collection of CSF in subarachnoid space
SOURCEAND CIRCULATIONOF CSF
• Choroid plexus epithelium and ependymal cells of the ventricles produces CSF- 120 to 150ml
• CSF is secreted by choroid plexus in each lateral ventricles
• CSF flows through interventricular foramina into 3rd ventricles
• Choroid plexus in third ventricles adds more CSF
• CSF flows down cerebral aqueduct to 4th ventricles
• Choroid plexus in 4th ventricles adds more CSF
• CSF flows out 2 lateral apertures and one median aperture
• CSF fills subarachnoid spaces and bathes external surfaces of brain and spinal cord
• At arachnoid villi, CSF is reabsorbed into venous blood of dural venous sinuses
PRODUCTION OF CSF
CIRCULATION OF CSF
REABSORBTIONOF CSF

Recommended

PATHOLOGY OF PENUMONIA.pptx
PATHOLOGY OF PENUMONIA.pptxPATHOLOGY OF PENUMONIA.pptx
PATHOLOGY OF PENUMONIA.pptxSaili Gaude
 
STROKE AND ITS TYPES - PATHOLOGY LECTURE
STROKE AND ITS TYPES - PATHOLOGY LECTURESTROKE AND ITS TYPES - PATHOLOGY LECTURE
STROKE AND ITS TYPES - PATHOLOGY LECTURESaili Gaude
 
care of unconscious patient (2).pptx
care of unconscious patient (2).pptxcare of unconscious patient (2).pptx
care of unconscious patient (2).pptxsaymakhan32
 
Acute renal failure.
Acute renal failure.Acute renal failure.
Acute renal failure.hatch_jane
 
Eye Anatomy & Physiology
Eye Anatomy & Physiology Eye Anatomy & Physiology
Eye Anatomy & Physiology Pari Pratik
 

More Related Content

What's hot

Admission and Discharge Procedure
Admission and Discharge ProcedureAdmission and Discharge Procedure
Admission and Discharge ProcedureDeepak Suwalka
 
carcinoma of Ear.pptx
carcinoma of Ear.pptxcarcinoma of Ear.pptx
carcinoma of Ear.pptxSuhel Khan
 
[Int. med] altered state of consciousness from SIMS Lahore
[Int. med] altered state of consciousness from SIMS Lahore[Int. med] altered state of consciousness from SIMS Lahore
[Int. med] altered state of consciousness from SIMS LahoreMuhammad Ahmad
 
Rhinitis-Medical Surgical Nursing Topic
Rhinitis-Medical Surgical Nursing TopicRhinitis-Medical Surgical Nursing Topic
Rhinitis-Medical Surgical Nursing TopicSwatilekha Das
 
BURN - Presented By Mohammed Haroon Rashid
BURN - Presented By Mohammed Haroon Rashid BURN - Presented By Mohammed Haroon Rashid
BURN - Presented By Mohammed Haroon Rashid Haroon Rashid
 
The nursing process
The nursing processThe nursing process
The nursing processEssy Essy
 
Aneurism and peripherial vascular disease
Aneurism and peripherial vascular diseaseAneurism and peripherial vascular disease
Aneurism and peripherial vascular diseaseOM VERMA
 
Cardiac diagnostic tests
Cardiac diagnostic testsCardiac diagnostic tests
Cardiac diagnostic testsBharat Pokhrel
 
Cataract - Easy PPT for Nursing Students
Cataract  - Easy PPT for Nursing StudentsCataract  - Easy PPT for Nursing Students
Cataract - Easy PPT for Nursing StudentsSwatilekha Das
 
Management of Unconscious patient
Management of  Unconscious patient Management of  Unconscious patient
Management of Unconscious patient silla elsa soji
 

What's hot (20)

Pericarditis
PericarditisPericarditis
Pericarditis
 
Admission and Discharge Procedure
Admission and Discharge ProcedureAdmission and Discharge Procedure
Admission and Discharge Procedure
 
carcinoma of Ear.pptx
carcinoma of Ear.pptxcarcinoma of Ear.pptx
carcinoma of Ear.pptx
 
[Int. med] altered state of consciousness from SIMS Lahore
[Int. med] altered state of consciousness from SIMS Lahore[Int. med] altered state of consciousness from SIMS Lahore
[Int. med] altered state of consciousness from SIMS Lahore
 
Glaucoma
Glaucoma Glaucoma
Glaucoma
 
Myocarditis.pptx
Myocarditis.pptxMyocarditis.pptx
Myocarditis.pptx
 
Rhinitis-Medical Surgical Nursing Topic
Rhinitis-Medical Surgical Nursing TopicRhinitis-Medical Surgical Nursing Topic
Rhinitis-Medical Surgical Nursing Topic
 
BURN - Presented By Mohammed Haroon Rashid
BURN - Presented By Mohammed Haroon Rashid BURN - Presented By Mohammed Haroon Rashid
BURN - Presented By Mohammed Haroon Rashid
 
The nursing process
The nursing processThe nursing process
The nursing process
 
Aneurism and peripherial vascular disease
Aneurism and peripherial vascular diseaseAneurism and peripherial vascular disease
Aneurism and peripherial vascular disease
 
Pulmonary edema
Pulmonary edemaPulmonary edema
Pulmonary edema
 
Refractive errors
Refractive errorsRefractive errors
Refractive errors
 
Cardiac diagnostic tests
Cardiac diagnostic testsCardiac diagnostic tests
Cardiac diagnostic tests
 
Retinal detachment
Retinal detachmentRetinal detachment
Retinal detachment
 
Cataract - Easy PPT for Nursing Students
Cataract  - Easy PPT for Nursing StudentsCataract  - Easy PPT for Nursing Students
Cataract - Easy PPT for Nursing Students
 
Cataract
Cataract Cataract
Cataract
 
Burns
BurnsBurns
Burns
 
Dementia dealing with sexually inappropriate behavior
Dementia dealing with sexually inappropriate behaviorDementia dealing with sexually inappropriate behavior
Dementia dealing with sexually inappropriate behavior
 
Heat stroke
Heat strokeHeat stroke
Heat stroke
 
Management of Unconscious patient
Management of  Unconscious patient Management of  Unconscious patient
Management of Unconscious patient
 

Similar to Hydrocephalus, meningitis and encephalitis - Pathology

Central nervous system
Central nervous systemCentral nervous system
Central nervous systemPNK SINGH
 
Neuroradiology of cns funfal infections
Neuroradiology of cns funfal infectionsNeuroradiology of cns funfal infections
Neuroradiology of cns funfal infectionsNeurologyKota
 
Meningitis 2023 with questions F.pptx
Meningitis 2023 with questions F.pptxMeningitis 2023 with questions F.pptx
Meningitis 2023 with questions F.pptxMUHAMMADCHAUDHRY39
 
Parasitic diseases of the central nervous system
Parasitic diseases of the central nervous systemParasitic diseases of the central nervous system
Parasitic diseases of the central nervous systemShahin Hameed
 
lab diagnosis of meningitis.pptx
lab diagnosis of meningitis.pptxlab diagnosis of meningitis.pptx
lab diagnosis of meningitis.pptxSeemaSharma226971
 
PATHOLOGY OF NEWCASTLE DISEASE, CPV AND HEART WATER
PATHOLOGY OF NEWCASTLE DISEASE, CPV AND HEART WATERPATHOLOGY OF NEWCASTLE DISEASE, CPV AND HEART WATER
PATHOLOGY OF NEWCASTLE DISEASE, CPV AND HEART WATERTwibanire Jean de Dieu
 
Pathology of cns
Pathology of cnsPathology of cns
Pathology of cnsNailaawal
 
Skin infections (3).pdf
Skin infections  (3).pdfSkin infections  (3).pdf
Skin infections (3).pdfJohnmvula3
 
Meningitis final.ppt
Meningitis final.pptMeningitis final.ppt
Meningitis final.pptClementPeter4
 
Diabetic retinopathy pathophysiology
Diabetic retinopathy pathophysiologyDiabetic retinopathy pathophysiology
Diabetic retinopathy pathophysiologyAnis Azmi
 

Similar to Hydrocephalus, meningitis and encephalitis - Pathology (20)

Meningitis
MeningitisMeningitis
Meningitis
 
MENINGITIS.pptx
MENINGITIS.pptxMENINGITIS.pptx
MENINGITIS.pptx
 
Meningitis
MeningitisMeningitis
Meningitis
 
Central nervous system
Central nervous systemCentral nervous system
Central nervous system
 
Neuroradiology of cns funfal infections
Neuroradiology of cns funfal infectionsNeuroradiology of cns funfal infections
Neuroradiology of cns funfal infections
 
Meningitis 2023 with questions F.pptx
Meningitis 2023 with questions F.pptxMeningitis 2023 with questions F.pptx
Meningitis 2023 with questions F.pptx
 
Parasitic diseases of the central nervous system
Parasitic diseases of the central nervous systemParasitic diseases of the central nervous system
Parasitic diseases of the central nervous system
 
lab diagnosis of meningitis.pptx
lab diagnosis of meningitis.pptxlab diagnosis of meningitis.pptx
lab diagnosis of meningitis.pptx
 
seminar Meningitis
seminar Meningitisseminar Meningitis
seminar Meningitis
 
PATHOLOGY OF NEWCASTLE DISEASE, CPV AND HEART WATER
PATHOLOGY OF NEWCASTLE DISEASE, CPV AND HEART WATERPATHOLOGY OF NEWCASTLE DISEASE, CPV AND HEART WATER
PATHOLOGY OF NEWCASTLE DISEASE, CPV AND HEART WATER
 
meningitis
meningitismeningitis
meningitis
 
Meningitis
MeningitisMeningitis
Meningitis
 
Pathology of cns
Pathology of cnsPathology of cns
Pathology of cns
 
Skin infections (3).pdf
Skin infections  (3).pdfSkin infections  (3).pdf
Skin infections (3).pdf
 
Meningitis final.ppt
Meningitis final.pptMeningitis final.ppt
Meningitis final.ppt
 
Diabetic retinopathy pathophysiology
Diabetic retinopathy pathophysiologyDiabetic retinopathy pathophysiology
Diabetic retinopathy pathophysiology
 
Meningitis
MeningitisMeningitis
Meningitis
 
Hydrocephalus
HydrocephalusHydrocephalus
Hydrocephalus
 
Hydrocephalus
HydrocephalusHydrocephalus
Hydrocephalus
 
MENINGITIS - by DR K DELE
MENINGITIS - by DR K DELEMENINGITIS - by DR K DELE
MENINGITIS - by DR K DELE
 

More from Saili Gaude

OTOSCLEROSIS - causes, types, symptoms & treatment
OTOSCLEROSIS - causes, types, symptoms & treatmentOTOSCLEROSIS - causes, types, symptoms & treatment
OTOSCLEROSIS - causes, types, symptoms & treatmentSaili Gaude
 
ANATOMY OF BLOOD- RBCs, WBCs & Platelet
ANATOMY OF BLOOD- RBCs, WBCs  & PlateletANATOMY OF BLOOD- RBCs, WBCs  & Platelet
ANATOMY OF BLOOD- RBCs, WBCs & PlateletSaili Gaude
 
Anatomy of Heart- Internal structures pt
Anatomy of Heart- Internal structures ptAnatomy of Heart- Internal structures pt
Anatomy of Heart- Internal structures ptSaili Gaude
 
OXYGENATION - TYPES OF OXYGEN DEVICE.ppt
OXYGENATION - TYPES OF OXYGEN DEVICE.pptOXYGENATION - TYPES OF OXYGEN DEVICE.ppt
OXYGENATION - TYPES OF OXYGEN DEVICE.pptSaili Gaude
 
PATHOLOGY OF URINARY SYSTEM DISORDER ppt
PATHOLOGY OF URINARY SYSTEM DISORDER pptPATHOLOGY OF URINARY SYSTEM DISORDER ppt
PATHOLOGY OF URINARY SYSTEM DISORDER pptSaili Gaude
 
ASTHMA - PATHOLOGY FOR NURSING STUDENTS
ASTHMA  - PATHOLOGY FOR NURSING STUDENTSASTHMA  - PATHOLOGY FOR NURSING STUDENTS
ASTHMA - PATHOLOGY FOR NURSING STUDENTSSaili Gaude
 
BRONCHIECTASIS PATHOLOGY FOR NURSES.pptx
BRONCHIECTASIS PATHOLOGY FOR NURSES.pptxBRONCHIECTASIS PATHOLOGY FOR NURSES.pptx
BRONCHIECTASIS PATHOLOGY FOR NURSES.pptxSaili Gaude
 
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF PANCREAS PPTX.
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF PANCREAS PPTX.ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF PANCREAS PPTX.
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF PANCREAS PPTX.Saili Gaude
 
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF LIVER.pptx
ANATOMY  AND  PHYSIOLOGY   OF LIVER.pptxANATOMY  AND  PHYSIOLOGY   OF LIVER.pptx
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF LIVER.pptxSaili Gaude
 
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF GALL BLADDER
ANATOMY  AND  PHYSIOLOGY OF GALL BLADDERANATOMY  AND  PHYSIOLOGY OF GALL BLADDER
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF GALL BLADDERSaili Gaude
 
ANATOMY OF SMALL INTESTINE -presentation
ANATOMY OF SMALL INTESTINE -presentationANATOMY OF SMALL INTESTINE -presentation
ANATOMY OF SMALL INTESTINE -presentationSaili Gaude
 
ANATOMY OF STOMACH- a short concise lect
ANATOMY OF STOMACH- a short concise lectANATOMY OF STOMACH- a short concise lect
ANATOMY OF STOMACH- a short concise lectSaili Gaude
 
Anatomy of Esophagus for nursing student
Anatomy of Esophagus for nursing studentAnatomy of Esophagus for nursing student
Anatomy of Esophagus for nursing studentSaili Gaude
 
ANATOMY OF EAR.pptx
ANATOMY OF EAR.pptxANATOMY OF EAR.pptx
ANATOMY OF EAR.pptxSaili Gaude
 
ANATOMY OF EYE.pptx
ANATOMY OF EYE.pptxANATOMY OF EYE.pptx
ANATOMY OF EYE.pptxSaili Gaude
 
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF SKIN.pptx
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF SKIN.pptxANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF SKIN.pptx
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF SKIN.pptxSaili Gaude
 
ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY OF EYE.pptx
ANATOMY  & PHYSIOLOGY OF EYE.pptxANATOMY  & PHYSIOLOGY OF EYE.pptx
ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY OF EYE.pptxSaili Gaude
 
ANATOMY OF PHARYNX.pptx
ANATOMY OF PHARYNX.pptxANATOMY OF PHARYNX.pptx
ANATOMY OF PHARYNX.pptxSaili Gaude
 
ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY OF NOSE.pptx
ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY OF NOSE.pptxANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY OF NOSE.pptx
ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY OF NOSE.pptxSaili Gaude
 
Anatomy of Eye.pptx
Anatomy of Eye.pptxAnatomy of Eye.pptx
Anatomy of Eye.pptxSaili Gaude
 

More from Saili Gaude (20)

OTOSCLEROSIS - causes, types, symptoms & treatment
OTOSCLEROSIS - causes, types, symptoms & treatmentOTOSCLEROSIS - causes, types, symptoms & treatment
OTOSCLEROSIS - causes, types, symptoms & treatment
 
ANATOMY OF BLOOD- RBCs, WBCs & Platelet
ANATOMY OF BLOOD- RBCs, WBCs  & PlateletANATOMY OF BLOOD- RBCs, WBCs  & Platelet
ANATOMY OF BLOOD- RBCs, WBCs & Platelet
 
Anatomy of Heart- Internal structures pt
Anatomy of Heart- Internal structures ptAnatomy of Heart- Internal structures pt
Anatomy of Heart- Internal structures pt
 
OXYGENATION - TYPES OF OXYGEN DEVICE.ppt
OXYGENATION - TYPES OF OXYGEN DEVICE.pptOXYGENATION - TYPES OF OXYGEN DEVICE.ppt
OXYGENATION - TYPES OF OXYGEN DEVICE.ppt
 
PATHOLOGY OF URINARY SYSTEM DISORDER ppt
PATHOLOGY OF URINARY SYSTEM DISORDER pptPATHOLOGY OF URINARY SYSTEM DISORDER ppt
PATHOLOGY OF URINARY SYSTEM DISORDER ppt
 
ASTHMA - PATHOLOGY FOR NURSING STUDENTS
ASTHMA  - PATHOLOGY FOR NURSING STUDENTSASTHMA  - PATHOLOGY FOR NURSING STUDENTS
ASTHMA - PATHOLOGY FOR NURSING STUDENTS
 
BRONCHIECTASIS PATHOLOGY FOR NURSES.pptx
BRONCHIECTASIS PATHOLOGY FOR NURSES.pptxBRONCHIECTASIS PATHOLOGY FOR NURSES.pptx
BRONCHIECTASIS PATHOLOGY FOR NURSES.pptx
 
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF PANCREAS PPTX.
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF PANCREAS PPTX.ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF PANCREAS PPTX.
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF PANCREAS PPTX.
 
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF LIVER.pptx
ANATOMY  AND  PHYSIOLOGY   OF LIVER.pptxANATOMY  AND  PHYSIOLOGY   OF LIVER.pptx
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF LIVER.pptx
 
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF GALL BLADDER
ANATOMY  AND  PHYSIOLOGY OF GALL BLADDERANATOMY  AND  PHYSIOLOGY OF GALL BLADDER
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF GALL BLADDER
 
ANATOMY OF SMALL INTESTINE -presentation
ANATOMY OF SMALL INTESTINE -presentationANATOMY OF SMALL INTESTINE -presentation
ANATOMY OF SMALL INTESTINE -presentation
 
ANATOMY OF STOMACH- a short concise lect
ANATOMY OF STOMACH- a short concise lectANATOMY OF STOMACH- a short concise lect
ANATOMY OF STOMACH- a short concise lect
 
Anatomy of Esophagus for nursing student
Anatomy of Esophagus for nursing studentAnatomy of Esophagus for nursing student
Anatomy of Esophagus for nursing student
 
ANATOMY OF EAR.pptx
ANATOMY OF EAR.pptxANATOMY OF EAR.pptx
ANATOMY OF EAR.pptx
 
ANATOMY OF EYE.pptx
ANATOMY OF EYE.pptxANATOMY OF EYE.pptx
ANATOMY OF EYE.pptx
 
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF SKIN.pptx
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF SKIN.pptxANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF SKIN.pptx
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF SKIN.pptx
 
ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY OF EYE.pptx
ANATOMY  & PHYSIOLOGY OF EYE.pptxANATOMY  & PHYSIOLOGY OF EYE.pptx
ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY OF EYE.pptx
 
ANATOMY OF PHARYNX.pptx
ANATOMY OF PHARYNX.pptxANATOMY OF PHARYNX.pptx
ANATOMY OF PHARYNX.pptx
 
ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY OF NOSE.pptx
ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY OF NOSE.pptxANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY OF NOSE.pptx
ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY OF NOSE.pptx
 
Anatomy of Eye.pptx
Anatomy of Eye.pptxAnatomy of Eye.pptx
Anatomy of Eye.pptx
 

Recently uploaded

EQUIPMENT FOR CRANIAL AND DENTAL RADIOGRAPHY.pptx
EQUIPMENT FOR CRANIAL AND DENTAL RADIOGRAPHY.pptxEQUIPMENT FOR CRANIAL AND DENTAL RADIOGRAPHY.pptx
EQUIPMENT FOR CRANIAL AND DENTAL RADIOGRAPHY.pptxRukamaneeYadav
 
Dr. Ahmed Samhanد حاتم البيطاررر اكاديمية زويل .pdf
Dr. Ahmed Samhanد حاتم البيطاررر اكاديمية زويل .pdfDr. Ahmed Samhanد حاتم البيطاررر اكاديمية زويل .pdf
Dr. Ahmed Samhanد حاتم البيطاررر اكاديمية زويل .pdfد حاتم البيطار
 
ARTIFICIAL_TEARS presentation dhir .pptx
ARTIFICIAL_TEARS presentation dhir .pptxARTIFICIAL_TEARS presentation dhir .pptx
ARTIFICIAL_TEARS presentation dhir .pptxdhbketan
 
Ramy Case Study 1د حاتم البيطار زويل اكاديمي.pptx
Ramy Case Study 1د حاتم البيطار زويل اكاديمي.pptxRamy Case Study 1د حاتم البيطار زويل اكاديمي.pptx
Ramy Case Study 1د حاتم البيطار زويل اكاديمي.pptxد حاتم البيطار
 
tayloranderson44444444444444444444444444444444.pptx
tayloranderson44444444444444444444444444444444.pptxtayloranderson44444444444444444444444444444444.pptx
tayloranderson44444444444444444444444444444444.pptxTyraRideaux
 
Artificial intelligence in Dermatology.pptx
Artificial intelligence in Dermatology.pptxArtificial intelligence in Dermatology.pptx
Artificial intelligence in Dermatology.pptxSiddharthDash13
 
School Health Services in Community Health Nursing
School Health Services in Community Health NursingSchool Health Services in Community Health Nursing
School Health Services in Community Health NursingVeereshDemashetti
 
organization of OT. adult health nursing
organization of OT. adult health nursingorganization of OT. adult health nursing
organization of OT. adult health nursingDishaThakur53
 
LINEAR ACCELERATOR PRINCIPAL AND WORKING
LINEAR ACCELERATOR PRINCIPAL AND WORKINGLINEAR ACCELERATOR PRINCIPAL AND WORKING
LINEAR ACCELERATOR PRINCIPAL AND WORKINGKrishan Murari Yadav
 
Eng . Asmaa Hassanد حاتم البيطار زويل اكاديمي.pdf
Eng . Asmaa Hassanد حاتم البيطار زويل اكاديمي.pdfEng . Asmaa Hassanد حاتم البيطار زويل اكاديمي.pdf
Eng . Asmaa Hassanد حاتم البيطار زويل اكاديمي.pdfد حاتم البيطار
 
Strategies and Options For Making India Zero Waste Water-26-2-24.pptx
Strategies and Options For Making India Zero Waste Water-26-2-24.pptxStrategies and Options For Making India Zero Waste Water-26-2-24.pptx
Strategies and Options For Making India Zero Waste Water-26-2-24.pptxJIT KUMAR GUPTA
 
Health and nutrition presentation by Soham Patel.pptx
Health and nutrition presentation by Soham Patel.pptxHealth and nutrition presentation by Soham Patel.pptx
Health and nutrition presentation by Soham Patel.pptxsohampatel420738
 
tayloranderson12222222222222222222222222222222.pptx
tayloranderson12222222222222222222222222222222.pptxtayloranderson12222222222222222222222222222222.pptx
tayloranderson12222222222222222222222222222222.pptxTyraRideaux
 
A BIRD VIEW ON DUSHI & GARAVISHA......pdf
A BIRD VIEW ON DUSHI & GARAVISHA......pdfA BIRD VIEW ON DUSHI & GARAVISHA......pdf
A BIRD VIEW ON DUSHI & GARAVISHA......pdfMallamma Biradar
 
INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION.pptx...smart study..
INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION.pptx...smart study..INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION.pptx...smart study..
INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION.pptx...smart study..Beena Vaza
 
orbital_pseudotumor presentation dhir hospital bhiwani.pptx
orbital_pseudotumor presentation dhir hospital bhiwani.pptxorbital_pseudotumor presentation dhir hospital bhiwani.pptx
orbital_pseudotumor presentation dhir hospital bhiwani.pptxdhbketan
 
Roar Wellness Drug Addiciton Program.pdf
Roar Wellness Drug Addiciton Program.pdfRoar Wellness Drug Addiciton Program.pdf
Roar Wellness Drug Addiciton Program.pdfroarwellnessrehab
 
Embark on a delicious journey to a healthier you with 'A Healthy Guide to Eat...
Embark on a delicious journey to a healthier you with 'A Healthy Guide to Eat...Embark on a delicious journey to a healthier you with 'A Healthy Guide to Eat...
Embark on a delicious journey to a healthier you with 'A Healthy Guide to Eat...akashdashjsr99
 
Alzheimer’s Disease, Dementia, and Stem Cell Therapy Insights from Dr. David ...
Alzheimer’s Disease, Dementia, and Stem Cell Therapy Insights from Dr. David ...Alzheimer’s Disease, Dementia, and Stem Cell Therapy Insights from Dr. David ...
Alzheimer’s Disease, Dementia, and Stem Cell Therapy Insights from Dr. David ...Dr. David Greene Arizona
 
CHOLECYSTITIS.pptx...easy contains...MSN - I
CHOLECYSTITIS.pptx...easy contains...MSN - ICHOLECYSTITIS.pptx...easy contains...MSN - I
CHOLECYSTITIS.pptx...easy contains...MSN - IBeena Vaza
 

Recently uploaded (20)

EQUIPMENT FOR CRANIAL AND DENTAL RADIOGRAPHY.pptx
EQUIPMENT FOR CRANIAL AND DENTAL RADIOGRAPHY.pptxEQUIPMENT FOR CRANIAL AND DENTAL RADIOGRAPHY.pptx
EQUIPMENT FOR CRANIAL AND DENTAL RADIOGRAPHY.pptx
 
Dr. Ahmed Samhanد حاتم البيطاررر اكاديمية زويل .pdf
Dr. Ahmed Samhanد حاتم البيطاررر اكاديمية زويل .pdfDr. Ahmed Samhanد حاتم البيطاررر اكاديمية زويل .pdf
Dr. Ahmed Samhanد حاتم البيطاررر اكاديمية زويل .pdf
 
ARTIFICIAL_TEARS presentation dhir .pptx
ARTIFICIAL_TEARS presentation dhir .pptxARTIFICIAL_TEARS presentation dhir .pptx
ARTIFICIAL_TEARS presentation dhir .pptx
 
Ramy Case Study 1د حاتم البيطار زويل اكاديمي.pptx
Ramy Case Study 1د حاتم البيطار زويل اكاديمي.pptxRamy Case Study 1د حاتم البيطار زويل اكاديمي.pptx
Ramy Case Study 1د حاتم البيطار زويل اكاديمي.pptx
 
tayloranderson44444444444444444444444444444444.pptx
tayloranderson44444444444444444444444444444444.pptxtayloranderson44444444444444444444444444444444.pptx
tayloranderson44444444444444444444444444444444.pptx
 
Artificial intelligence in Dermatology.pptx
Artificial intelligence in Dermatology.pptxArtificial intelligence in Dermatology.pptx
Artificial intelligence in Dermatology.pptx
 
School Health Services in Community Health Nursing
School Health Services in Community Health NursingSchool Health Services in Community Health Nursing
School Health Services in Community Health Nursing
 
organization of OT. adult health nursing
organization of OT. adult health nursingorganization of OT. adult health nursing
organization of OT. adult health nursing
 
LINEAR ACCELERATOR PRINCIPAL AND WORKING
LINEAR ACCELERATOR PRINCIPAL AND WORKINGLINEAR ACCELERATOR PRINCIPAL AND WORKING
LINEAR ACCELERATOR PRINCIPAL AND WORKING
 
Eng . Asmaa Hassanد حاتم البيطار زويل اكاديمي.pdf
Eng . Asmaa Hassanد حاتم البيطار زويل اكاديمي.pdfEng . Asmaa Hassanد حاتم البيطار زويل اكاديمي.pdf
Eng . Asmaa Hassanد حاتم البيطار زويل اكاديمي.pdf
 
Strategies and Options For Making India Zero Waste Water-26-2-24.pptx
Strategies and Options For Making India Zero Waste Water-26-2-24.pptxStrategies and Options For Making India Zero Waste Water-26-2-24.pptx
Strategies and Options For Making India Zero Waste Water-26-2-24.pptx
 
Health and nutrition presentation by Soham Patel.pptx
Health and nutrition presentation by Soham Patel.pptxHealth and nutrition presentation by Soham Patel.pptx
Health and nutrition presentation by Soham Patel.pptx
 
tayloranderson12222222222222222222222222222222.pptx
tayloranderson12222222222222222222222222222222.pptxtayloranderson12222222222222222222222222222222.pptx
tayloranderson12222222222222222222222222222222.pptx
 
A BIRD VIEW ON DUSHI & GARAVISHA......pdf
A BIRD VIEW ON DUSHI & GARAVISHA......pdfA BIRD VIEW ON DUSHI & GARAVISHA......pdf
A BIRD VIEW ON DUSHI & GARAVISHA......pdf
 
INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION.pptx...smart study..
INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION.pptx...smart study..INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION.pptx...smart study..
INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION.pptx...smart study..
 
orbital_pseudotumor presentation dhir hospital bhiwani.pptx
orbital_pseudotumor presentation dhir hospital bhiwani.pptxorbital_pseudotumor presentation dhir hospital bhiwani.pptx
orbital_pseudotumor presentation dhir hospital bhiwani.pptx
 
Roar Wellness Drug Addiciton Program.pdf
Roar Wellness Drug Addiciton Program.pdfRoar Wellness Drug Addiciton Program.pdf
Roar Wellness Drug Addiciton Program.pdf
 
Embark on a delicious journey to a healthier you with 'A Healthy Guide to Eat...
Embark on a delicious journey to a healthier you with 'A Healthy Guide to Eat...Embark on a delicious journey to a healthier you with 'A Healthy Guide to Eat...
Embark on a delicious journey to a healthier you with 'A Healthy Guide to Eat...
 
Alzheimer’s Disease, Dementia, and Stem Cell Therapy Insights from Dr. David ...
Alzheimer’s Disease, Dementia, and Stem Cell Therapy Insights from Dr. David ...Alzheimer’s Disease, Dementia, and Stem Cell Therapy Insights from Dr. David ...
Alzheimer’s Disease, Dementia, and Stem Cell Therapy Insights from Dr. David ...
 
CHOLECYSTITIS.pptx...easy contains...MSN - I
CHOLECYSTITIS.pptx...easy contains...MSN - ICHOLECYSTITIS.pptx...easy contains...MSN - I
CHOLECYSTITIS.pptx...easy contains...MSN - I
 

Hydrocephalus, meningitis and encephalitis - Pathology

  • 1. CNS PATHOLOGY BY : MS. SAILI GAUDE PRINCIPAL SHIVAM COLLEGE OF NURSING, AMIRGADH
  • 3. Definition • Increased volume of Cerebrospinal fluid within the skull along with dilatation of the ventricles
  • 5. INTERNAL HYDROCEPHALUS • Hydrocephalus involving ventricular dilatation EXTERNAL HYDROCEPHALUS • Hydrocephalus without ventricular dilatation • Localised collection of CSF in subarachnoid space
  • 6. SOURCEAND CIRCULATIONOF CSF • Choroid plexus epithelium and ependymal cells of the ventricles produces CSF- 120 to 150ml • CSF is secreted by choroid plexus in each lateral ventricles • CSF flows through interventricular foramina into 3rd ventricles • Choroid plexus in third ventricles adds more CSF • CSF flows down cerebral aqueduct to 4th ventricles • Choroid plexus in 4th ventricles adds more CSF • CSF flows out 2 lateral apertures and one median aperture • CSF fills subarachnoid spaces and bathes external surfaces of brain and spinal cord • At arachnoid villi, CSF is reabsorbed into venous blood of dural venous sinuses PRODUCTION OF CSF CIRCULATION OF CSF REABSORBTIONOF CSF
  • 7. FLOW DIAGRAM OF CSF CIRCULATION LATERALVENTRICLES FORAMENOF MONRO THIRDVENTRICLES AQUEDUCT OF SLYVIUS FOURTHVENTRICLES FORAMENOF MAGENDIEAND LUSHKA SUBARACHNOID SPACEOF BRAINAND SPINAL CORD
  • 9. TYPES AND ETIOPATHOGENESIS PRIMARY HYDROCEPHALUS • Most commonest SECONDARY HYDROCEPHALUS • Uncommon
  • 10. PRIMARY HYDROCEPHALUS • Actual increase in the volume of CSF within skull along with elevated intracranial pressure • Possible mechanisms of primary hydrocephalus • 1) Obstruction of CSF flow • 2) Overproduction of CSF • 3) Deficient resorption of CSF
  • 11. OBSTRUCTIVE HYDROCEPHALUS • Most commonest type of primary hydrocephalus • Depending on the site of obstruction, further classified as: • 1) Non communicating hydrocephalus • 2) Communicating hydrocephalus
  • 12. 1) NON COMMUNICATING HYDROCEPHALUS • When the site of obstruction of CSF pathway is in the third ventricles or at fourth ventricles • Ventricular system enlarges • CSF cannot pass into subarachnoid space • Accumulation of CSF • Causes : • 1) Congenital – stenosis of aqueduct, Arnold chiari malformation, gliosis of aqueduct, intrauterine meningitis • 2) Acquired- Expanding lesions inside skull eg tumors, inflammatory lesions, hemorrhage
  • 13. 2) COMMUNICATING HYDROCEPHALUS • When obstruction to the CSF flow is in the subarachnoid spaces at the base of the brain, it results in enlargement of the ventricular system but CSF flows freely between dilated ventricles and spinal cord. • Causes are non obstructive in nature : • 1) Overproduction of CSF- Choroid plexus pappiloma • 2) Deficient reabsorbtion of CSF – after meningitis , subarachnoid hemorrhage
  • 14. SECONDARY HYDROCEPHALUS • Less common • Compensatory increase of CSF due to loss of neural tissue without associated rise in intracranial pressure • Eg . Cerebral atrophy and infarction
  • 15. MORPHOLOGY • GROSS MORPHOLOGY • Dilatation of ventricles • Thinning and stretching of brain • Engorgement of scalp vein • Fontanelle remains open • HISTOLOGICALLY • Damage to ependymal lining of ventricles • Periventricular interstitial edema
  • 19. DEFINITION • Inflammation of all layers of meninges and CSF within the subarachnoid space • Pachymeningitis- inflammation of dura matter • Leptomeningitis- inflammation of pia and arachnoid matter • Chemical meningitis- when non bacterial irritants causes meningitis • Meningeal carcinomatosis – cancer cells infiltrate the meninges
  • 20. ETIOPATHOGENESIS 1. ACUTE PYOGENIC (Bacterial) 2. ACUTEVIRAL (Aseptic) 3. CHRONIC ( Bacterial or Fungal)
  • 21. 1) ACUTE PYOGENIC MENINGITIS • Acute infection of the pia and arachnoid mater • Neonates – E.Coli, Proteus, Group B streptococci • Infants and Children – H. Influenza • Adolescents and young adults- Nesseiria meningitidis • Blood stream • Adjacent foci of infection • Iatrogenic- during lumbar puncture or during surgery ETIOLOGY ROUTESOFTRANSMISSION
  • 22. • CSF becomes purulent • Accumulation of purulent CSF in subarachnoid space esp at the base of brain • Meningeal artery becomes engorged and prominent • In severe cases ventricles may get inflamed called as the ventriculitis GROSSAPPEARANCE
  • 23. • Subarachnoid space is filled with plenty of neutrophils • Meninges also contains neutrophils • Gram staining may show different causative bacteria • Arachnoid fibrosis can be seen • Adhesive arachnoiditis in which the arachnoid mater starts to stick to the adjacent mater can be seen MICROSCOPICALLY
  • 24. • Fever • Headache • Vomitting • Drowsiness • Convulsion • Coma • Purpuric rash • Neck rigidity CLINICAL FEATURES
  • 26. • Lumbar puncture may show : • 1) Cloudy or purulent CSF • 2) Increased CSF pressure • 3) Increased protein levels in CSF • 4) Decreased sugar in CSF • 5) Increased Neutrophils in CSF • Gram staining of culture of CSF • 1) Shows the causative organisms • Polymerase chain reaction may also be used DIAGNOSTIC FINDINGS
  • 27. 2) ACUTEVIRAL MENINGITIS • Also called acute lymphocytic meningitis or Aseptic meningitis • Most common cause-Viral • Benign self limiting disorder • Entero virus • ECHO virus • Coxsackie virus • Epstein Barr virus • Mumps • Herpes simplex CAUSATIVEORGANISMS
  • 28. • Brain edema • Inflammation of meninges • Mild to moderate amount of lymphocytes are seen in CSF • Inflammatory infiltrate in pia and arachnoid mater GROSSAPPEARANCE MICROSCOPICALLY
  • 29. • Headache • Meningeal irritability • Hyperpyrexia • Meningeal rigidity • Weakness • Complete recovery without specific therapy CLINICAL FEATURES
  • 30. • Clear or cloudy CSF • Increased pressure more than 250mmHg • Increased protein levels in CSF • Normal CSF glucose levels • Increased lymphocytes in CSF • CSF bacteriologically sterile DIAGNOSTICTEST
  • 31. 3) CHRONIC MENINGITIS • 2 disorders under this are : 1)TUBERCULOUS MENINGITIS 2) CRYPTOCOCCAL MENINGITIS
  • 32. • Most common in children • May occur as a part of miliary tuberculosis • Immunosupression may cause it • Commonly seen in multidrug resistanceTB • Causative organism – M. tuberculosis TUBERCULOUS MENINGITIS
  • 33. • Occurs in immunocompromised patients as secondary infection • Usually starts from a pulmonary lesion • Important cause of meningitis in AIDS patient CRYPTOCOCCAL MENINGITIS
  • 34. • Thick greenish gelatinous pus • Common at bases • Many tubercles are present on the meninges- 1 to2 mm in diameter • Brain edema • In cryptococcal meningitis the exudate is less and gelatinous GROSSAPPEARANCE
  • 36. • Exudate comprises of mixture of cells of both acute and chronic inflammatory cells • Granulation and giant cells • Zeil – neilson staining – AFB +ve • Cryptococci seen on Indian ink preparation MICROSCOPICALLY
  • 37. • Low grade fever • Headache • Vomiting • Malaise CLINICAL FEATURES
  • 38. • CSF is clear • When allowed to settle, CSF may show a small clot formation • Increased pressure- above 300 mmHg • Increased protein in CSF • Decreased glucose content • Increased leucocyte count in CSF • Special stains demonstrates the micro-organisms responsible for meningitis DIAGNOSTIC FINDINGS
  • 40. • Infection of brain parenchyma • Causative organism- any organism • Normally occurs as a secondary infection after meningitis • Tuberculosis and neurosyphilis are only 2 causes of primary infection which causes a brain lesion called as brain abscess • The cerebral cortex is the place where this micro-organisms are found the most and thus it may causes cerebritis DEFINITION
  • 41. • TRANSMISSION : • A) Direct implantation- during fracture of skull or surgery of the skull • B) Local extension of the infection- sinusitis, otitis media, mastoiditis etc • C) Blood spread- Especially infection from heart such as endocarditis, may spread through blood to brain • PATHOLOGICAL CHANGES • Cerebral abscesses are destructive lesions • Walled off by pyogenic membrane 1. BACTERIAL ENCEPHALITIS
  • 42. • GROSS APPEARANCE: • Abscess with central necrosis surrounded by fibrous capsule and edema • Multiple abscesses • Can occur in any lobe – frontal, parietal and cerebellum • MICROSCOPICALLY • Central liquefactive necrosis • Acute and chronic inflammatory cells • Neovascular blood vessels • Edema • Fibrous capsule • Gliosis
  • 43. • Range of viruses can cause this disorder • Preceding infection in other tissues • Virus replication occurs outside brain • Than affects nervous system • ENTRY OF MICRO-ORGANISM • Via gastrointestinal tract • Skin and mucus membrane • Transplacental • Body fluids • Animal bite 2)VIRAL ENCEPHALITIS
  • 44. • Inflammation of cortex, basal ganglia and brain stem • Herpes simplex- temporal lobe • Diffuse parenchymal infiltrate of lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages • Clusters of glial cells • Presence of specific inclusion bodies PATHOLOGICAL CHANGES
  • 45. • Necrotizing area • Hemorrhage • Eosinophillic • Inflammatory infiltrate • Edema • Vascular congestion • Pyramidal cells are seen in case of rabies MORPHOLOGY
  • 46. • Infection of ependymal cells and glial cells • Owl eye like big inclusions seen inside nucleus or cytoplasm in cytomegalovirus infection • Negri bodies- a small bullet shaped intra cytoplasmic inclusion seen in rabies • Microglial nodules MICROSCOPICALLY
  • 47. • Usually develop by blood stream • Systemic deep mycoses somewhere else in the body causes it • Common in immunosuppressed individuals • Common causative organisms- candida, mucormycosis, histoplasma, aspergillus, cryptococci • Protozoal causes- malaria, toxoplasmosis, amoebiasis etc 3) FUNGAL ENCEPHALITIS