Role for farming systems and CA for food security in Cambodia. Vang
5th WCCAWorld Congress on Conservation Agriculture26-29 September 2011Brisbane, Australia Role for Farming Systems and CA for Food Security in Cambodia Dr Seng Vang Deputy Director of CARDI 26 September 2011 1
Outline1. Cambodia-background2. The Royal Government Policies for Agriculture3. Responding to the Royal Government Policies for Agriculture: The ACIAR Projects4. Conclusions
1. Cambodia-background: Climate, Land resources, Agriculture, Current status of crop production, Farming systems, and Constraints to crop production & diversification
Cambodia - climateWe have 2 main cropping seasons: Wet season: May-Oct Dry season: Nov-Apr [Early wet season: April-July] Rainfall: 1200 – 4000 mm January : lowest October : highest Temperature: 23 – 33oC December : lowest April : highest Humidity: 69 - 80% March : lowest September : highest Day length : 11h - 13h December : shortest June : longest Evaporation: 2230 mm/year September : lowest March : highest 4
Soils, areas, and their fertility potentials in Cambodia Fertility Areas Areas SoilsPotential (ha) (%) 2. Latosols, 6. Grey hydromorphics, 8.High Brown hydromorphics, 10. Regurs, 12. 5,082,564 28 Basic lithosols, 15. Lacustrine alluvials 5. Cultural hydromorphics, 9.Medium Alumisols, 13. Alluvials, 14. Brown 3,404,599 19 alluvials 1. Red-Yellow Podzols, 3. Planosols, 4. Plinthite podzols, 7. PlinthiticLow 9,443,663 53 hydromorphics, 11. Acid lithosols, 16. Coastal complexTotal 17,930,826 100Source: Crocker (1962) 5
Generalized soil fertility potential map of Cambodia 6
Land use categories in Cambodia7 =4.37 mil ha (24%) Source: MPWT/JICA (2002)
18,022 (0.1%) 532,133 (2.9%) Area (ha) covered by LU categories 36,254 (0.2%) 1,883,882 (10.4%) Agriculture1,078,243 4,370,027 (24.1%) Forest cover (6.0%) Grassland Shrubland Soil-Rock Urban 10,215,094 (56.3%) Water 8
Share of agricultural sector to the country’s GDP Share of agricultural sub-sectors (%) Sector Contribution (%)2009 (%) Sectoral Contribution in in 2010 6.1 Industry Crops 12.8 Agriculture Fisheries 29 53.8 28 Livestock 27.3 43 Forestry Services40.00 34.4% Agricultural Sector (%)35.00 31.5% 32.1% 28.9% 29.5%30.00 28.1% 26.7% 26.8% 28.0% 29.0%25.0020.0015.0010.00 5.00 0.00 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
Current status of rice production in Cambodia 2010 Relative to 2009 (%) Cultivated area (mil ha) 2.80 2.82 Harvested area (mil ha) 2.78 3.84 Average yield (t/ha) 2.97 4.74 Total production (mil t) 8.25 8.75 Paddy surplus (mil t) 3.93 12 Data source: MAFF (2011)Rainfed Lowland: 80.2%Upland: 1.9%Deepwater/Floating: 3.4%Dry Season: 14.5%
4.5 Wet season 40004.0 Dry Season 35003.5 30003.0 25002.52.0 20001.5 15001.0 10000.5 5000.0 0 1990 1995 2000 2005 2008 2009 2010 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010Average rice yield (t/ha) in wet seasonand dry season Surplus of milled rice (x1000 t)Source: MAFF Statistics for each of the indicated years.
Farming Systems in Cambodia• Uplands – Land form: undulated, 50m<elevation <1000 m asl – Main crops: Soybean, maize, cassava, rubber – Land preparation: Ploughing by machinery – Other: Slash and burn• Lowlands – Land form: flat, elevation <50 m asl – Main crop: Rice – Labour: Oxen, power tillers – Land preparation: Puddling – Crop establishment: • Manual transplanting • Some broadcasting – Single rice crop per year, but • Intensification • Diversification, • Adoption of new technologies
Constraints in Crop Production • Water • Soil fertility • Variety • Good quality seed • Pests and diseases • Socio-economics of farmers • Poor agronomic practice • Aging farmers 14
e.g. Surface properties of a sandy soil (PreyKhmer soil) and percentage of rice area itoccupies (Seng et al., 2005) Non-rice: Hardsetting Acidity Waterlogging
Diversifying the Farming SystemMIND SET OF CHANGE • Legumes in rotation with rice • Using adapted planting techniques vs. Machinery? • No till practice?
2. The Royal Government Policy for Agriculture
The National Development Plan 2009-2013 The Rectangular Strategy-Phase II1. Agricultural Sector:Improving AgriculturalProductivity & DiversificationAgricultural StrategicDevelopment Plan of MAFF: Toensure food security, increasedincome, job creation, & improvednutritional status of all Cambodianpeople by improving theproductivity, diversification, &commercialization of agriculturewith environmentally soundprotection and food safety.Strategy for Agriculture andWater (SAW) 2010-2013.Rice Policy on The promotion ofpaddy production and rice export .
The RGC policy on the promotion of paddy production and rice export “Rice = White Gold”Early maturity Intermediate maturity Late maturity1. Sen Pidao 1. Phka Rumdoul 1. Riang Chey2. Chul’sa 2. Phka Romeat 2. CAR43. IR66 3. Phka Romdeng 3. CAR6 4. Phka Chan Sen Sar4 Interventions: 2015 Milestones:• Enhanced production of rice crops • Paddy surplus : 4 million tons• Purchasing and processing • Milled rice for export: 1 million tons• Improved enabling factors, and • Cambodian rice: Recognized internationally• Marketing.
Partners in Agricultural Research3. Responding to the Royal Government Policies for Agriculture: The ACIAR Projects “Improving the Productivity and Diversification of Farming Systems in Cambodia”
CARDI-ACIAR: On-going Projects Code Project Title Duration NotesCSE2006/040 Diversification and Intensification of 2007-2012 Completion Lowland Rice Cropping Mar 2012ASEM2006/130 Enhancing production and marketing of 2008-2011 Completion maize and soybean in NW Cambodia and Sept 2011 production of summer crops in N AustraliaLWR2008/019 Developing Multi-Scale Climate Change 2010-2014 Completion adaptation strategies for farming June 2014 communities In Cambodia, Lao PDR, Bangladesh and IndiaCSE2009/037 Improved rice establishment and 2010-2013 Completion Productivity Feb 2013CSE2009/005 Improved rice germplasm for Cambodia 2010-2014 Completion and Australia Feb 2014
CARDI-ACIAR: On-going Projects (Cont.) Code Project Title Duration NotesLWR2009/046 Improved irrigation water management 2011-2014 Completion to increase rice productivity in Cambodia June 2015HORT2009/064 Strengthening the Cambodian and 2010-2013 Completion Australian vegetable industries through Feb 2013 adaptation of improved production and postharvest practicesSmall Grants (via Cambodian Agricultural Research Fund)CARDI-274 Improved Productivity of Aromatic Rice 2011-2014 Completion(CARF Rd9) Varieties with Fertilizer Best Practice in April 2014 Rainfed and Irrigated Lowland Rice Cropping SystemsCARDI-273 Collecting of Plant Genetic Resources for 2011-2013 Completion(CARF Rd9) Food and Agriculture in Eastern province April 2013 of Cambodia
Putting efforts in rice cropping CSE/2006/040CSE/2009/037CSE/2009/005LWR/2009/046 LWR/2008/019
Grain yield of rice, cv. Sen Pidoa grown by various methods. Plotted values are mean of 2 sites x 3 replicates.Grain yield (t/ha) FP BC DS TP Establishment Methods FP: farmer practice (BC 60 kg/ha, no weeding) BC: broadcasting (60 kg/ha) DS: drum seeder (60 kg/ha) TP: transplanting (2-3 seedlings/hill, 20 days, 20x20cm) Source: CARDI (CSE/2009/37, 2010)
Grain yield of rice (cv. Phka Rumduol) and Returns under 3 establishment methodsSource: CARDI (CSE/2009/37, 2010)
The effect of furrow irrigation frequency on grain yield and wateruse efficiency (WUE) of mungbean and peanut grown after WS rice Irrigation Water use Grain yield WUE Frequencies (mm) (kg/ha) (kg/ha/mm) Mungbean Every 3 days 250 985 3.94 Every 6 days 216 1044 4.84 Every 9 days 177 686 3.87 Mean 216 899 4.16 lsd (5%) ** 168** 0.75*Peanut Every 3 days 285 720 2.52 Every 6 days 244 812 3.33 Every 9 days 211 649 3.08 Mean 249 749 3.01 lsd (5%) ** 114* 0.48** Source: CSE/2006/040
Effect of mulch on weed biomass and grain yield of mungbean atfour locations in Cambodia in 2008-09 dry season Source: Mitchell et al. (2011). Field Crop Research.
4. Conclusions1. The ACIAR-funded research projects in Cambodia has made a significant contribution to the improved research capacity and technology developed for Cambodian farmers.2. The increased farming systems productivity, especially in rainfed lowland farming system through diversification and intensification has been made possible with the improved understanding of research know-how and technology transfer.3. More efforts are required to increase the adoption by farmers of the developed technologies, e.g. post-rice legumes.4. Increasing and stabilizing the productivity of rice-based lowland farming systems of Cambodia remain a priority for the growth of agricultural sector.5. Given the situation of labor market competition and aging farming labors, a [slowly] change from traditional farming practices to mechanization farming practices has been happening in the country.6. More research is need to develop technologies most suitable for the Cambodian lowland conditions for the use of mechanization or other tools with high labor productivity.
Acknowledgements• ACIAR for all kinds of support for all projects, particularly for participation in this congress• The WCCA5 Secretariat• The NSW DPI (YAI) via CSE/2009/037• The UQ (SLCFS) via CSE/2006/040 Thank you, Or kun!