Managing Risk and Low
Productivity of Rainfed Agriculture
    through Nationwide Water
   Harvesting Initiative in India
I...
Scarcity of water has always been frightening
                  for those………


                                           ...
The individual human capacity to control and regulate the
         water resource




Is also very very limited!!
The Two Major Responses have been……………………..


1. Creation of large canal systems with public funds
2. Development of groun...
And Groundwater Resources are becoming

                                     Unsustainable in
                            ...
Further, this ‘access vs. no access’ to water has created a large
stratification in the rural landscape of India and elsew...
RWH may be a sustainable and equitable
                     way out?
                    Mid season                       ...
Effect of critical irrigation on yield

Crop          Without      Critical     % increase
              irrigation   irri...
The Concept of Dominant Rainfed Districts for the Rainfed Crops




         Priority districts for different rainfed
    ...
Target districts for Rainwater Harvesting in India


Crop          Districts         Districts        Yield (kg/ha)
      ...
Dominant districts for Cotton
    80                                                                       70
            ...
Spatial distribution of surplus runoff (ha-m)
across dominant rainfed districts and river
basins of India.
               ...
Efficient use of the harvested water




Runoff water harvesting and recycling for SI
Estimates of surplus irrigable area
                                            ‘000ha


Crop          Rainfed    Drought ...
Yield increase with S Irrigation
                                             ‘000 tonnes
Crop         Traditional Addl.  ...
Net benefits from WH and Supplemental Irrigation


    Crop          Annul cost, B Rs.   Net benefits, B Rs.
    Rice     ...
Western and Southern India have 10 millio
         Dugwells. Many are out of use but are
             Excellent recharge s...
Multiple uses of harvested water in the
            eastern region




                          Economics of Secondary Re...
Conclusions
 Close correlation between hunger, poverty and water.

75% of water required to meet 2015 hunger reduction
t...
Managing Risk and Low Productivity of Rainfed Agriculture through Nationwide Water Harvesting Initiative in India
Managing Risk and Low Productivity of Rainfed Agriculture through Nationwide Water Harvesting Initiative in India
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Managing Risk and Low Productivity of Rainfed Agriculture through Nationwide Water Harvesting Initiative in India

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Managing Risk and Low Productivity of Rainfed Agriculture through Nationwide Water Harvesting Initiative in India

Bharat R Sharma
IWMI, New Delhi

International Conference on “Water- Harvesting, Storage and Conservation”,
November 23-24, 2009; IIT, Kanpur, India

Published in: Education, Technology
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Managing Risk and Low Productivity of Rainfed Agriculture through Nationwide Water Harvesting Initiative in India

  1. 1. Managing Risk and Low Productivity of Rainfed Agriculture through Nationwide Water Harvesting Initiative in India International Conference on “Water- Harvesting, Storage and Conservation”, November 23-24, 2009; IIT, Kanpur, India Bharat R Sharma IWMI, New Delhi
  2. 2. Scarcity of water has always been frightening for those……… Whose livelihoods depend upon……….. The randomness of rainfall!! Source: Liu Changming Presentation
  3. 3. The individual human capacity to control and regulate the water resource Is also very very limited!!
  4. 4. The Two Major Responses have been…………………….. 1. Creation of large canal systems with public funds 2. Development of groundwater resources with private funds…………But ? Land Use Survey data on area irrigated by different Rs 100 000 crores sources in India spent since 1991, but 40000000 no additional benefits. 35000000 30000000 There has been no 25000000 addition to Canal ha 20000000 15000000 Irrigated areas for 14 10000000 5000000 years 0 19 91 19 92 19 93 19 94 19 95 19 96 19 97 19 98 19 99 20 00 20 01 20 02 20 03 4 -0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 19 canal surface Groundwater
  5. 5. And Groundwater Resources are becoming Unsustainable in large areas due to over-exploitation, lower recharge, high energy prices and inequality in access. Source: Liu Changming Presentation
  6. 6. Further, this ‘access vs. no access’ to water has created a large stratification in the rural landscape of India and elsewhere Variation in rural poverty in the Indian states…….. Is access to water an important determinant? YES, in very large number of cases!!
  7. 7. RWH may be a sustainable and equitable way out? Mid season Terminal Drought Drought Probability of consecutive 3 dry Probability of consecutive 3 dry weeks weeks from September 2nd Week from August 1st Week Probability (%) Probability (%) Mid-season and terminal droughts in rainfed regions
  8. 8. Effect of critical irrigation on yield Crop Without Critical % increase irrigation irrigation in yield Wheat 1.92 4.11 114 Barley 2.60 3.36 29 Sorghum 0.98 1.82 86 Upland 1.62 2.78 72 rice
  9. 9. The Concept of Dominant Rainfed Districts for the Rainfed Crops Priority districts for different rainfed crop groups
  10. 10. Target districts for Rainwater Harvesting in India Crop Districts Districts Yield (kg/ha) in rainfed covering in districts cumulative in states 85% area Column 3 Sunflower 224 11 441 Soybean 202 21 911 Groundnut 316 50 1040 Cotton 296 29 180 Maize 346 67 1352 Pigeon pea 266 83 698
  11. 11. Dominant districts for Cotton 80 70 PPT Amaravathi PPT 70 Yeotmal 60 PE PE 60 50 50 PPT/PE 40 PPT/PE 40 30 30 20 20 10 10 0 0 39 43 47 41 45 49 51 11 15 19 23 29 33 37 13 17 21 25 27 31 35 5 9 1 3 7 7 1 3 5 9 13 17 21 25 29 39 43 47 51 11 15 19 23 27 31 33 35 37 41 45 49 week week 80 70 PPT PPT 70 PE 60 PE WR WR 60 50 PPT/PE/WR 50 40 PPT/PE/WR 40 30 30 20 Yeotmal 20 10 AWHC=150.00mm Amravati 10 AWHC=150.00mm 0 0 2223242526272829303132333435363738394041424344454647 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 Week Week
  12. 12. Spatial distribution of surplus runoff (ha-m) across dominant rainfed districts and river basins of India. Crop Area, M Ha Surplus runoff, BM3 Rice 6.3 41.2 Coarse 7.5 20.6 Cereals Cotton 3.2 7.6 Oilseeds 6.3 24.2 Pulses 5.3 20.44 G Total 28.6 114.0
  13. 13. Efficient use of the harvested water Runoff water harvesting and recycling for SI
  14. 14. Estimates of surplus irrigable area ‘000ha Crop Rainfed Drought Normal area year year Rice 5.478 5.425 5.478 C. cereals 6.735 4.184 5.865 Cotton 3.067 1.615 2.546 Oilseeds 5.270 3.848 4.560 Pulses 4.455 3.677 4.295 Total 25.004 18.749 22.743
  15. 15. Yield increase with S Irrigation ‘000 tonnes Crop Traditional Addl. Addl. production Production Production , normal ,drought Rice 6476 3592 3812 C cereals 7209 4645 3603 Cotton 412 282 192 Oilseeds 3880 1768 1672 Pulses 3355 1248 1166 Total, REY 29171 14637 13241
  16. 16. Net benefits from WH and Supplemental Irrigation Crop Annul cost, B Rs. Net benefits, B Rs. Rice 11.71 8.52 C. Cereals 13.88 3.66 Cotton 5.88 8.27 Oilseeds 10.52 24.44 Pulses 8.93 49.51 Grand total 50.91 94.40 The proposition makes a good economic sense to invest in rainwater harvesting- to start with in the dominant rainfed districts.
  17. 17. Western and Southern India have 10 millio Dugwells. Many are out of use but are Excellent recharge structures. Managing Droughts with Groundwater Bankin
  18. 18. Multiple uses of harvested water in the eastern region Economics of Secondary Reservoirs Income Rs/yr Cost Rs/yr From Veg 5682 Digging of pond 10011 From Horti 4020 Labour (100 mandays) 5000 Fish 20000 Others (hort/veg consumables) 2000 Total 29702 Fish feed 2000 Water Supplemention 2000 Total 21011 Profit from 1363 m2 8691 Profit / ha / yr 63766
  19. 19. Conclusions  Close correlation between hunger, poverty and water. 75% of water required to meet 2015 hunger reduction target shall come from rainfed agriculture. Small investments in SI structures can more than double yields and incomes. Substantial payoffs for society. RWH based groundwater banking creates resilience during distress.

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