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Lesson 1.
An Introduction to
Principles of Management
& Organization
1/2/2023 1
Learning Objectives:
1. Understand the functions of management.
2. Explain the three basic leadership styles.
3. Explain the three basic levels of management.
4. Understand the management skills that are
important for a successful small business.
5. Understand the steps in ethical decision
making.
1/2/2023 2
OVERVIEW:
Management is the act of getting people together to
accomplish desired goals and objectives using
available resources efficiently and effectively. Since
organizations can be viewed as systems,
management can also be defined as human action,
including design, to facilitate the production of useful
outcomes from a system. This view opens the
opportunity to manage oneself, a pre-requisite to
attempting to manage others.
1/2/2023 3
What Is Management?
There is no universally accepted definition for
management. The definitions run the gamut
from very simple to very complex. For our
purposes, we define MANAGEMENT as “the
application of planning, organizing,
staffing, directing, and controlling
functions in the most efficient manner
possible to accomplish meaningful
organizational objectives
1/2/2023 4
Management principles apply to all
organizations—large or small, for-profit or not-for-
profit. Even one-person small businesses need to
be concerned about management principles
because without a fundamental understanding of
how businesses are managed, there can be no
realistic expectation of success. Remember that
the most common reason attributed to small
business failure is failure on the part of
management.
1/2/2023 5
Management Functions
On any given day, small business owners and
managers will engage in a mix of many different kinds
of activities—for example, deal with crises as they
arise, read, think, write, talk to people, arrange for
things to be done, have meetings, send e-mails,
conduct performance evaluations, and plan. Although
the amount of time that is spent on each activity will
vary, all the activities can be assigned to one or more
of the five management functions: planning,
organizing, staffing, directing, and controlling
1/2/2023 6
Management
 Getting things done through people.
oPeople – most important response/asset
 Process of planning, organizing, leading and
controlling in order to achieve organizational goals.
 Is both a science and art of managing people and
other resources.
oScience – system – composed of interrelated parts
oArt – skills
1/2/2023 7
Resources Anything of value to the organization.
Classification of Resources
1.Organizational
a.Human
b.Financial
c.Physical
d.Technological
e.Intellectual capital
f. Human capital
g.Social capital
1/2/2023 8
2.According to its nature
a.Tangible Resources
b.Intangible Resources
3.According to Economics
Factors of production:
a.Land
b.Labor
c.Capital
d.Entrepreneurship
4.According to M’s of Management
-man/manpower, machine, money, materials, means, measures,
market, method, motivation, minute
1/2/2023 9
Management Roles
1.Informational- gathering, analyzing and managing
information
2. Interpersonal-interacting with people inside and
outside the organization
3. Decisional -utilizing factual information to solve
problems or assure at a decision.
1/2/2023 10
Management Skills
1. Technical- ability to perform a specialized task
2. Interpersonal-- ability to deal with different types/group of
people
Three general groups of people in an organization
a.Subordinates
b.Peers
c.Superiors
3. Conceptual - ability to analyze a problem or situation.
4. Decisional -- ability to make sound decisions
1/2/2023 11
Evolution of Management
I.Classical Approaches to Management
A.Scientific Management
Frederick M. Taylor (engineer)
oFather of Scientific Management
oused scientific techniques in improving
performance of people and maximizing
output
oDivision of labor
1/2/2023 12
B. Motion Studies reducing task to its basic
physical motion
eliminating unnecessary or redundant motions
1. Frank Gilbreth - Father of Motion Study
Lilian Gilbreth – First Lady of Management
2. Henry Gantt-Developed the Gantt Chart as a
tool in work scheduling and monitoring
progress.Recognizes the value of non-monetary
rewards to motivate workers
3. Henry Ford (Industrialist)Introduced the
assembly line and mass productionUsed the
concept of division of labor in breaking down
jobs into small tasks
1/2/2023 13
All small businesses need to be concerned
about management principles. Management
decisions will impact the success of a business,
the health of its work environment, its growth if
growth is an objective, and customer value and
satisfaction. Seat-of-the-pants management
may work temporarily, but its folly will inevitably
take a toll on a business. This section discusses
management principles, levels, and skills—all
areas that small business owners should
understand so that they can make informed
and effective choices for their businesses.
1/2/2023 14
C. Administrative Management
1.Henry Fayol – Father of Modern Management
oDeveloped the 14 Principles of Management
1.Division of work
2.Authority
3.Descriptive
4.Unity of Command
5.Unity of Direction
6.Subordinates of Individual
7.Remuneration – compensation/monetary
reward
1/2/2023 15
8.Centralization
9. Scalar chain – keep communication
within the chain of command
10.Order – structure, system,
standards
11.Equity – fairness and justice
12. Stability and tenure of personnel –
security of tenure
13. Initiative – act voluntarily
14. Esprit de corps – unity of interest
1/2/2023 16
D. Bureaucracy
oAn organization based on logic,
order, legitimate and authority.
Max Weber (sociologist)
oIntroduced the idea of bureaucratic
organization which is a rational and
efficient form of organization founded
in logic, order and legitimate
authority.
1/2/2023 17
II.Behavioral Theory
Human Relations Movement
 emphasizes the importance of importance of
human element in the workplace
known as Organizational Behavior which is
the study of human behaviour in
organizational settings.
1. Elton Mayo
Developed the “Hawthorne Effect”
psychological and social factors are more
important than the physical condition of the
workplace and financial incentives in
motivating workers.
1/2/2023 18
2. Abraham Maslow-Psychologist
Developed the motivational theory known
as “Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs”
1)Psychological Needs – foods, shelter,
clothing, sex
2)Safety Needs – security, protection
3)Social Needs – belongingness
4)Esteem Self – recognition, achievement
5)Self-actualization – self-fulfilment
1/2/2023 19
3. Frederick Herzberg (psychologist)
Developed the “Two Factor Theory” or
“Motivation-Hygiene Theory”
This theory proposes that employees are
motivated by intrinsic (motivation) factor than
extrinsic (hygiene) factor.
Intrinsic Factors : achievement and
recognition
Extrinsic Factors : making decisions,
company policies, pay, job security
1/2/2023 20

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Lesson 1 OMTE 001 An Introduction to Principles of Management & Organization.pptx

  • 1. Lesson 1. An Introduction to Principles of Management & Organization 1/2/2023 1
  • 2. Learning Objectives: 1. Understand the functions of management. 2. Explain the three basic leadership styles. 3. Explain the three basic levels of management. 4. Understand the management skills that are important for a successful small business. 5. Understand the steps in ethical decision making. 1/2/2023 2
  • 3. OVERVIEW: Management is the act of getting people together to accomplish desired goals and objectives using available resources efficiently and effectively. Since organizations can be viewed as systems, management can also be defined as human action, including design, to facilitate the production of useful outcomes from a system. This view opens the opportunity to manage oneself, a pre-requisite to attempting to manage others. 1/2/2023 3
  • 4. What Is Management? There is no universally accepted definition for management. The definitions run the gamut from very simple to very complex. For our purposes, we define MANAGEMENT as “the application of planning, organizing, staffing, directing, and controlling functions in the most efficient manner possible to accomplish meaningful organizational objectives 1/2/2023 4
  • 5. Management principles apply to all organizations—large or small, for-profit or not-for- profit. Even one-person small businesses need to be concerned about management principles because without a fundamental understanding of how businesses are managed, there can be no realistic expectation of success. Remember that the most common reason attributed to small business failure is failure on the part of management. 1/2/2023 5
  • 6. Management Functions On any given day, small business owners and managers will engage in a mix of many different kinds of activities—for example, deal with crises as they arise, read, think, write, talk to people, arrange for things to be done, have meetings, send e-mails, conduct performance evaluations, and plan. Although the amount of time that is spent on each activity will vary, all the activities can be assigned to one or more of the five management functions: planning, organizing, staffing, directing, and controlling 1/2/2023 6
  • 7. Management  Getting things done through people. oPeople – most important response/asset  Process of planning, organizing, leading and controlling in order to achieve organizational goals.  Is both a science and art of managing people and other resources. oScience – system – composed of interrelated parts oArt – skills 1/2/2023 7
  • 8. Resources Anything of value to the organization. Classification of Resources 1.Organizational a.Human b.Financial c.Physical d.Technological e.Intellectual capital f. Human capital g.Social capital 1/2/2023 8
  • 9. 2.According to its nature a.Tangible Resources b.Intangible Resources 3.According to Economics Factors of production: a.Land b.Labor c.Capital d.Entrepreneurship 4.According to M’s of Management -man/manpower, machine, money, materials, means, measures, market, method, motivation, minute 1/2/2023 9
  • 10. Management Roles 1.Informational- gathering, analyzing and managing information 2. Interpersonal-interacting with people inside and outside the organization 3. Decisional -utilizing factual information to solve problems or assure at a decision. 1/2/2023 10
  • 11. Management Skills 1. Technical- ability to perform a specialized task 2. Interpersonal-- ability to deal with different types/group of people Three general groups of people in an organization a.Subordinates b.Peers c.Superiors 3. Conceptual - ability to analyze a problem or situation. 4. Decisional -- ability to make sound decisions 1/2/2023 11
  • 12. Evolution of Management I.Classical Approaches to Management A.Scientific Management Frederick M. Taylor (engineer) oFather of Scientific Management oused scientific techniques in improving performance of people and maximizing output oDivision of labor 1/2/2023 12
  • 13. B. Motion Studies reducing task to its basic physical motion eliminating unnecessary or redundant motions 1. Frank Gilbreth - Father of Motion Study Lilian Gilbreth – First Lady of Management 2. Henry Gantt-Developed the Gantt Chart as a tool in work scheduling and monitoring progress.Recognizes the value of non-monetary rewards to motivate workers 3. Henry Ford (Industrialist)Introduced the assembly line and mass productionUsed the concept of division of labor in breaking down jobs into small tasks 1/2/2023 13
  • 14. All small businesses need to be concerned about management principles. Management decisions will impact the success of a business, the health of its work environment, its growth if growth is an objective, and customer value and satisfaction. Seat-of-the-pants management may work temporarily, but its folly will inevitably take a toll on a business. This section discusses management principles, levels, and skills—all areas that small business owners should understand so that they can make informed and effective choices for their businesses. 1/2/2023 14
  • 15. C. Administrative Management 1.Henry Fayol – Father of Modern Management oDeveloped the 14 Principles of Management 1.Division of work 2.Authority 3.Descriptive 4.Unity of Command 5.Unity of Direction 6.Subordinates of Individual 7.Remuneration – compensation/monetary reward 1/2/2023 15
  • 16. 8.Centralization 9. Scalar chain – keep communication within the chain of command 10.Order – structure, system, standards 11.Equity – fairness and justice 12. Stability and tenure of personnel – security of tenure 13. Initiative – act voluntarily 14. Esprit de corps – unity of interest 1/2/2023 16
  • 17. D. Bureaucracy oAn organization based on logic, order, legitimate and authority. Max Weber (sociologist) oIntroduced the idea of bureaucratic organization which is a rational and efficient form of organization founded in logic, order and legitimate authority. 1/2/2023 17
  • 18. II.Behavioral Theory Human Relations Movement  emphasizes the importance of importance of human element in the workplace known as Organizational Behavior which is the study of human behaviour in organizational settings. 1. Elton Mayo Developed the “Hawthorne Effect” psychological and social factors are more important than the physical condition of the workplace and financial incentives in motivating workers. 1/2/2023 18
  • 19. 2. Abraham Maslow-Psychologist Developed the motivational theory known as “Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs” 1)Psychological Needs – foods, shelter, clothing, sex 2)Safety Needs – security, protection 3)Social Needs – belongingness 4)Esteem Self – recognition, achievement 5)Self-actualization – self-fulfilment 1/2/2023 19
  • 20. 3. Frederick Herzberg (psychologist) Developed the “Two Factor Theory” or “Motivation-Hygiene Theory” This theory proposes that employees are motivated by intrinsic (motivation) factor than extrinsic (hygiene) factor. Intrinsic Factors : achievement and recognition Extrinsic Factors : making decisions, company policies, pay, job security 1/2/2023 20