21784998 job-satisfaction-project-report


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21784998 job-satisfaction-project-report

  1. 1. 1 Visit hrmba.blogspot.com for more CHAPTER – I INTRODUCTION Job satisfaction describes how content an individual is with his or her job. Itis a relatively recent term since in previous centuries the jobs available to aparticular person were often predetermined by the occupation of that person’sparent. There are a variety of factors that can influence a person’s level of jobsatisfaction. Some of these factors include the level of pay and benefits, theperceived fairness o the promotion system within a company, the quality of theworking conditions, leadership and social relationships, the job itself (the variety oftasks involved, the interest and challenge the job generates, and the clarity of thejob description/requirements). The happier people are within their job, the more satisfied they are said tobe. Job satisfaction is not the same as motivation, although it is clearly linked. Jobdesign aims to enhance job satisfaction and performance methods include jobrotation, job enlargement and job enrichment. Other influences on satisfactioninclude the management style and culture, employee involvement, empowermentand autonomous workgroups. Job satisfaction is a very important attribute whichis frequently measured by organizations. The most common way of measurementis the use of rating scales where employees report their reactions to their jobs.Questions relate to relate of pay, work responsibilities, variety of tasks,promotional opportunities the work itself and co-workers. Some questioners askyes or no questions while others ask to rate satisfaction on 1 – 5 scale 9where 1represents “not all satisfied” and 5 represents “extremely satisfied”).
  2. 2. 2Definitions Job satisfaction has been defined as a pleasurable emotional stateresulting from the appraisal of one’s job; an affective reaction to one’s job; and anattitude towards one’s job. Weiss (2007) has argued that job satisfaction is anattitude but points out that researchers should clearly distinguish the objects ofcognitive evaluation which are affect (emotion), beliefs and behaviors. Thisdefinition suggests that we from attitudes towards our jobs by taking into accountour feelings, our beliefs, and our behaviors.Affect Theory Edwin A. Lockes Range of Affect Theory (1976) is arguably the mostfamous job satisfaction model. The main premises of this theory is thatsatisfaction is determined by a discrepancy between what one wants in a job andwhat one has in a job. Further, the theory states that how much one values agiven facet of work (e.e. the degree of autonomy in a position) moderates howsatisfied/dissatisfied one becomes when expectations are/are not met. When aperson values a particular facet of a job, his satisfaction is more greatly impactedboth positively (when expectations are met) and negatively (when expectationsare not met), compared to one who does not value that facet. To illustrate, ifEmployee A values autonomy in the workplace and Employee B is indifferentabout autonomy, then Employee A would be more satisfied in a position thatoffers a high degree of autonomy compared to Employee B. this theory alsostates that too much of a particular facet will produces stronger feelings ofdissatisfaction the more a worker values that facet.Dispositional Theory Another well known job satisfaction theory is the Dispositional Theory. It isa very general theory that suggests that people have innate dispositions thatcause them to have tendencies toward a certain level of satisfaction, regardless ofone’s job. This approach became a notable explanation of job satisfaction in lightevidence that job satisfaction tends to be stable over time and across careers and
  3. 3. 3jobs. Research also indicates that identical twins have similar levels of jobsatisfaction. A significant model that narrowed the scope of the Dispositional Theorywas the core Self-evaluations Model, proposed by Timorthy A. Judge in 1998.Judge argued that there are four Core Self-evaluations that determine one’sdisposition towards job satisfaction: self-esteem, general self-efficacy, locus ofcontrol, and neuroticism. This model states that higher levels of self-esteem (thevalue one places on his self) and general self-efficacy (the belief in one’s owncompetence) lead to higher work satisfaction. Having an internal locus of control(believing one has control over her/his own life, as opposed to outside forceshaving control) leads to higher job satisfaction. Finally, lower levels of neuroticismlead to higher job satisfaction.Two – Factor Theory (Motivation – Hygiene Theory) Fredrick Herzberg’s Two factor theory (also known as Motivator HygieneTheory) attempts to explain satisfaction and motivation in the workplace. Thistheory states that satisfaction and dissatisfaction are driven by different factorsmotivation and hygiene factors, respectively. Motivating factors are those aspectsof the job that make people want o perform, and provide people with satisfaction.These motivating factors are considered to be intrinsic to the job, or the workcarried out. Motivating factors include aspects of the working environment such aspay, company policies, supervisory practices, and other working conditions. While Herzberg’s model has stimulated much research, researchers havebeen unable to reliably empirically prove the model, with Hackman & Oldhamsuggesting that Herzberg’s original formulation of the model may have been amethodological artifact. Furthermore, the theory does not consider individualdifferences, conversely predicting all employees will react in an identical mannerto changes in motivating/hygiene factors. Finally, the model has been criticised inthat it does not specify how motivating/hygiene factors are to be measured.
  4. 4. 4Measuring Job Satisfaction There are many methods for measuring job satisfaction. By far, the mostcommon method for collecting data regarding job satisfacting is the Likert scale(named after Rensis Likert). Other less common methods of for gauging jobsatisfaction include: Yes/No questions, True/False questions, point systems,checklist, forced choice answers. The Job Descriptive Index (JDI), created by smith, Kendall, & Hulin (1969),job satisfaction that has been widely used. It measures one’s satisfaction in fivefacets: pay, promotions and opportunities, coworkers, supervision, and the workitself. The scale is simple, participants answer either yes, no, or decide inresponse to whether given statements accurately describe one job. The Job in General Index is an overall measurement of job satisfaction. Itwas an improvement to the job Descriptive Index because the JDI focused toomuch on individual facets and not enough on work satisfaction in general.1.1 Objective of the study The objective of the study is as follows  To assess the satisfaction level of employees in orient glass pvt ltd.  To identify the factors which influence the job satisfaction of employees.  To identify the factor which improves the satisfaction level of employees.  To know the employee satisfaction towards the facilities.  To offer valuable suggestions to improve the satisfaction level of employees.
  5. 5. 51.2 Scope of the study This study emphasis in the following scope:  To identify the employees level of satisfaction upon that job.  This study is helpful to that organisation for conducting further research.  It is helpful to identify the employer’s level of satisfaction towards welfare measure.  This study is helpful to the organization for identifying the area of dissatisfaction of job of the employees.  This study helps to make a managerial decision to the company.1.3 Research Methodology Research methodology is the systematic way to solve the researchproblem. It gives an idea about various steps adopted by the researcher in asystematic manner with an objective to determine various manners.1.3.1 Research Design A research design is considered as the framework or plan for a study thatguides as well as helps the data collection and analysis of data. The researchdesign may be exploratory, descriptive and experimental for the present study.The descriptive research design is adopted for this project.1.3.2 Research Approach The research worker contacted the respondents personally with well-prepared sequentially arranged questions. The questionnaire is prepared on thebasis of objectives of the study. Direct contract is used for survey, i.e., contactingemployees directly in order to collect data.
  6. 6. 61.3.4 Sample size The study sample constitutes 100 respondents constituting in theresearch area.1.3.5 Sampling Area The study is conducted in employees of Orient Glass Pvt Ltd.1.3.6 Sampling Design The researcher has used probability sampling in which stratified randomsampling is used.1.3.7 Collection of Data Most of the data collected by the researcher is primary data throughpersonal interview, where the researcher and the respondent operate face – to –face.1.3.8 Research Instrument The researcher has used a structured questionnaire as a researchinstrument tool which consists of open ended questions, multiple choice anddichotomous questions in order to get data. Thus, Questionnaire is the datacollection instrument used in the study. All the questions in the questionnaire areorganized in such a way that elicit all the relevant information that is needed forthe study1.3.9 Statistical Tools The statistical tools used for analyzing the data collected are percentagemethod, chi square, bar diagrams and pie diagrams.
  7. 7. 71.3.10 Analysis of Data The data are collected through survey and books, reports, newspapers andinternet etc., the survey conducted among the employees of Orient Glass Pvt Ltd.The data collected by the researcher are tabulated and analyzed in such a way tomake interpretations. Various steps, which are required to fulfill the purpose, i.e., editing, coding,and tabulating. Editing refers to separate, correct and modify the collected data.Coding refers to assigning number or other symbols to each answer for placingthem in categories to prepare data for tabulation refers to bring together thesimilar data in rows and columns and totaling them in an accurate and meaningfulmanner The collected data are analyzed and interrupted using statistical tools and techniques.1.4 Research period The research period of the study has from 1st February to May 1st 2008 having 18 weeks of duration.1.5 Limitations of the study  The survey is subjected to the bias and prejudices of the respondents. Hence 100% accuracy can’t be assured.  The researcher was carried out in a short span of time, where in the researcher could not widen the study.  The study could not be generalized due to the fact that researcher adapted personal interview method.
  8. 8. 81.6 Chapter scheme This project is summarized into five different chapters.Chapter-1 Consists of an Introduction, statement of the problem, objectives of thestudy, Rrsearch methodology and limitations of the studyChapter-2 Contains Industry Profile, which contains of world scenario, nationalscenario, and state scenario.Chapter -3 Consists of company profile, which states about the promoter of thecompany and a brief history about the company.Chapter-4 Consists of analysis and interpretation of the collected data.Chapter-5 Consists of findings of the study.Chapter-6 It includes suggestion and recommendations. A copy of questionnaire is included as appendix at the end of this report.
  9. 9. 9 CHAPTER – II INDUSTRY PROFILEGlass in the common sense refers to a hard, brittle, transparent solid, such asused for windows, many bottles, or eyewear, including soda-lime glass, acrylicglass, sugar glass, isinglass (Muscovy-glass), or aluminium oxynitride.In the technical sense, glass is an inorganic product of fusion which has beencooled to a rigid condition without crystallizing. Many glasses contain silica astheir main component and glass former.In the scientific sense the term glass is often extended to all amorphous solids(and melts that easily form amorphous solids), including plastics, resins, or othersilica-free amorphous solids. In addition, besides traditional melting techniques,any other means of preparation are considered, such as ion implantation, and thesol-gel method.[6] However, glass science commonly includes only inorganicamorphous solids, while plastics and similar organics are covered by polymerscience, biology and further scientific disciplines.The optical and physical properties of glass make it suitable for applications suchas flat glass, container glass, optics and optoelectronics material, laboratoryequipment, thermal insulator (glass wool), reinforcement fiber (glass-reinforcedplastic, glass fiber reinforced concrete), and art.Ordinary glass is prevalent due to its transparency to visible light. Thistransparency is due to an absence of electronic transition states in the range ofvisible light. The homogeneity of the glass on length scales greater than thewavelength of visible light also contributes to its transparency as heterogeneitieswould cause light to be scattered, breaking up any coherent image transmission.Many household objects are made of glass. Drinking glasses, bowls and bottlesare often made of glass, as are light bulbs, mirrors, aquaria, cathode ray tubes,computer flat panel displays, and windows.
  10. 10. 10In research laboratories, flasks, test tubes, and other laboratory equipment areoften made of borosilicate glass for its low coefficient of thermal expansion, givinggreater resistance to thermal shock and greater accuracy in measurements. Forhigh-temperature applications, quartz glass is used, although it is very difficult towork. Most laboratory glassware is mass-produced, but large laboratories alsokeep a glassblower on staff for preparing custom made glass equipment.Sometimes, glass is created naturally from volcanic lava, lightning strikes, ormeteorite impacts (e.g., Lechatelierite, Fulgurite, Darwin Glass, Volcanic Glass,Tektites). If the lava is felsic this glass is called obsidian, and is usually black withimpurities. Obsidian is a raw material for flintknappers, who have used it to makeextremely sharp glass knives since the stone age.Glass sometimes occurs in nature resulting from human activity, for exampletrinitite (from nuclear testing) and beach glass.Glass in buildingsGlass is commonly used in buildings as transparent windows, internal glazedpartitions, and as architectural features. It is also possible to use glass as astructural material, for example, in beams and columns, as well as in the form of"fins" for wind reinforcement, which are visible in many glass frontages like largeshop windows. Safe load capacity is, however, limited; although glass has a hightheoretical yield stress, it is very susceptible to brittle (sudden) failure, and has atendency to shatter upon localized impact. This particularly limits its use incolumns, as there is a risk of vehicles or other heavy objects colliding with andshattering the structural element. One well-known example of a structure madeentirely from glass is the northern entrance to Buchanan Street subway station inGlasgow.Glass in buildings can be of a safety type, including wired, heat strengthened(tempered) and laminated glass. Glass fibre insulation is common in roofs andwalls. Foamed glass, made from waste glass, can be used as lightweight, closed-cell insulation. As insulation, glass (e.g., fiberglass) is also used. In the form of
  11. 11. 11long, fluffy-looking sheets, it is commonly found in homes. Fiberglass insulation isused particularly in attics, and is given an R-rating, denoting the insulating ability.Technological applicationsUses of glass for scientific purposes range from applications such as DNAmicroarrays to large sized neodymium doped glass lasers and glass fibresThe Hubble Space Telescope orbiting above earth, containing optical instrumentsPure SiO2 glass (the same chemical compound as quartz, or, in its polycrystallineform, sand) does not absorb UV light and is used for applications that requiretransparency in this region. Large natural single crystals of quartz are pure silicondioxide, and upon crushing are used for high quality specialty glasses. Syntheticamorphous silica, an almost 100 % pure form of quartz, is the raw material for themost expensive specialty glasses, such as optical fiber core. Undersea cableshave sections doped with erbium, which amplify transmitted signals by laseremission from within the glass itself. Amorphous SiO2 is also used as a dielectricmaterial in integrated circuits due to the smooth and electrically neutral interface itforms with silicon.Optical instruments such as glasses, cameras, microscopes, telescopes, andplanetaria are based on glass lenses, mirrors, and prisms. The glasses used formaking these instruments are categorized using a six-digit glass code, oralternatively a letter-number code from the Schott Glass catalogue. For example,BK7 is a low-dispersion borosilicate crown glass, and SF10 is a high-dispersiondense flint glass. The glasses are arranged by composition, refractive index, andAbbe number.Glass polymerization is a technique that can be used to incorporate additives thatmodify the properties of glass that would otherwise be destroyed during hightemperature preparation. Sol gel is an example of glass polymerization andenables embedding of organic and bioactive molecules, to add a new level offunctionality to glass.
  12. 12. 12Glass productionOldest mouth-blown window-glass from 1742 from Kosta Glasbruk, Småland,Sweden. In the middle the mark from the glass blowers pipeGlass production historyGlass melting technology has passed through several stages. • Glass was manufactured in open pits, ca. 3000 B.C. until the invention of the blowpipe in ca. 250 B.C. • The mobile wood-fired melting pot furnace was used until around the 17th century by traveling glass manufacturers. • Around 1688, a process for casting glass was developed, which led to glass becoming a much more commonly used material. • The local pot furnace, fired by wood and coal was used between 1600 and 1850. • The cylinder method of creating flat glass was used in the United States of America for the first time in the 1820s. It was used to commercially produce windows. • The invention of the glass pressing machine in 1827 allowed the mass production of inexpensive glass products. • The gas-heated melting pot and tank furnaces dating from 1860, followed by the electric furnace of 1910. • Hand-blown sheet glass was replaced in the 20th century by rolled plate glass. • The float glass process was invented in the 1950s.
  13. 13. 13Glass ingredientsPure silica (SiO2) has a "glass melting point"— at a viscosity of 10 Pa·s (100 P)—of over 2300 °C (4200 °F). While pure silica can be made into glass for specialapplications (see fused quartz), other substances are added to common glass tosimplify processing. One is sodium carbonate (Na2CO3), which lowers the meltingpoint to about 1500 °C (2700 °F) in soda-lime glass; "soda" refers to the originalsource of sodium carbonate in the soda ash obtained from certain plants.However, the soda makes the glass water soluble, which is usually undesirable,so lime (calcium oxide (CaO), generally obtained from limestone), somemagnesium oxide (MgO) and aluminium oxide are added to provide for a betterchemical durability. The resulting glass contains about 70 to 74 percent silica byweight and is called a soda-lime glass. Soda-lime glasses account for about 90percent of manufactured glass.As well as soda and lime, most common glass has other ingredients added tochange its properties. Lead glass, such as lead crystal or flint glass, is morebrilliant because the increased refractive index causes noticeably more"sparkles", while boron may be added to change the thermal and electricalproperties, as in Pyrex. Adding barium also increases the refractive index.Thorium oxide gives glass a high refractive index and low dispersion, and wasformerly used in producing high-quality lenses, but due to its radioactivity hasbeen replaced by lanthanum oxide in modern glasses. Large amounts of iron areused in glass that absorbs infrared energy, such as heat absorbing filters formovie projectors, while cerium(IV) oxide can be used for glass that absorbs UVwavelengths (biologically damaging ionizing radiation).Besides the chemicals mentioned, in some furnaces recycled glass ("cullet") isadded, originating from the same factory or other sources. Cullet leads to savingsnot only in the raw materials, but also in the energy consumption of the glassfurnace. However, impurities in the cullet may lead to product and equipmentfailure. Fining agents such as sodium sulfate, sodium chloride, or antimony oxideare added to reduce the bubble content in the glass.
  14. 14. 14A further raw material used in the production of soda-lime and fiber glass iscalumite, which is a glassy granular by-product of the iron making industry,containing mainly silica, calcium oxide, alumina, magnesium oxide (and traces ofiron oxide).For obtaining the desired glass composition, the correct raw material mixture(batch) must be determined by glass batch calculation.Contemporary glass productionFollowing the glass batch preparation and mixing the raw materials aretransported to the furnace. Soda-lime glass for mass production is melted in gasfired units. Smaller scale furnaces for specialty glasses include electric melters,pot furnaces and day tanks.After melting, homogenization and refining (removal of bubbles) the glass isformed. Flat glass for windows and similar applications is formed by the float glassprocess, developed between 1953 and 1957 by Sir Alastair Pilkington andKenneth Bickerstaff of the UKs Pilkington Brothers, which created a continuousribbon of glass using a molten tin bath on which the molten glass flowsunhindered under the influence of gravity. Container glass for common bottles andjars is formed by blowing and pressing methods. Further glass forming techniquesare summarized in the table Glass forming techniques.Once the desired form is obtained, glass is usually annealed for the removal ofstresses.Various surface treatment techniques, coatings, or lamination may follow toimprove the chemical durability (glass container coatings, glass container internaltreatment), strength (toughened glass, bulletproof glass, windshields), or opticalproperties (insulated glazing, anti-reflective coating).
  15. 15. 15Glassmaking in the laboratoryA vitrification experiment for the study of nuclear waste disposal at PacificNorthwest National Laboratory.Failed laboratory glass melting test. The striations must be avoided through goodhomogenization.New chemical glass compositions or new treatment techniques can be initiallyinvestigated in small-scale laboratory experiments. The raw materials forlaboratory-scale glass melts are often different from those used in massproduction because the cost factor has a low priority. In the laboratory mostly purechemicals are used. Care must be taken that the raw materials have not reactedwith moisture or other chemicals in the environment (such as alkali oxides andhydroxides, alkaline earth oxides and hydroxides, or boron oxide), or that theimpurities are quantified (loss on ignition). Evaporation losses during glass meltingshould be considered during the selection of the raw materials, e.g., sodiumselenite may be preferred over easily evaporating SeO2. Also, more readilyreacting raw materials may be preferred over relatively inert ones, such as Al(OH)3 over Al2O3. Usually, the melts are carried out in platinum crucibles to reducecontamination from the crucible material. Glass homogeneity is achieved byhomogenizing the raw materials mixture (glass batch), by stirring the melt, and bycrushing and re-melting the first melt. The obtained glass is usually annealed toprevent breakage during processing.Silica-free glassesBesides common silica-based glasses, many other inorganic and organicmaterials may also form glasses, including plastics (e.g., acrylic glass), carbon,metals, carbon dioxide (see below), phosphates, borates, chalcogenides,fluorides, germanates (glasses based on GeO2), tellurites (glasses based onTeO2), antimonates (glasses based on Sb2O3), arsenates (glasses based onAs2O3), titanates (glasses based on TiO2), tantalates (glasses based on Ta2O5),nitrates, carbonates and many other substances.
  16. 16. 16Some glasses that do not include silica as a major constituent may have physico-chemical properties useful for their application in fibre optics and other specializedtechnical applications. These include fluorozirconate, fluoroaluminate,aluminosilicate, phosphate and chalcogenide glasses.Under extremes of pressure and temperature solids may exhibit large structuraland physical changes which can lead to polyamorphic phase transitions.[13] In2006 Italian scientists created an amorphous phase of carbon dioxide usingextreme pressure. The substance was named amorphous carbonia(a-CO2) andexhibits an atomic structure resembling that of Silica.The physics of glassThe amorphous structure of glassy Silica (SiO2). No long range order is present,however there is local ordering with respect to the tetrahedral arrangement ofOxygen (O) atoms around the Silicon (Si) atoms.The standard definition of a glass (or vitreous solid) requires the solid phase to beformed by rapid melt quenching. Glass is therefore formed via a supercooledliquid and cooled sufficiently rapidly (relative to the characteristic crystallisationtime) from its molten state through its glass transition temperature, Tg, that thesupercooled disordered atomic configuration at Tg, is frozen into the solid state.Generally, the structure of a glass exists in a metastable state with respect to itscrystalline form, although in certain circumstances, for example in atacticpolymers, there is no crystalline analogue of the amorphous phase. By definitionas an amorphous solid, the atomic structure of a glass lacks any long rangetranslational periodicity. However, by virtue of the local chemical bondingconstraints glasses do possess a high degree of short-range order with respect tolocal atomic polyhedra. It is deemed that the bonding structure of glasses,although disordered, has the same symmetry signature (Hausdorff-Besicovitchdimensionality) as for crystalline materials.Glass versus a super cooled liquidGlass is generally treated as an amorphous solid rather than a liquid, though bothviews can be justified. However, the notion that glass flows to an appreciable
  17. 17. 17extent over extended periods of time is not supported by empirical research ortheoretical analysis (see viscosity of amorphous materials). From a morecommonsense point of view, glass should be considered a solid since it is rigidaccording to everyday experience.Some people believe glass is a liquid due to its lack of a first-order phasetransition where certain thermodynamic variables such as volume, entropy andenthalpy are continuous through the glass transition temperature. However, theglass transition temperature may be described as analogous to a second-orderphase transition where the intensive thermodynamic variables such as the thermalexpansivity and heat capacity are discontinuous. Despite this, thermodynamicphase transition theory does not entirely hold for glass, and hence the glasstransition cannot be classed as a genuine thermodynamic phase transition.Although the atomic structure of glass shares characteristics of the structure in asuper cooled liquid, glass is generally classed as solid below its glass transitiontemperature.[21] There is also the problem that a super cooled liquid is still a liquidand not a solid but it is below the freezing point of the material and will crystallizealmost instantly if a crystal is added as a core. The change in heat capacity at aglass transition and a melting transition of comparable materials are typically ofthe same order of magnitude indicating that the change in active degrees offreedom is comparable as well. Both in a glass and in a crystal it is mostly only thevibrational degrees of freedom that remain active, whereas rotational andtranslational motion becomes impossible explaining why glasses and crystallinematerials are hard.
  18. 18. 18Behavior of antique glassThe observation that old windows are often thicker at the bottom than at the top isoften offered as supporting evidence for the view that glass flows over a matter ofcenturies. It is then assumed that the glass was once uniform, but has flowed toits new shape, which is a property of liquid. The likely source of this unfoundedbelief is that when panes of glass were commonly made by glassblowers, thetechnique used was to spin molten glass so as to create a round, mostly flat andeven plate (the Crown glass process, described above). This plate was then cut tofit a window. The pieces were not, however, absolutely flat; the edges of the diskwould be thicker because of centripetal force relaxation. When actually installed ina window frame, the glass would be placed thicker side down for the sake ofstability and visual sparkle. Occasionally such glass has been found thinner sidedown or on either side of the windows edge, as would be caused by carelessnessat the time of installation.Mass production of glass window panes in the early twentieth century caused asimilar effect. In glass factories, molten glass was poured onto a large coolingtable and allowed to spread. The resulting glass is thicker at the location of thepour, located at the center of the large sheet. These sheets were cut into smallerwindow panes with nonuniform thickness. Modern glass intended for windows isproduced as float glass and is very uniform in thickness.Several other points exemplify the misconception of the cathedral glass theory: • Writing in the American Journal of Physics, physicist Edgar D. Zanotto states "...the predicted relaxation time for GeO2 at room temperature is 10 years. Hence, the relaxation period (characteristic flow time) of cathedral glasses would be even longer". • If medieval glass has flowed perceptibly, then ancient Roman and Egyptian objects should have flowed proportionately more — but this is not observed. Similarly, prehistoric obsidian blades should have lost their edge; this is not observed either (although obsidian may have a different viscosity from window glass).
  19. 19. 19 • If glass flows at a rate that allows changes to be seen with the naked eye after centuries, then the effect should be noticeable in antique telescopes. Any slight deformation in the antique telescopic lenses would lead to a dramatic decrease in optical performance, a phenomenon that is not observed. • There are many examples of centuries-old glass shelving which has not bent, even though it is under much higher stress from gravitational loads than vertical window glass.Some glasses have a glass transition temperature close to or below roomtemperature. The behavior of a material that has a glass transition close to roomtemperature depends upon the timescale during which the material ismanipulated. If the material is hit it may break like a solid glass, however if thematerial is left on a table for a week it may flow like a liquid. This simply meansthat for the fast timescale its transition temperature is above room temperature,but for the slow one it is below. The shift in temperature with timescale is not verylarge however as indicated by the transition of polypropylene glycol of -72 °C and-71 °C over different timescales. To observe window glass flowing as liquid atroom temperature we would have to wait a much longer time than the universeexists. Therefore it is safe to consider a glass a solid far enough below itstransition temperature: Cathedral glass does not flow because its glass transitiontemperature is many hundreds of degrees above room temperature. Close to thistemperature there are interesting time-dependent properties. One of these isknown as aging. Many polymers that we use in daily life such as rubber,polystyrene and polypropylene are in a glassy state but they are not too far belowtheir glass transition temperature. Their mechanical properties may well changeover time and this is serious concern when applying these materials inconstruction.
  20. 20. 20Physical propertiesThe following table lists some physical properties of common glasses. Unlessotherwise stated, the technical glass compositions and many experimentallydetermined properties are taken from one large study. Unless stated otherwise,the properties of fused silica (quartz glass) and germania glass are derived fromthe SciGlass glass database by forming the arithmetic mean of all theexperimental values from different authors (in general more than 10 independentsources for quartz glass and Tg of germanium oxide glass). Those values markedin italic font have been interpolated from sililar glass compositions (seeCalculation of glass properties) due to the lack of experimental data.ColorCommon soda-lime float glass appears green in thick sections because of Fe2+impurities.Colors in glass may be obtained by addition of coloring ions that arehomogeneously distributed and by precipitation of finely dispersed particles (suchas in photochromic glasses). Ordinary soda-lime glass appears colorless to thenaked eye when it is thin, although iron(II) oxide (FeO) impurities of up to 0.1 wt%produce a green tint which can be viewed in thick pieces or with the aid ofscientific instruments. Further FeO and Cr2O3 additions may be used for theproduction of green bottles. Sulfur, together with carbon and iron salts, is used toform iron polysulfides and produce amber glass ranging from yellowish to almostblack. Manganese dioxide can be added in small amounts to remove the greentint given by iron(II) oxide.
  21. 21. 21HistoryRoman glassNaturally occurring glass, especially obsidian, has been used by many Stone Agesocieties across the globe for the production of sharp cutting tools and, due to itslimited source areas, was extensively traded. According to Pliny the Elder,Phoenician traders were the first to stumble upon glass manufacturing techniquesat the site of the Belus River. Agricola, De re metallica, reported a traditionalserendipitous "discovery" tale of familiar type:"The tradition is that a merchant ship laden with nitrum being moored at this place,the merchants were preparing their meal on the beach, and not having stones toprop up their pots, they used lumps of nitrum from the ship, which fused andmixed with the sands of the shore, and there flowed streams of a new translucentliquid, and thus was the origin of glass."This account is more a reflection of Roman experience of glass production,however, as white silica sand from this area was used in the production of Romanglass due to its low impurity levels. But in general archaeological evidencesuggests that the first true glass was made in coastal north Syria, Mesopotamia orOld Kingdom Egypt. Due to Egypts favourable environment for preservation, themajority of well-studied early glass is found in Egypt, although some of this islikely to have been imported. The earliest known glass objects, of the mid thirdmillennium BC, were beads, perhaps initially created as accidental by-products ofmetal-working slags or during the production of faience, a pre-glass vitreousmaterial made by a process similar to glazing.During the Late Bronze Age in Egypt and Western Asia there was an explosion inglass-making technology. Archaeological finds from this period include colouredglass ingots, vessels (often coloured and shaped in imitation of highly prizedwares of semi-precious stones) and the ubiquitous beads. The alkali of Syrian andEgyptian glass was soda ash, sodium carbonate, which can be extracted from theashes of many plants, notably halophile seashore plants: (see saltwort). Theearliest vessels were core-wound, produced by winding a ductile rope of metal
  22. 22. 22round a shaped core of sand and clay over a metal rod, then fusing it withrepeated reheatings. Threads of thin glass of different colours made withadmixtures of oxides were subsequently wound around these to create patterns,which could be drawn into festoons with a metal raking tools. The vessel wouldthen be rolled flat (marvered) on a slab in order to press the decorative threadsinto its body. Handles and feet were applied separately. The rod wassubsequently allowed to cool as the glass slowly annealed and was eventuallyremoved from the centre of the vessel, after which the core material was scrapedout. Glass shapes for inlays were also often created in moulds. Much early glassproduction, however, relied on grinding techniques borrowed from stone working.This meant that the glass was ground and carved in a cold state.By the 15th century BC extensive glass production was occurring in Western Asiaand Egypt. It is thought the techniques and recipes required for the initial fusing ofglass from raw materials was a closely guarded technological secret reserved forthe large palace industries of powerful states. Glass workers in other areastherefore relied on imports of pre-formed glass, often in the form of cast ingotssuch as those found on the Ulu Burun shipwreck off the coast of Turkey.Glass remained a luxury material, and the disasters that overtook Late BronzeAge civilisations seem to have brought glass-making to a halt. It picked up againin its former sites, in Syria and Cyprus, in the ninth century BC, when thetechniques for making colourless glass were discovered. In Egypt glass-makingdid not revive until it was reintroduced in Ptolemaic Alexandria. Core-formedvessels and beads were still widely produced, but other techniques came to thefore with experimentation and technological advancements. During the Hellenisticperiod many new techniques of glass production were introduced and glassbegan to be used to make larger pieces, notably table wares. Techniquesdeveloped during this period include slumping viscous (but not fully molten) glassover a mould in order to form a dish and millefiori (meaning thousand flowers)technique, where canes of multi-coloured glass were sliced and the slicesarranged together and fused in a mould to create a mosaic-like effect. It was alsoduring this period that colourless or decoloured glass began to be prized andmethods for achieving this effect were investigated more fully.
  23. 23. 23During the first century BC glass blowing was discovered on the Syro-Palestiniancoast, revolutionising the industry and laying the way for the explosion of glassproduction that occurred throughout the Roman world. Over the next 1000 yearsglass making and working continued and spread through southern Europe andbeyond.South AsiaIndigenous development of glass technology in South Asia may have begun in1730 BCE. Evidence of this culture includes a red-brown glass bead along with ahoard of beads dating to 1730 BCE, making it the earliest attested glass from theIndus Valley locations. Glass discovered from later sites dating from 600-300 BCEdisplays common color.Chalcolithic evidence of glass has been found in Hastinapur, India. Some of thetexts which mention glass in India are the Shatapatha Brahmana and VinayaPitaka. However, the first unmistakable evidence in large quantities, dating fromthe 3rd century BCE, has been uncovered from the archaeological site in Taxila,Pakistan.By the beginning of the Common Era, glass was being used for ornaments andcasing in South Asia. Contact with the Greco-Roman world added newertechniques, and Indians artisans mastered several techniques of glass molding,decorating and coloring by the early centuries of the Common Era. Satavahanaperiod of IndiaEarly modern glass in EnglandThe early modern period in England (c. 1500-1800) brought on a revival in localglass production. Medieval glass had been limited to the small-scale production offorest glass for window glass and vessels, predominantly in the Weald. Theorganisation of production evolved from the small-scale family-run glass housestypical of forest glass-making to large monopolies granted by the Crown. Theinflux of immigrants from Europe brought changes in furnace technology and rawmaterials, creating a better quality glass. Monastic decrees later banned the use
  24. 24. 24of wood fuel which was then replaced by the less expensive alternative of coal.The development of lead glass in the late 17th century propelled England to theforefront of the glass industry and paved the way for advancements in theIndustrial RevolutionChemical compositionGlass has three major components: a network former (silica), a network modifier(flux), and a network stabilizer (predominantly lime). In the early 16th and 17thcenturies glassmaking (the manufacture of glass from raw materials) andglassworking (the creation of objects from glass) occurred within the sameglasshouse. Glass was also recycled at this time in the form of cullet.In the early modern era, network formers were obtained from fine or coarse sandswhich were usually located near the area of production or from silica basedpebbles.Network modifiers were used to alter the chemical composition of the the networkformer and reduce the melting temperature of the batch. These fluxes varieddepending on the type of glass. Potassium oxide (K2O) based alkalis were usedextensively in glass production.The type of flux selected heavily influenced the quality of the glass produced. InEngland, beech wood and oak were preferred for forest glass. For soda glasses(Na2O), alkalis were often found in the form of marine plants – either local kelp orimported plants from the Mediterranean and the Near East (barilla, polverine,rochetta, sevonus, natron).Network stabilizers in early modern England continued to be lime sources. Limeoccurs as a natural contaminant in most sands, and may also be intentionallyadded to the melt.
  25. 25. 25Compositional groupsFive glass compositional groups have been identified through analysis ofarchaeologically recovered glass from this period. These have been furtherreduced into two types, ‘green glass’ and ‘white glass’. The groups include: • Potash-lime-silica glass (forest or green glass), typically has an excess of 10% wt oxide K20 • High Lime Low Alkali, HLLA (green glass) usually has <10% Na2O,K20, 15- 20% CaO • Soda-lime glass (white glass/ ‘ordinary glass’) with low MgO, CaO, high K2O • Mixed alkali glass (white glass/ crystallo) Na2O K2O and CaO levels are too low for this glass to be incorporated in the other categories. • Lead glass (white glass/ façon de venise) has on average 25-35% PbOThe following table represents the mean compositional data derived from theanalysis of materials at the Old Broad Street furnace in London, dated to the early17th century. and those recovered from Phase Two (circa 1680-1700 AD)Silkstone, Yorkshire. This information was gathered from Dungworths compilationand analysis. The data is represented in wt% oxides and those below thedetection limits (0.2% or less) are shown by -.ColorantsThere are numerous factors that may influence colouration during glassproduction. These include contaminants in raw materials, furnace conditions, anddeliberate additives that would provide known colour variations.Iron existing as a contaminant in sands, produced either a green or brown colourdepending upon the oxidation state. Coal fumes provided a carbon contaminant,which could create a dark brown or black colour. Manganese present in wood ashmay have contributed to the lighter, translucent green colour. Other traceelements present in alkalis (such as MnO in beech ash) undoubtedly influencedthe finished product.
  26. 26. 26Other metal oxide colorants were known from earlier periods in antiquity.Early post-medieval glassMedieval glasshouse traditions continued in the Weald, which was becomingdeforested by the early 17th century; local glassmaking spread elsewhere, wheretimber was available to fire furnaces, to Hampshire, Gloucestershire, NorthStaffordshire and the Scottish Borders. At Bagots Park, Staffordshire, one suchglasshouse has been recovered, which dates from circa 1535; it contained anearly melting furnace and a smaller annealing furnace. The melting furnace hadtwo siege benches for the placement of three crucible pots, each with a centralflue cut into the floor to create a draught that would allow the furnace to achieve1200oC in order to melt the glass. Fritting, and the preheating of crucibles mayhave occurred in the upper areas of the main furnace. Annealing (glass) and glassblowing probably occurred using a smaller furnace. Cullet heaps of broken glassresidue were found on either side, suggesting the use of a flux to reduce meltingtemperatures. Some crushed white pebbles were recovered in the bottom of pots,and this may reflect the silica source used at this site. The glass recovered fromBagots Park was badly weathered, yet the ends of broad glass and crown glasssuggest that window and vessel glass were produced.Glass technologyThe majority of glass at this time was blown or mould blown into a variety ofvessel shapes. This was enhanced by decorative styles, including opticdecoration and trailing the glass, sometimes with pre-fabricated glass canes, toreplicate Venetian traditions.Influences from the ContinentIn 1567, Jean Carré arrived in London from Antwerp and obtained a crown-sanctioned patent for the production of window glass. This patent was awarded toCarré on the condition that prices remained low and that glassmaking and blowingwould be taught to native Englishmen to promote the craft. He brought many
  27. 27. 27Venetian craftsmen to his London workshop and opened a second furnaceoutside the city to produce vessel and green glass.Later in 1574, Jacob Verzelini, a Venetian who worked for Carré was granted amonopoly over Venetian-style vessel glass. This effectively banned most of theimports from Venice and promoted glass made locally in England. Verzelinis goalwas to produce clear crystallo glass as well as decorative glass façon de venise("in the Venetian mode"), which he achieved by importing barilla from Spain. Thiseffectively helped to lower the price of clear glassware and made it available to awider range of the gentry and middle class.Utilitarian green glass production remained on a small scale and was made bynumerous glasshouses in different areas for local consumption, in the tradition offorest glass.Technological changesWith the new influx of immigrants from the European Continent in the mid 16thcentury, technological changes affected the quality of English glass. This waspossibly the combined result of experience and the selection/importation of purerraw materials.Winged furnacesAdditionally, glass furnaces constructed from the mid 16th century began to reflectcontinental styles. This trend, identifiable in the archaeological record, supportsthe documentary evidence for immigrant glassmakers. Wing-like additions wereadded to the late 16th-early 17th century furnace remains at two glass producingsites, Hutton and Rosedale in York, as well as at Vann Copse in the Weald. TheHutton furnace had two wings added in the northeast and southeast corners of theoriginal rectangular melting furnace. A smaller nearby furnace was abandonedaround the same time as the addition of the wings, suggesting that they providedan area for either annealing or pre-heating pots.Rosedale and Vann Copse were constructed in similar styles but with four wings,one in each corner, which were built integral to the original furnace. The wings
  28. 28. 28showed evidence of heating which again suggested these were areas for frittingor glassworking. The glass produced at Rosedale was generally cleaner and of abetter quality than that of Hutton, although the reasons for this are still unclear.Production at Rosedale appeared to have a higher output than that of Hutton, astwo additional smaller furnaces indicate that the operation had expanded. It isthought that these furnaces are similar to those of the Lorraine style, and researchin the Netherlands suggests that contemporary continental furnaces were made inthis fashion.Change to coalFrom 1581-1584, Parliament became increasingly concerned over the woodsupply in the country. At this time, a large number of high temperature industrieswere dependent on wood for fuel, and this began to diminish the country‘s forests.The original decree in this time prohibited the use of wood fuel unless it was fromone’s own land. By 1609, Sir Edward Zouche was granted a patent to experimentwith coal as the main fuel for a furnace at Winchester and by 1615 Parliament hadbanned the use of wood fuel.Adopting coal as the main source of fuel created numerous problems for glassproduction. Burning coal produced short flames which shifted the location of thehearth from the far ends of the furnace to the center. Air draughts are alsonecessary to create a regenerative heating system for glassmelting. Early coalfurnaces, such as at Bolsterstone, contain underground flues to provide an easyway to remove ash. Additionally, the carbon from the coal fumes contaminated theglass in the uncovered pots which created a dark and often uneven colour. Lids,such as those found at Bolsterstone, needed to be implemented to prevent theseimpurities. Glass bottles from this initial transition are often dark in color.
  29. 29. 29Charles MansellBefore 1616, Charles Mansell bought out the patent and company started byZouche. He began many ventures and set up a successful glasshouse near a coalsource in the attempts to save money and to more easily meet the demands ofLondon. His crystallo furnace at Broad Street, London, had fared successfully.Some of his earlier attempts to set up new a furnace to produce glass for thegrowing needs of London failed, as transportation costs proved to be too high. Yetthe furnace Mansell set up at Newcastle was successful.Another winged furnace was set up at Kimmeridge using local sources of oil shaleas fuel. Unlike other wing furnaces, the one at this site had deep flues and acentrally located hearth, illustrating the adaptation to a new fuel source. Thisfurnace was demolished in 1623 as being in violation of Mansell’s monopoly.Conical furnacesThe conical glasshouses of England of the late 17th century introduced tofurnaces the use of a chimney and a new plan shape. This development possiblydrew off the idea of earlier wind furnaces and the beehive-shaped Venetian stylefurnaces, known only from historical documents in England. The addition of thechimney both created a strong draught and acted to extract the coal fumes. Theearliest examples appear in Bristol and at Gawber, Yorkshire.These furnaces had underground flues and chimneys with air holes to provide astrong air draught to control heat. Fritting, pre-heating pots and annealingprocesses were undertaken in different sections of the furnace, elevated abovethe heat source.The Expansion of the IndustryIn 1763, George Ravenscroft developed flint glass, a colourless and translucentglass with many desirable working properties. The original recipe was subject tocrizzling. Later batches had the addition of lead oxide (PbO) which combatted thisproblem and produced a superior glass that was more suitable for to engraving
  30. 30. 30and etching. Lead glass was widely adopted by the Glass seller’s guild whenRavenscroft’s patent expired.Lead glass helped to propel England to the front of the glass industry. Bottles forwine and phials began to be produced and exported on a large scale. Thearchaeological remains of the Albion shipwreck off Margate in 1765 contained 11lead glass ingots, which are thought to be meant for trade with China. Althoughlittle is known about these materials, it does suggest that lead glass contributed toEnglands exports.The 19th century brought new developments with synthetic materials, such as gasfuel. Additionally, continuous melting production with tank furnaces helped markthe end of the early modern period and the beginning of the Industrial Revolution.English glass objectsVessel glassThe evolution of vessel glass became more elaborate and specific to its intendeduse throughout the early modern period. Mirror glass and glass objects alsobegan to be produced on larger scales during the early modern period. Types ofobjects include: • Phials • Goblets • Drinking Glasses • Beakers • Tankards • Jugs • Bottles • Bowls • Jars • Urinals • Flasks • Mirror glass
  31. 31. 31Window glassWindow glass was produced throughout the period on a small scale, in the form ofcrown glass and broad glass. This was predominantly made from green glassthroughout the 16th century. While rare in the early 16th century, glass windowssoon became a symbol of increasing wealth and status. Larger sheets were indemand for domestic and public buildings.Stained glassStained glass in the earliest part of the early modern period was imported intoEngland from France. With the Protestant Reformation in England, ecclesiasticbuildings increasingly used the more expensive white glass.
  32. 32. 32 CHAPTER - III COMPANY PROFILEORIENTFrom a small beginning way back in 1981, we have grown to be what we are nowa sthe leading glass producers in the country converting all types of flat andcurved glass, namely clear float, tinted, reflective, laminated safety, and bulletproof, tempered and heat strengthened glasses.Reputed local constructions companies as well as many foreign constructioncompanies who have undertaken building construction have found working withus for their requirements and services are concerned a very satisfying experience.We do think of ourselves as yet another glass supplier, instead we see ourselvesas specialists, and this specialization has earned for us a multitude of satisfiedcustomers among them global top constructing companies, developers, housebuilders, furniture manufactures, interior decorators, equipment manufactures etc.Our commitment to excellence has been the key to our growth and we will alwayscontinue to provide our customers with best products and services.Our processing facilities are in a picturesque factory at Royapuram in a land areaof over 100, 000 sq ft.TEMPERED GLASSIt is a special heat treating process which increases the strength up to four/fivetimes of the normal glass. This glass is custom made are processed to any size orany shape as required. It is suitable for store front, residential window, doors,sloped glazing, curved architectural glass, solar panels, balustrades, elevators;shower cubicle/tub enclosures etc in float or bend type.This includes canopies, building facades, suspended glass assemblies are allunique applications, is manufactured to customers specification. Tempered glassreduces the likelihood of injury in the unlike event of breakages.
  33. 33. 33HEAT STRENGTHENED GLASSHeat strengthened glass is two/three times harder than normal annealed sheetglass, which is highly suitable for building facades, sky lights , arch domes andmany flexible application to architectural dreams, second to none in the world ofglass.GLASS FRAMELESS DOORSA wide range of glass doors available in nearly unbreakable tempered glass clear,tinted glass doors with many different (or personalized) etched patterns, there isalso opaque and ceramic color versions used in living rooms, hotels, commercialpremises, showers and bath tubs.AUTOMOTIVE GLASSAutomotive glass is made by heating quality glass just below its softeningtemperature giving it the required shape & suddenly chilling it with jets cold air.It results the outer skin coming under powerful compressive stress and the interiorwith severe tensile stress. In consequence, the impact applied to the glass will beovercome by compression force on the surfaces to ensure safety in formed.BEND GLASSOrient with its mixture of bent & latest formed glass technique has come to createunique crystal clear glass for counters sophisticated as well as totallypersonalized work of art suit your taste and requirement. We offer a total packageof planning, designing, supplying, or on demand unto installation.Glass are stylistic and a willing instrument for modern architecture we could makeabsolutely anything ranging from elegant partition to exotic glass tops to sky lightswhether at commercial building or homes with full control of transparencies to fullopacity. These glasses are produced in thickness of 2mm – 12mm.
  34. 34. 34GLASS FURNITUREWe manufacture glass furniture in any thickness with edges polished to, manyprofile such as flat, pencil, bevel, ogee, etc.Furniture glass and table tops should be tempered due to human contact forsafety. Normal glass being very delicate is tempered to give a long durability,mechanical strength and scratch resistance. It also present’s edge chipping orflaking, a common problem with expensive table tops.CERAMIC PRINTED GLASSCeramic glass gets its name from its print by a silk screen with a glass enamelbefore tempering, heat strengthening or bending can take place, the enamel fusesinto the surface & becomes a permanent coating which cannot be damaged orremoved and is un affected by moisture, and scratch proof. It is also known as silkscreened glass & coloured glass.Certain areas of glass or a at times the entire glass is hidden or masked forreasons as varied as privacy to concealing the background or for improving theaesthetic look of the product. Best use in commercial building to match,accentuate or complement the vision area of the building (wall cladding).Patterns can be developed fro virtually any arrangement of geometric shapes ortextures, custom patterns can provide unlimited design possibilities. Most famousare dots, holes, lines, squares, and triangle.DECAL PRINTED GLASSComes in many stranded designs like marble, granite, image, metallic, multicolored, picture, scenes or could be custom made.DECORATIVE FUSION GLASS, STAIN GLASSStain glass, fusion embossed design, slumped, acid etched, engraved;computerize sand carving, V grooved.
  35. 35. 35LAMINATED GLASSIs manufactured by PVB, UMU, EVA, and resin. Stop shot (Bullet proof)SOLAR REFLECTIVECoated glass for façade, domes, partition etc.PHOTO VOLTIC GLASSFor solar rays, solar heaters wind screen.INSULATED GLASSDouble glazing, flat and bend types of glasses.OUR SERVICES Orient is an enterprising company, who has associated in contract work,supplies & services with almost all the star hotels such as Galadari, Taj Samudra,Trans Asia, Hilton, Oberoi (Cinnamon Garden) & with high rises such as JAICHilton Tower, Royal Park Condominium, Crescat Residency, ceylinco seylanTowers, The World trade Centre etc.Services also were rendered to presidential palace, Male, Nasundhara PalaceHotel, Maldives. The Oberoi Hotel, Mumbai.Above are few of the endless lists of our satisfied customers in our 25 years inbusiness.Incidentally our chairman, have been in the sheet of glass field over threedecades and have received training in UK, India, Belgium, & Denmark.Orient design with its mixture of bent& latest formed glass technique has come tocreate unique sophisticated & totally personalized work of art to suit your tasteand requirements.Glass as a stylistic and a willing instrument for modern architecture, therefore wecould make absolutely anything ranging from elegant partition to exotic glass tops,sky lights whether at commercial building or homes with full control oftransparencies to full opacity.
  36. 36. 36These glasses are produced in thickness of 6 – 12mm. in special cases less than6mm or over 12mm are supplied on request.Heat strengthened glass is three times harder than normal annealed sheet glasswhich is highly suitable for building facades, sky lights, arch domes and manyflexible application architectural dreams, second to none in the world of glass. It ispossible to bend in our latest machinery, plain float, colour, tinted reflective hardcoated glass, laminated glass, pioneering in this field.
  37. 37. 37 CHAPTER - IV DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION The data after collection is to be processed and analyzed in accordancewith the outline and down for the purpose at the time of developing research plan. Technically speaking, processing implies editing, coding, classification andtabulation of collected data so that they are amenable to analysis. The termanalysis refers to the computation of certain measures along with searching forpattern groups. Thus in the process of analysis, relationship or difference shouldbe subjected to statistical tests of significance to determine with what validity datacan be said to indicate any conclusions. The analysis of data in a general way involves a number of closely relatedoperations, which are performed with the purpose of summarizing the collecteddata and organizing them in such a manner that they answer the researchquestions. In this study the researcher followed above process carefully and it ispresented in this chapter
  38. 38. 38Table 4.1 – To know the department in which employees are belongs to SI. N Department No. of Respondents Percentage o .1. Mechanical 30 302. Electrical 25 253. Production 35 354. Others 10 10 Total 100 100 Source: survey data Inference: From the above table it shows that 35% of employees are belongs to production department.
  40. 40. 40 Table 4.2 – To know working experience of the employees SI. N Work Experience No. of Respondents Percentage o .1. Below 2 years 13 132. 2 – 4 years 30 303. 4 – 6 years 34 344. Above 6 years 23 23 Total 100 100 Source: survey data Inference: From the above table it shows that 34% of the employees have 4 – 6 years experience.
  42. 42. 42 Table 4.3 – To know the physical working environment SI. N Working Environment No. of Respondents Percentage o .1. Excellent 12 122. Good 57 573. Fair 28 284. Poor 3 35. Very Poor 0 0 Total 100 100 Source: survey data Inference: From the above table it shows that 57% of the employees were feeling good about the working environment.
  44. 44. 44 Table 4.4 – To know the satisfaction level of employees towards the non- monitory benefits SI. N Non-Monitory Benefits offered No. of Respondents Percentage o to Employees .1. Highly satisfied 14 142. Satisfied 54 543. Neither Satisfied nor Dissatisfied 25 254. Dissatisfied 5 55. Highly Dissatisfied 2 2 Total 100 100 Source: survey data Inference: From the above table it shows that 54% of the employees were satisfied towards the non-monitory benefits.
  46. 46. 46Table 4.5 – To know the satisfaction level of respondents towards the work assigned SI. N Amount of Work No. of Respondents Percentage o .1. Highly satisfied 20 202. Satisfied 45 453. Neither Satisfied nor Dissatisfied 12 124. Dissatisfied 18 185. Highly Dissatisfied 6 6 Total 100 100 Source: survey data Inference: From the above table it shows that 45% of the respondents were satisfied towards the work assigned.
  48. 48. 48 Table 4.6 – Opinion about the career development programme in their organisation SI. N Career Development No. of Respondents Percentage o .1. Highly satisfied 12 122. Satisfied 56 563. Neither Satisfied nor Dissatisfied 22 224. Dissatisfied 10 105. Highly Dissatisfied 0 0 Total 100 100 Source: survey data Inference: From the above table it shows that 56% of the employees were satisfied with the opinion about the carrier development programme in their organisation.
  50. 50. 50 Table 4.7 – To know the cooperation of co-workers SI. N Co-operation of Workers No. of Respondents Percentage o .1. Highly satisfied 20 202. Satisfied 66 663. Neither Satisfied nor Dissatisfied 11 114. Dissatisfied 3 35. Highly Dissatisfied 0 0 Total 100 100 Source: survey data Inference: From the above table it shows that 66% of the employees were satisfied with the cooperation of co-workers.
  52. 52. 52Table 4.8 – To know the satisfaction of Respondents with top management SI. N Satisfaction with Top No. of Percentage o Management Respondents .1. Highly satisfied 26 262. Satisfied 51 513. Neither Satisfied nor Dissatisfied 17 173. Dissatisfied 6 64. Highly Dissatisfied 0 0 Total 100 100 Source: survey data Inference: From the above table it shows that 51% of the employees were satisfied with the top management.
  54. 54. 54Table 4.9 – To know the satisfaction of Respondents with their subordinates SI. N Satisfaction with Subordinates No. of Respondents Percentage o .1. Highly satisfied 12 122. Satisfied 67 673. Neither Satisfied nor Dissatisfied 14 144. Dissatisfied 7 75. Highly Dissatisfied 0 0 Total 100 100 Source: survey data Inference: From the above table it shows that 67% of the employees were satisfied with their subordinates.
  56. 56. 56 Table 4.10 – To know the level of satisfaction regarding nature of job SI. Job Satisfaction No. of Percentage N Respondents o .1. Highly satisfied 22 222. Satisfied 56 563. Neither Satisfied nor Dissatisfied 16 164. Dissatisfied 7 75. Highly Dissatisfied 0 0 Total 100 100 Source: survey data Inference: From the above table it shows that 56% of the employees were satisfied with their job.
  58. 58. 58 Table 4.11 – To know whether there is any job pressure in their work SI. Job Pressure No. of Respondents Percentage N o .1. Yes 72 722. No 28 28 Total 100 100 Source: survey data Inference: From the above table it shows that 72% of employees said there is job pressure in their work.
  60. 60. 60 Table 4.12 – To know the opinion regarding opportunity provided by the organisation in developing skills & talents SI. N Development of Skills and No. of Respondents Percentage o Talents .1. Highly Agree 12 122. Agree 52 523. Neither Agree nor Disagree 28 284. Disagree 6 65. Highly Disagree 2 2 Total 100 100 Source: survey data Inference: From the above table it shows that 52% of employees agreed regarding opportunity provided by the organisation in developing skills & talents.
  62. 62. 62Table 4.13 – To know the satisfaction level of welfare facilities provided by the management SI. Welfare Facilities No. of Percentage N Respondents o .1. Highly satisfied 9 92. Satisfied 57 573. Neither Satisfied nor Dissatisfied 29 294. Dissatisfied 5 55 Highly Dissatisfied 0 0 Total 100 100 Source: survey data Inference: From the above table it shows that 57% of the employees were satisfied with the welfare facilities provided by the management.
  64. 64. 64 Table 4.14 – To know the employee satisfaction towards the salary SI. Payment Satisfaction No. of Respondents Percentage N o .1. Yes 67 672. No 33 33 Total 100 100 Source: survey data Inference: From the above table it shows that 67% of the employees were satisfied with their salary.
  66. 66. 66 Table 4.15 – To know the employees willingness to continue SI. Willingness to Work No. of Respondents Percentage N o .1. Yes 59 592. No 41 41 Total 100 100 Source: survey data Inference: From the above table it shows that 59% of the employees were willing to continue in this organisation.
  68. 68. 68Table 4.16 – To know the opinion about company’s policy and practices SI. Company’s Policy and No. of Respondents Percentage N Practices o .1. Excellent 13 132. Very Good 23 233. Good 47 474. Bad 12 125. Very Bad 5 5 Total 100 100 Source: survey data Inference: From the above table it shows that 47% of the employees were feels good about the company policy and practices.
  70. 70. 70 Table 4.17 – To know the company’s promotion policy SI. N No. of Company’s Promotion Policy Percentage o Respondents .1. Highly Satisfied 14 142. Satisfied 57 573. Neither Satisfied nor Dissatisfied 20 203. Dissatisfied 7 74. Highly Dissatisfied 2 2 Total 100 100 Source: survey data Inference: From the above table it shows that 57% of the employees were satisfied about the company’s promotion policy.
  72. 72. 72 Table 4.18 – To know the overall job satisfaction SI. N No. of Overall Job Satisfaction Percentage o Respondents .1. Highly Satisfied 22 222. Satisfied 30 303. Neither Satisfied nor Dissatisfied 29 294. Dissatisfied 12 125. Highly Dissatisfied 7 7 Total 100 100 Source: survey data Inference: From the above table it shows that 30% of the employees were satisfied in their over all job satisfaction.
  74. 74. 74CHI-SQUARE METHOD The chi square test is one of the simplest and most widely used non-parametric tests in statistical work. As a non-parametric test it can be used todetermine if categorical data shows dependency or the two classifications areindependent. It can also be used to make comparisons between theoreticalpopulation and actual data when categories are used. n Chi square, χ²= ∑ (O-E) ² / E i =1Where, O= observed frequency E= expected frequencyOBSERVED FREQUENCY
  75. 75. 75 Table 4.19 shows the relationship between the department and the job satisfaction Over All Neither Job Highly Satisfied Highly SubSatisfaction Satisfied Satisfied nor Dissatisfied Dissatisfied Total DissatisfiedMechanical 5 6 14 3 2 30Electrical 6 8 6 3 2 25Production 9 13 7 4 2 35Others 2 3 2 2 1 10Sub Total 22 30 29 12 7 100
  76. 76. 76 EXPECTED FREQUENCY Over All Neither Job Highly Satisfied Highly SubSatisfaction Satisfie Satisfied Dissatisfied nor Dissatisfied Total d DissatisfiedMechanical 7 8 9 4 2 30Electrical 5 8 7 3 2 25Production 8 11 10 4 2 35Others 2 3 3 1 1 10Sub Total 22 30 29 12 7 100 Null Hypothesis (Ho) There is no significant difference between the department and the job satisfaction. Alternative Hypothesis (Ho) There is significant difference between the department and the job satisfaction. Visit hrmba.blogspot.com for more