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CHAPTER-1INTRODUCTIONQuality of Work Life:Quality of work life (QWL) is viewed as an alternative to the control approach o...
stress will prove to provide a goodenough basis for effective intervention. Alternatively, jobsatisfaction may be assessed...
COMPANY PROFILE                                           HISTORYSamsung Group (Samsung) was founded in 1938 by Byung-Chul...
(SHI). Samsung acquired Daesung Heavy Industry to form Samsung Shipbuilding, in 1977. Inthesame year, it established Samsu...
Chemicals.The group made a number of strategic moves in 1995, including the establishment of SamsungCorning Precision Glas...
using WiFi technology, targeted at the Italian, French, German, and Dutch markets. In the sameyear, Samsung Electronics pr...
which enabled Arialink to launch Mobile WiMAX in Muskegon County, Michigan in early2007.In 2007, the company formed a join...
Subsequently in 2008, Samsung Electronics acquired the IP assets of Clairvoyante, an IPlicensingcompany responsible for th...
internal hard disk drive. In the same month, Samsung Electronics introduced its first Long TermEvolution (LTE) modem compl...
In February 2010, Samsung Electronics signed a contract with WIND Telecom, a broadbandinternetand subscription TV service ...
its plans to launch its Galaxy S smartphone in China in partnership with three mobile operators.In October 2010, Samsung E...
At Samsung, we follow a simple business philosophy: to devote our talent and technology tocreating superior products and s...
ChangeIn today’s fast-paced global economy, change is constant and innovation is critical to acompany’s survival. As we ha...
VISIONVision 2020As stated in its new motto, Samsung Electronics vision for the new decade is, "Inspire theWorld, Create t...
Partners, and Employees. Through these efforts, Samsung hopes to contribute to a better worldand a richer experience for a...
committed to being a creative leader in new markets and becoming a truly No. 1 business goingforward.MISSIONGuided by Chri...
SAMSUNG GROUP STRUCTURE                   17
REVIEW OF LITERATUREDefinitionVarious authors and researchers have proposed models of Quality of working life which includ...
and total lifesatisfaction and happiness, with a less strong, but significant association with self-rated anxiety.Thus, wh...
work setting.Bearfield, (2003)(12) used 16 questions to examine quality of working life, anddistinguished between causes o...
MeasurementThere are few recognised measures of quality of working life, and of those that existfew haveevidence of validi...
in general,high stress is associated with high pressure.The Control at Work (CAW) subsacle ofthe WRQoL scale addresses how...
things that don’t actuallymake people feel good, but which seem to make people feel bad aboutwork if those things are abse...
Occupational Psychology. 52, 129-148.8. Mirvis, P.H. and Lawler, E.E. (1984) Accounting forthe Quality of Work Life. Journ...
1 . 3 . O B J E C T I V E SPRIMARY OBJECTIVES:To know the overall quality of work life in the organization and its impact ...
Quality of work life is a multi dimensional aspect. The workers expect the   followingneeds to be fulfilled.   Compensatio...
CHAPTER-2RESEARCH METHODOLOGYResearch methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem. It maybeunderstoo...
Simple random samplingmethod was used in this project. Since population was not of a homogenous group, Stratifiedtechnique...
One of the simplest methods of analysis is the percentage method. It is one of thetraditionalstatistical tools. Through th...
Less than 5 yrs5-10 yrs10-15 yrs15-20yrsAbove20 yrs1 . A r e yo u s a t i s f i e d w i t h yo u r s a l a r y p a c k a g...
DissatisfiedHighly Dissatisfied3.Is the organization providing casual leave with pay?Strongly AgreeAgreeModerateDisagreeSt...
Strongly AgreeAgreeModerateDisagreeStrongly Disagree6 . A r e yo u s a t i s f i e d w i t h yo u r c a n t e e n f a c i ...
ModerateDisagreeStrongly Disagree8.To what extend you are satisfied with the safety and healthy working conditions?Highly ...
Highly satisfiedsatisfiedNeutralDissatisfiedHighly Dissatisfied11.What do you think about the quality of work life in the ...
ModerateDisagreeStrongly Disagree13.To what extend the cordial relationship exist among the employees and superiors?Strong...
Highly Dissatisfied15.Are you satisfied with the training method used in your organization?Highly satisfiedsatisfiedNeutra...
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Project report work life balance

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Project report work life balance

  1. 1. CHAPTER-1INTRODUCTIONQuality of Work Life:Quality of work life (QWL) is viewed as an alternative to the control approach ofmanaging people. The QWL approach considers people as an asset to the organization ratherthan ascosts. It believes that people perform better when they are allowed to participate inmanagingtheir work and make decisions.This approach motivates people by satisfying not onlytheir economic needs but also their socialand psychological ones. To satisfy the new generationworkforce, organizations need toconcentrate on job designs and organization of work. Further,todays workforce is realizing theimportance of relationships and is trying to strike abalance between career and personal lives.Successful organizations support and provide facilities to their people to help them tobalance thescales. In this process, organizations are coming up with new and innovative ideas toimprovethe quality of work and quality of work life of every individual in the organization.Various programs like flex time, alternative work schedules, compressed work weeks,telecommutingetc., are being adopted by these organizations. Technological advances furtherhelp organizationsto implement these programs successfully. Organizations are enjoying thefruits of implementingQWL programs in the form of increased productivity, and an efficient,satisfied, and committedworkforce which aims to achieve organizational objectives. The futurework world will also havemore women entrepreneurs and they will encourage and adopt QWLprograms.Quality of Working Life is a term that had been used to describe the broader job-relatedexperience an individual has.Whilst there has, for many years, been muchresearch into job satisfaction(1), and, morerecently, an interest has arisen into the broaderconcepts of stressandsubjective well-being(2),the precise nature of the relationship between theseconcepts has still been little explored. Stressat work is often considered in isolation, wherein it isassessed on the basis that attention to anindividual’s stress management skills or the sources of 1
  2. 2. stress will prove to provide a goodenough basis for effective intervention. Alternatively, jobsatisfaction may be assessed, so thataction can be taken which will enhance an individual’sperformance. Somewhere in all this, thereis often an awareness of the greater context, whereuponthe home-work context is considered, for example, and other factors, such as an individual’spersonal characteristics, and the broader economic or cultural climate, might be seen as relevant.In this context, subjective well-being isseen as drawing upon both work and non-work aspects oflife.However, more complex models of an individuals experience in the workplace often appearto beset aside in an endeavour to simplify the process of trying to measuring ―stress‖ orsomesimilarly apparently discrete entity. It may be, however, that the consideration ofthe bigger,more complex picture is essential, if targeted, effective action is to be taken to addressquality of working life or any of it’s sub-components in such a way as to produce real benefits,be they for the individual or the organisation.Quality of working life has been differentiated fromthe broader concept of Quality of Life.Tosome degree, this may be overly simplistic, as Elizurand Shye,(1990)(3) concluded that qualityof work performance is affected by Quality of Life aswell as Quality of working life. However,it will be argued here that the specific attention towork-related aspects of quality of life is valid.Whilst Quality of Life has been more widelystudied (4), Quality of working life, remainsrelatively unexplored and unexplained. A review ofthe literature reveals relatively little onquality of working life. Where quality of working life hasbeen explored, writers differ in their views on its’ core constituents.It is argued that the whole isgreater than the sum of the parts as regards Quality of working Life,and, therefore, the failure toattend to the bigger picture may lead to the failure of interventionswhich tackle only oneaspect. A clearer understanding of the inter-relationship of the variousfacets of quality ofworking life offers the opportunity for improved analysis of cause and effect in theworkplace….This consideration of Quality of working Life as the greater context for variousfactors in the workplace, such as job satisfaction and stress, may offer opportunity for more cost-effective interventions in the workplace. The effective targeting of stress reduction, for example,may otherwise prove a hopeless task for employers pressured to take action to meetgovernmentalrequirements. 2
  3. 3. COMPANY PROFILE HISTORYSamsung Group (Samsung) was founded in 1938 by Byung-Chull Lee. In the early days of itsoperations, the group exported dried fish, vegetables, and fruits produced in Korea to Manchuriaand Beijing (both in China). Soon after, Samsung started small-scale manufacturing by setting upflour mills and confectionery machines.Samsung Corporation was incorporated in 1951. It began substituting imported goods withdomestically produced products through the establishment of Cheil Sugar, in 1953. Thefollowingyear, Samsung established Cheil Industries.The group acquired Feb Ankuk Fire & Marine Insurance in 1958 and the company was renamedSamsung Fire & Marine Insurance in 1993. In 1963, Samsung acquired Jul DongBang LifeInsurance,which was renamed as Samsung Life Insurance in 1989. Samsung also acquired DongHwaDepartment Store, in 1963. In 1965, the group acquired Saehan Paper Manufacturing.The group established Samsung Electronics, in 1969. During the 1970s, Samsung entered intovarious industries including heavy industries, chemical, and petrochemical. In 1973, Samsungestablished a new shipbuilding company. The next year, it established Samsung Heavy Industries 3
  4. 4. (SHI). Samsung acquired Daesung Heavy Industry to form Samsung Shipbuilding, in 1977. Inthesame year, it established Samsung Precision (later renamed Samsung Techwin).Until 1983, Samsung produced semiconductors for the domestic market, but with thedevelopmentof a 64K dynamic random access memory (DRAM) chip in 1983, Samsung introduced manynewsemiconductor products worldwide. Samsung established Samsung Data Systems in 1985, whichwas renamed as Samsung SDS.The next year, it established Samsung Economic ResearchInstitute.In 1987, it started Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology as a main research anddevelopmentcenter.The group acquired KOCA credit card company in 1988 and renamed it Samsung Credit Card(lateragain renamed as Samsung Card in 1995). In the same year, Samsung Electronics merged withSamsung Semiconductor & Telecommunications; and a new company Samsung GeneralChemicalswas also established. In 1989, Samsung established Samsung BP Chemicals.In 1990, the group established Cheju Shilla Hotel and Advanced Technology Research Center.Thefollowing year, Shinsegae Department Store, Chonju Paper Manufacturing, and Koryo Hospitalbecame independent from Samsung.The group acquired Kukje Securities in 1992 (later renamed Samsung Securities), and SamsungSDI acquired WF of Germany. In the same year, Samsung Electronics began manufacturing inChina. Samsung Electronics acquired HMS of US and 14 affiliated companies of the groupbecameindependent, in 1993. The groups Japan headquarters opened in 1994. In the same year, itlaunched the first 256 Mb DRAM chip. Further in 1994, Samsung Corning office wasestablished inGermany. In the same year, the group acquired Korea Fertilizer and renamed it Samsung Fine 4
  5. 5. Chemicals.The group made a number of strategic moves in 1995, including the establishment of SamsungCorning Precision Glass, Samsung Aerospace (later folded into Samsung Techwin), andSamsungFinance (later renamed Samsung Capital); and also acquired Union Optical. In the same year,Samsung Aerospace acquired Rollei, a German camera manufacturer. Samsung Aerospace testfliedthe first Korean made F 16 produced for the Korean Air Force, also in 1995.Samsungs expansion continued during 1996, with the construction of three semiconductorfactoriesin Austin, Texas by Samsung Electronics, and a manufacturing complex in Tijuana, Mexico.In 1997, the group entered into satellite communication service and a nuclear power plantconstructionbusiness was started by Samsung Corporation. In 1997, it entered Chinese code division multipleaccess (CDMA) market with an agreement to provide broadband CDMA wireless local loop(WLL)network to China United Telecom.The group established Samsung Venture Investment, in 1998. In the same year, SHI sold itsconstruction equipment division to Volvo of Sweden and Samsung Motors introduced its firstpassenger car. Samsung Electronics entered the combi chip card business, in 1999. In the sameyear,Samsung Aerospace, Daewoo Heavy Industries, and Hyundai Space and Aircraft formed a singlebusiness alliance, Korea Aerospace Industries.Samsung entered into a deal with Lucent Technologies to supply internet phones, in 2000. In thesame year, it collaborated with Chosun Computer Center of North Korea. In 2002, SamsungElectronics entered into digital related businesses, when the digital media combined the formerlyknown multimedia home appliance business with the media service division. In the same year,Samsung Electronics entered into e-commerce agreement with Yahoo!, an Internet mediacompany.Samsung entered into a partnership with Telecom Italia in 2003, to develop services andproducts 5
  6. 6. using WiFi technology, targeted at the Italian, French, German, and Dutch markets. In the sameyear, Samsung Electronics produced the worlds first land based DMB receiver. SamsungElectronicsentered into a partnership with IBM, in 2004, wherein Samsung Electronics licensed the 90 nanometer logic processing technology from IBM and together developed the 65/45 nano meter logicprocessing technology.In 2005, the S-LCD, a joint venture with Sony, started seventh generation amorphous TFT (thinfilmtransistor) production facility to meet the increasing demand of LCD (liquid crystal display)panels forTVs. In the same year, the group made a second round of investments in its Hwaseongsemiconductorplant with a seven year investment plan including a research and development facility and eightabrication lines by 2012.Samsung Electronics and Microsoft formed an alliance, in 2005, to develop gaming with highdefinitiontechnology. Microsoft chose Samsung as the exclusive HDTV worldwide marketing partner fortheXbox, a high-definition gaming platform. Further in 2005, Sprint Nextel and SamsungTelecommunications America entered into a joint wireless broadband technology agreement totestthe IEEE 802.16e standard.Samsung Electronics Korea made an agreement of cooperation in the area of Terrestrial DigitalMedia Broadcasting (T-DMB) for the first trial service in France, with Bouygues Telecom (aFrance-based mobile operator), TF1 (a French mobile TV operator), and VDL (a French digitalnetwork provider and equipment manufacturer), in 2006.Further in 2006, Samsung Telecommunications America announced its plans to work withArialink,a regional service provider, to deploy the commercial Mobile WiMAX network in NorthAmerica, 6
  7. 7. which enabled Arialink to launch Mobile WiMAX in Muskegon County, Michigan in early2007.In 2007, the company formed a joint venture agreement with IBM, Standard Charted, Infineon,andFreescale Semiconductor for jointly working and developing a semiconductor process along withmanufacturing agreements.Subsequently in 2007, the company invested $57 million for the construction of a new TV plantinKaluga, Russia in response to the fast-growing digital TV demands in the CIS market. In thesameyear, the company launched Ultra Edition 12.1 (U700), the slimmest high-speed downlink packetaccess (HSDPA) slider phone for South Asian market. It also unveiled the latest additions to itsrangeof Mobile WiMAX equipment.Further in 2007, the company made worldwide patent cross license agreement with Ericsson for2Gand 3G mobile technologies. In the same year, Samsungs trading and investment groupembarkedon the construction of Jindo solar power station.Later in 2007, Samsung Electronics and Toshiba entered into an agreement to license oneanotherthe rights to produce and sell memory with the specifications and trademarks of SamsungsOneNANDand Toshibas LBA-NAND memory chips.In 2008, Samsungs trading and investment group acquired a Japanese steel maker, MyodoMetal.In the same year, the company signed agreements with HydroGen. Further in 2008, Samsungstrading and investment group signed a contract with Taylor Energy Company for purchase of oilandgas production assets. 7
  8. 8. Subsequently in 2008, Samsung Electronics acquired the IP assets of Clairvoyante, an IPlicensingcompany responsible for the development of PenTile subpixel rendering display technology andassociated gamut mapping algorithms. In the same year, Samsungs trading and investment groupwon the Mexico LNG (Liquid Natural Gas) terminal BOO (Boild, own, Operate) project.Further in 2008, Samsung C&T acquired an Indonesian bio-diesel palm plantation, andLobinave,an Angolan ship repair company. In the same year, Samsung C&T incorporated SamsungPrecisionStainless Steel in China.Subsequently in 2008, Samsung Heavy Industries signed a contract to purchase a stake in theBrazilian shipyard, EAS (Estaleiro Atlantico Sul) Shipyard. In the same year, Samsung Techwininstalled one of its cogeneration systems in Samsung Medical Center in Seoul. SamsungElectronicsalso entered into a partnership agreement with Netflix, the worlds largest online movie rentalservice.Later in 2008, Samsung Techwin introduced NaBee, a worldwide wireless USB solution fordigitalcameras. In the same year, Cheil Industries opened the Bean Pole New York studio.In January 2009, SHI received an order from a European shipper for an LNG-FPSO (FloatingProduction Storage and Off-loading) with an annual natural gas production capacity of 2.5million tons.In February 2009, SHI entered into a memorandum of understanding (MOU) for partnership withtheRussian company USC, a fully government-contributed corporation, for the modernization of theRussian shipbuilding industry.In May 2009, Samsung Techwin established a sales corporation in Shanghai, China. In June2009,Samsung Electronics signed a patent cross license agreement with Toshiba for semiconductortechnologies.In September 2009, Samsung Electronics launched 640 gigabit (GB) and 2.5 inch Spinpoint M7 8
  9. 9. internal hard disk drive. In the same month, Samsung Electronics introduced its first Long TermEvolution (LTE) modem complying with the latest standards of the 3rd Generation PartnershipProject(3GPP). During the same period, Datak Telecom selected Samsung Electronics as its soleWiMAXequipment vendor to bring the first WiMAX Wave2 services to Iran.Samsung Electronics launched an environmentally friendly mobile phone, Samsung Blue Earth,inOctober 2009. The phone combines the multimedia features and designs, while achieving lowerenergy consumption and incorporating eco-friendly materials.In November 2009, Samsung Electronics collaborated with Microsoft on efficient energy usageincomputers. In December 2009, the company acquired the Poland-based refrigerator and washingmachine manufacturing facilities from Amica, the Polish home appliance manufacturer, in a dealvalued at $76 million. The acquisition included Amicas Poznan city factory and its assemblyline forrefrigerators and washing machines. In the same month, the company collaborated with Yota, aprovider of innovative mobile services, to roll out a Mobile WiMAX service in Nicaragua.Samsung Electronics extended its contract with Yota, the Russia-based Mobile WiMAX serviceprovider, for the establishment of the nationwide Mobile WiMAX network in Russia, in January2010.Under the new contract, Samsung Electronics would supply more than 5,000 Mobile WiMAXmacrocellular base stations and Access Control Routers (ACR) to Yota from March 2010 onwards. Inthesame month, Samsung Electronics entered into an agreement with Rambus settling all claimsbetween them and licensing Rambus patent portfolio covering all Samsung semiconductorproducts.In addition, Samsung Electronics and Rambus signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU)relating to a new generation of memory technologies. 9
  10. 10. In February 2010, Samsung Electronics signed a contract with WIND Telecom, a broadbandinternetand subscription TV service provider in the Dominican Republic, to build up the MobileWiMAXnetwork in Dominican Republic.In March 2010, Samsung Techwin launched access control system solutions, which providesseparatefinger print and face recognition devices along with a total access control solution.In April 2010, Samsung Electronics merged with Samsung Digital Imaging, an affiliatedcompany ofSamsung which produces digital cameras and imaging technology. In the same month, SamsungElectronics introduced the Galaxy A (SHW-M100S) to the Korean market. Further in April2010,Samsung Techwin launched intrusion detection systems.In May 2010, Samsung Electronics announced that it would increase its total investment inmanufacturing facilities and research and development for 2010 to KRW26 trillion(approximately$0.02 trillion). In the same month, Samsung Electronics announced to strengthen its leadership inthe digital information display (DID) market with its lineup of ultra-slim bezel and specializedLCDdisplay products for applications in video walls, digital signage, and outdoor advertisement.In July 2010, Samsung Electronics started shipping its new Spinpoint MT2 1 terabyte (TB) 2.5inchinternal mobile hard disk drive for use in portable storage solutions, digital TVs, home mediasystemsand set-top boxes.In September 2010, Samsung Electronics and Thales, a France-based electronics company,enteredinto a partnership agreement to jointly develop and market a mobile infrastructure and terminalssolution. In the same month, Samsung Electronics launched the SF series of ultra-portable notePCs and NF series netbooks. Subsequently in September 2010, Samsung Electronics announced 10
  11. 11. its plans to launch its Galaxy S smartphone in China in partnership with three mobile operators.In October 2010, Samsung Electronics launched its Galaxy S smartphone and Galaxy Tab smartmedia device in Japan. In November 2010, Samsung Electronics developed and started samplingthe industry’s first monolithic four GB, low power double-data-rate 2 (LPDDR2) DRAM using30nanometer (nm) class technology.In December 2010, Samsung Electronics announced the development of an 8 GB registered dualinline memory module based on its advanced Green DDR3 DRAM. In the same month, SamsungElectronics was chosen by Sprint, a US-based telecommunications company, as a key equipmentand services supplier for Network Vision, the next evolution of Sprint’s network.In 2011, new or expanded partnerships with Comcast and Time Warner Cable have beenestablished,in order to bring streaming video-on-demand (VOD) services to Samsung Smart TV’s via theSamsungApps storefront. Samsung and Time Warner Cable also announced a partnership to deliver theenhanced content and navigation options across multiple smart TV screens, without the need foranadditional set-top box.In August 2011, Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd., Panasonic Corporation, Sony Corporation andX6DLimited (XPAND 3D) announced their intent to collaborate on the development of a newtechnologystandard for consumer 3D active glasses, under the name, ―Full HD 3D Glasses Initiative.‖Sources: Datamonitor plc., Samsung Group:Company Profile, published December 28th,2010. Samsung Group, www.samsung.comCOMPANY PROFILE 11
  12. 12. At Samsung, we follow a simple business philosophy: to devote our talent and technology tocreating superior products and services that contribute to a better global society.Every day, our people bring this philosophy to life. Our leaders search for the brightest talentfrom around the world, and give them the resources they need to be the best at what they do. Theresult is that all of our products—from memory chips that help businesses store vital knowledgeto mobile phones that connect people across continents— have the power to enrich lives. Andthat’s what making a better global society is all about.Our ValuesWe believe that living by strong values is the key to good business. At Samsung, a rigorous codeof conduct and these core values are at the heart of every decision we make. PeopleQuite simply, a company is its people. At Samsung, we’re dedicated to giving our people awealth of opportunities to reach their full potential. ExcellenceEverything we do at Samsung is driven by an unyielding passion for excellence—and anunfaltering commitment to develop the best products and services on the market. 12
  13. 13. ChangeIn today’s fast-paced global economy, change is constant and innovation is critical to acompany’s survival. As we have done for 70 years, we set our sights on the future, anticipatingmarket needs and demands so we can steer our company toward long-term success. IntegrityOperating in an ethical way is the foundation of our business. Everything we do is guided by amoral compass that ensures fairness, respect for all stakeholders and complete transparency. Co-prosperityA business cannot be successful unless it creates prosperity and opportunity for others. Samsungis dedicated to being a socially and environmentally responsible corporate citizen in everycommunity where we operate around the globe. 13
  14. 14. VISIONVision 2020As stated in its new motto, Samsung Electronics vision for the new decade is, "Inspire theWorld, Create the Future."This new vision reflects Samsung Electronics’ commitment to inspiring its communities byleveraging Samsungs three key strengths: ―New Technology,‖ ―Innovative Products,‖ and―Creative Solutions.‖ -- and to promoting new value for Samsungs core networks -- Industry, 14
  15. 15. Partners, and Employees. Through these efforts, Samsung hopes to contribute to a better worldand a richer experience for all.As part of this vision, Samsung has mapped out a specific plan of reaching $400 billion inrevenue and becoming one of the world’s top five brands by 2020. To this end, Samsung has alsoestablished three strategic approaches in its management: ―Creativity,‖ ―Partnership,‖ and―Talent.‖Samsung is excited about the future. As we build on our previous accomplishments, we lookforward to exploring new territories, including health, medicine, and biotechnology. Samsung is 15
  16. 16. committed to being a creative leader in new markets and becoming a truly No. 1 business goingforward.MISSIONGuided by Christian principles, our vision will be achieved by:Ensuring continuous distribution of Samsung quality mobile devices and introduction ofnew products ahead of competition at all times.Always seeking ways to provide excellent customer service experience, believing that thecustomer is the lifeblood of the business.Establishing a dynamic and proactive environment that will create a sense of belongingnessamong the members of the organization and sustain a team of empowered employees(trustworthy, enthusiastic, customer-friendly, competent, committed, dynamic andproactive).Providing the shareholders a maximum return of their investmentsActively supporting NGO-initiated programs. 16
  17. 17. SAMSUNG GROUP STRUCTURE 17
  18. 18. REVIEW OF LITERATUREDefinitionVarious authors and researchers have proposed models of Quality of working life which includea wide range of factors. Selected models are reviewed below.Hackman and Oldham (1976)(5)drew attention to what they described as psychological growthneeds as relevant tothe consideration of Quality of working life. Several such needs wereidentified; Skill variety,Task Identity, Task significance, Autonomy and Feedback. Theysuggested that such needs haveto be addressed if employees are to experience high quality of working life.In contrast to suchtheory based models, Taylor (1979)(6) more pragmatically identified theessential components ofQuality of working life as; basic extrinsic job factors of wages, hoursand working conditions,and the intrinsic job notions of the nature of the work itself. Hesuggested that a number of otheraspects could be added, including; individual power, employee participation in the management,fairness and equity, social support, use of one’s present skills,self development, a meaningfulfuture at work, social relevance of the work or product, effect onextra work activities. Taylorsuggested that relevant Quality of working life concepts may varyaccording to organisation andemployee group.Warr and colleagues (1979)(7), in an investigation of Quality of working life,considered a rangeof apparently relevant factors, including work involvement, intrinsic jobmotivation, higher order need strength, perceived intrinsic job characteristics, job satisfaction,life satisfaction, happiness,and self-rated anxiety. They discussed a range of correlations derivedfrom their work, such asthose between work involvement and job satisfaction, intrinsic jobmotivation and jobsatisfaction, and perceived intrinsic job characteristics and job satisfaction. Inparticular, Warr etal. found evidence for a moderate association between total job satisfaction 18
  19. 19. and total lifesatisfaction and happiness, with a less strong, but significant association with self-rated anxiety.Thus, whilst some authors have emphasised the workplace aspects in Quality ofworking life,others have identified the relevance of personality factors, psychological well being,and broader concepts of happiness and life satisfaction.Factors more obviously and directlyaffecting work have, however, served as the main focus of attention, as researchers have tried totease out the important influences on Quality of workinglife in the workplace.Mirvis and Lawler(1984)(8) suggested that Quality of working life was associated withsatisfaction with wages,hours and working conditions, describing the ―basic elements of a goodquality of work life‖ as;safe work environment, equitable wages, equal employmentopportunities and opportunities foradvancement.Baba and Jamal (1991)(9) listed what they described as typical indicators of qualityof workinglife, including: job satisfaction, job involvement, work role ambiguity, work roleconflict, work role overload, job stress, organisational commitment and turn-over intentions.Baba and Jamal also explored routinisation of job content, suggesting that this facet should beinvestigated as partof the concept of quality of working life.Some have argued that quality ofworking life might vary between groups of workers. For example, Ellis and Pompli (2002)(10)identified a number of factors contributing to jobdissatisfaction and quality of working life innurses, including: Poor working environments,Resident aggression, Workload, Unable to deliverquality of care preferred, Balance of work andfamily, Shiftwork, Lack of involvement indecision making, Professional isolation, Lack of recognition, Poor relationships withsupervisor/peers, Role conflict, Lack of opportunity to learnnew skills.Sirgy et al.; (2001)(11)suggested that the key factors in quality of working life are: Needsatisfaction based on jobrequirements, Need satisfaction based on Work environment, Needsatisfaction based onSupervisory behaviour, Need satisfaction based on Ancillary programmes,Organizationalcommitment. They defined quality of working life as satisfaction of these keyneeds throughresources, activities, and outcomes stemming from participation in the workplace.Maslow’sneeds were seen as relevant in underpinning this model, covering Health & safety,Economic andfamily, Social, Esteem, Actualisation, Knowledge and Aesthetics, although therelevance of non-work aspects is play down as attention is focussed on quality of work life rather than the broaderconcept of quality of life.These attempts at defining quality of working life have includedtheoretical approaches, lists of identified factors, correlational analyses, with opinions varying asto whether such definitionsand explanations can be both global, or need to be specific to each 19
  20. 20. work setting.Bearfield, (2003)(12) used 16 questions to examine quality of working life, anddistinguished between causes of dissatisfaction in professionals, intermediate clerical, sales andserviceworkers, indicating that different concerns might have to be addressed for differentgroups.The distinction made between job satisfaction and dissatisfaction in quality of workinglifereflects the influence of job satisfaction theories. Herzberg at al., (1959)(13) used―Hygienefactors‖ and ―Motivator factors‖ to distinguish between the separate causes of jobsatisfactionand job dissatisfaction. It has been suggested that Motivator factors are intrinsic to thejob, thatis; job content, the work itself, responsibility and advancement. The Hygiene factorsor dissatisfaction-avoidance factors include aspects of the job environment such asinterpersonalrelationships, salary, working conditions and security. Of these latter, the mostcommon cause of job dissatisfaction can be company policy and administration, whilstachievement can be thegreatest source of extreme satisfaction.An individual’s experience ofsatisfaction or dissatisfaction can be substantially rooted in their perception, rather than simplyreflecting their ―real world‖. Further, an individual’s perceptioncan be affected by relativecomparison – am I paid as much as that person - and comparisons of internalised ideals,aspirations, and expectations, for example, with the individual’s current state(Lawler and Porter,1966) (1).In summary, where it has been considered, authors differ in their views on the coreconstituentsof Quality of Working Life (e.g. Sirgy, Efraty, Siegel & Lee, 2001 (11) and Warr,Cook & Wall,1979)(7).It has generally been agreed however that Quality of Working Life isconceptually similar towell-being of employees but differs from job satisfaction which solelyrepresents the workplacedomain (Lawler, 1982)(15).Quality of Working Life is not a unitaryconcept, but has been seen as incorporating a hierarchyof perspectives that not only includework-based factors such as job satisfaction, satisfaction with pay and relationships with workcolleagues, but also factors that broadly reflect life satisfactionand general feelings of well-being(Danna & Griffin, 1999)(16). More recently, work-relatedstress and the relationship betweenwork and non-work life domains (Loscocco & Roschelle,1991)(17) have also been identified asfactors that should conceptually be included in Quality of Working Life. 20
  21. 21. MeasurementThere are few recognised measures of quality of working life, and of those that existfew haveevidence of validity and reliability, that is, there is a very limited literature based onpeer reviewed evbaluations of available assessments. A recent statistical analysis of anew measure,the Work-Related Quality of Life scale (WRQoL)(18), indicates that thisassessment deviceshould prove to be a useful instrument, although further evaluation would beuseful. TheWRQoWL measure uses 6 core factors to explain most of the variation in anindividuals qualityof working life: Job and Career Satisfaction; Working Conditions; GeneralWell-Being; Home-Work Interface; Stress at Work and Control at Work.The Job & CareerSatisfaction Job and Career satisfaction (JCS)scale of the the Work-RelatedQuality of Life scale(WRQoL) is said to reflect an employee’s feelings about, or evaluation of,their satisfaction orcontentment with their job and career and the training they receive to do it.Within the WRQoLmeasure, JCS is reflected by questions asking how satisfied people feelabout their work. It hasbeen proposed that this Positive Job Satisfaction factor is influenced byvarious issues includingclarity of goals and role ambiguity, appraisal, recognition and reward, personal developmentcareer benefits and enhancement and training needs.The General well-being (GWB)scale of theWork-Related Quality of Life scale (WRQoL)(18),aims to assess the extent to whichan individual feels good or content in themselves, in a waywhich may be independent of theirwork situation. It is suggested that general well-being bothinfluences, and is influenced bywork. Mental health problems, predominantly depression andanxiety disorders, are common, andmay have a major impact on the general well-being of the population. The WRQoL GWB factorassesses issues of mood, depression and anxiety, lifesatisfaction, general quality of life, optimismand happiness.The WRQoL Stress at Work sub-scale (SAW) reflects the extent to which anindividual perceives they have excessive pressures, and feel stressed at work. The WRQoL SAWfactor isassessed through items dealing with demand and perception of stress and actualdemandoverload. Whilst it is possible to be pressured at work and not be stressed at work, 21
  22. 22. in general,high stress is associated with high pressure.The Control at Work (CAW) subsacle ofthe WRQoL scale addresses how much employees feelthey can control their work through thefreedom to express their opinions and being involved indecisions at work. Perceived control atwork as measureed by the Work-Related Quality of Lifescale (WRQoL)(18)is recognized as acentral concept in the understanding of relationships between stressful experiences, behaviourand health. Control at work, within the theoreticalmodel underpinning the WRQoL, is influencedby issues of communication at work, decisionmaking and decision control.The WRQoL Home-Work Interface scale (HWI) measures the extent to which an employer is perceived to supportthe family and home life of employees. This factor explores theinterrelationship between homeand work life domains. Issues that appear to influence employeeHWI include adequate facilitiesat work, flexibile working hours and the understanding of managers.The Working Conditionsscale of the WRQoL assesses the extent to which the employee issatisfied with the fundamentalresources, working conditions and security necessary to do their job effectively. Physicalworking conditions influence employee health and safety and thusemployee Quality of workinglife. This scale also taps into satisfaction with the resources provided to help people do their jobs.ApplicationsRegular assessment of Quality of Working Life can potentially provide organisationswithimportant information about the welfare of their employees, such as job satisfaction,generalwell-being, work-related stress and the home-work interface. Studies in the UKUniversity sector have shown a valid measure of Quality of Working Life exists (19) and canbe used as a basis for effective interventions.Worrall and Cooper (2006)(14) recently reportedthat a low level of well-being at work isestimated to cost about 5-10% of Gross NationalProduct per annum, yet Quality of WorkingLife as a theoretical construct remains relativelyunexplored and unexplained within theorganisational psychology research literature.A largechunk of most peoples’ lives will be spent at work. Most people recognise theimportance ofsleeping well, and actively try to enjoy the leisure time that they can snatch. Butall too often,people tend to see work as something they just have to put up with, or evensomething they don’teven expect to enjoy.Some of the factors used to measure quality of working life pick up on 22
  23. 23. things that don’t actuallymake people feel good, but which seem to make people feel bad aboutwork if those things are absent. For example, noise – if the place where someone works is toonoisy, they might getfrequent headaches, or find they can not concentrate, and so feeldissatisfied. But when it is quietenough they don’t feel pleased or happy - they just don’t feelbad. This can apply to a range of factors that affect someones working conditions.Other thingsseem to be more likely to make people feel good about work and themselves oncethe basics areOK at work. Challenging work (not too little, not too much) can make them feelgood. Similarly,opportunities for career progression and using their abilities can contribute tosomeones qualityof working life.The recent publication of National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE) publichealth guidance22; Promoting mental wellbeing through productive and healthy workingconditions (20)emphasises the core role of assessment and understanding of the way workingenvironments pose risks for psychological wellbeing through lack of control and excessivedemand. Theemphasis placed by NICE on assessment and monitoring wellbeing springs from thefact thatthese processes are the key first step in identifying areas for improveming quality ofworking lifeand addressing risks at work.References1. Lawler III E and Porter L, (1966). Managers pay and their satisfaction with theirpay.Personnel Psychology. XIX 363-732. Mullarkey S, Wall T, Warr P, Clegg C & Stride C(1999) Eds.. Measures of Job Satisfaction,mental Healthand Job-related Well-being. Inst Workpsychol..3. Elizur D & Shye S 1990 Quality of work life and its relation toquality of life.Applied psychology: An international review. 39 3 275-2914. Taillefer,-Marie-Christine;Dupuis,-Gilles; Roberge,-Marie-Anne; Le-May,-Sylvie (2003)Health-related quality of lifemodels: Systematic review of the literature. Social-Indicators-Research. Nov; Vol 64 (2): 293-3235. Hackman J & Oldham G (1974) The Job Diagnostic Survey. New Haven: YaleUniversity.6. Taylor J C in Cooper, CL and Mumford, E (1979) The quality of working life inWestern andEastern Europe. ABP7. Warr, P, Cook, J and Wall, T (1979) Scales for themeasurement of some work attitudes andaspects of psychological well being. Journal of 23
  24. 24. Occupational Psychology. 52, 129-148.8. Mirvis, P.H. and Lawler, E.E. (1984) Accounting forthe Quality of Work Life. Journal of Occupational Behaviour. 5. 197-212.9. Baba, VV and Jamal, M (1991) Routinisation of job context and job content as relatedtoemployees quality of working life: a study of psychiatric nurses. Journal oforganisational behaviour. 12. 379-386.10.Ellis N & Pompli A 2002 Quality of working life fornurses. Commonwealth Dept of Healthand Ageing. Canberra.11. Sirgy, M. J., Efraty,, D., Siegel,P & Lee, D. (2001). A new measure of quality of work life(QoWL) based on need satisfactionandspillover theories. Social Indicators Research, 55, 241-302.12. Bearfield, S (2003)Quality ofWorking Life. Aciirt Working paper 86. University of Sydney.www.acirrt.com13. Herzberg F,Mausner B, & Snyderman B., (1959) The Motivation to Work. NewYork:Wiley.14. Worrall, L.& Cooper, C. L. (2006). The Quality of Working Life: Managers’ health andwell-being.Executive Report, Chartered Management Institute.15. Lawler, E. E. (1982). Strategies forimproving the quality of work life. AmericanPsychologist, 37, 2005, 486-493.16. Danna, K. &Griffin, R. W. (1999). Health and well-being in the workplace: A review andsynthesis of theliterature. Journal of Management, 25, 357-384.17. Loscocco, K. A. & Roschelle, A. N. (1991).Influences on the Quality of Work and Nonwork Life: Two Decades in Review. Journal ofVocational Behavior, 39, 182-225.18. Van Laar, D, Edwards, J & Easton, S (2007). The Work-Related Quality of Life scale for healthcare workers. Journal of Advanced Nursing, Volume 60,Number 3, pp. 325–33319. Edwards, J., Van Laar, D.L. & Easton, S. (2009). The Work-RelatedQuality of Life(WRQoL) scale for Higher Education Employees. Quality in Higher Education.15: 3, 207-219.20. National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE) public health guidance 22;Promotingmental wellbeing through productive and healthy working conditions.www.nice.org.uk/PH22 24
  25. 25. 1 . 3 . O B J E C T I V E SPRIMARY OBJECTIVES:To know the overall quality of work life in the organization and its impact on employeesworkculture. SECONDARY OBJECTIVES: To measure the level of satisfaction of employees towards the quality of work life. To suggest suitable measures to improve the quality of work life. To identify the major areas of dissatisfaction if any, and provide valuable suggestionsimproving the employees satisfaction in those areas. To analyze the findings and suggestion for the study.SCOPE OF QUALITY OF WORK LIFE: 25
  26. 26. Quality of work life is a multi dimensional aspect. The workers expect the followingneeds to be fulfilled. Compensation the reward for the work should be fair and reasonable. The organization should take care of health and safety of the employees. Job security should be given to the employees. Job specification should match the individuals. An organization responds to employee needs for developing mechanisms to allowthem to share fully in making the decisions that design their lives at work.LIMITATION OF THE STUDY: Time was the major constraint for the project. The study is restricted to HR dept., and can’t be generalized. The individual perspective appears to be different. Questionnaire is the major limitation for the project. 26
  27. 27. CHAPTER-2RESEARCH METHODOLOGYResearch methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem. It maybeunderstood as a science of studying how research is done scientifically. The scopeof researchmethodology is wider than that of research methods. When we talk of researchmethodology wenot only talk of research methods but also consider the logic behindthe methods we use in thecontext of our research study and explain why we are usinga particular method or technique.2.1 RESEARCH DESIGN―A research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data inamanner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy inprocedure‖.Research design is the conceptual structure within which research is conducted;itconstitutes the blueprint for the collection, measurement and analysis of data.The type ofresearch design used in the project wasDescriptive researchbecause ithelps to describe a particular situation prevailing within a company. Careful design ofthedescriptive studies was necessary to ensure the complete interpretation of the situation andtoensure minimum bias in the collection of data.2.2 SAMPLING TECHNIQUESampling is the selection of some part of an aggregate or totality on the basis of whicha judgment about the aggregate or totality is made. 27
  28. 28. Simple random samplingmethod was used in this project. Since population was not of a homogenous group, Stratifiedtechnique was appliedso as to obtain a representative sample. The employees were stratified intoa number of subpopulation or strata and sample items (employees) were selected fromeach stratum on the basis of simple random sampling.2.3 SIZE OF THE SAMPLEFor a research study to be perfect the sample size selected should be optimal i.e. it shouldneitherbe excessively large nor too small. Here the sample size was bounded to 46.2.4 DATA COLLECTION METHODBoth the Primary and Secondary data collection method were used in the project. Firsttimecollected data are referred to as primary data. In this research the primary data was collected bymeans of aStructured Questionnaire The questionnaire consisted of a number of questionsin printed form. Ithad both open-end closed end questions in it. Data which has already gonethrough the process ofanalysis or were used by someone else earlier is referred to secondarydata. This type of data wascollected from the books, journals, company records etc.2.5 TOOLS USED FOR ANALYSISPercentage analysis.Chi-Square.five point liker scales.Percentage analysis: 28
  29. 29. One of the simplest methods of analysis is the percentage method. It is one of thetraditionalstatistical tools. Through the use of percentage, the data are reduced in the standardform with thebase equal to 100, which facilitates comparison.PERSONAL DATA:Name : _______________________ Sex: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Age:below 25 yrs25-35 yrs35-45 yrs45-55yrsAbove55yrsEducational Qualification : _______________________ Marital status : _______________________ Department : _______________________ Designation : _______________________ Experience: 29
  30. 30. Less than 5 yrs5-10 yrs10-15 yrs15-20yrsAbove20 yrs1 . A r e yo u s a t i s f i e d w i t h yo u r s a l a r y p a c k a g e ?Highly satisfiedsatisfiedNeutralDissatisfiedHighly Dissatisfied2.How far you are satisfied with your current job?Highly satisfiedsatisfiedNeutral 30
  31. 31. DissatisfiedHighly Dissatisfied3.Is the organization providing casual leave with pay?Strongly AgreeAgreeModerateDisagreeStrongly Disagree4.What do you feel about the medical facilities provided by the concern?Strongly AgreeAgreeModerateDisagreeStrongly Disagree5.Are you satisfied with the bonus provided to you? 31
  32. 32. Strongly AgreeAgreeModerateDisagreeStrongly Disagree6 . A r e yo u s a t i s f i e d w i t h yo u r c a n t e e n f a c i l i t y?Highly satisfiedsatisfiedNeutralDissatisfiedHighly Dissatisfied7.How far you are satisfied with the ESI and PF given by the organization?Strongly AgreeAgree 32
  33. 33. ModerateDisagreeStrongly Disagree8.To what extend you are satisfied with the safety and healthy working conditions?Highly satisfiedsatisfiedNeutralDissatisfiedHighly Dissatisfied9.What do you feel about the job security in your organization?Highly satisfiedsatisfiedNeutralDissatisfiedHighly Dissatisfied10.Are you satisfied with the promotion policies in your organization? 33
  34. 34. Highly satisfiedsatisfiedNeutralDissatisfiedHighly Dissatisfied11.What do you think about the quality of work life in the organization?very goodGoodOkBadVery bad12.The company communicates every new change that takes place from time to time.Strongly AgreeAgree 34
  35. 35. ModerateDisagreeStrongly Disagree13.To what extend the cordial relationship exist among the employees and superiors?Strongly AgreeAgreeModerateDisagreeStrongly Disagree14.How far you are satisfied with the training given by the employer?Highly satisfiedsatisfiedNeutralDissatisfied 35
  36. 36. Highly Dissatisfied15.Are you satisfied with the training method used in your organization?Highly satisfiedsatisfiedNeutralDissatisfiedHighly Dissatisfied 36

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