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CHAPTER-1




INTRODUCTION


Quality of Work Life:
Quality of work life (QWL) is viewed as an alternative to the control approach of
managing people. The QWL approach considers people as an 'asset' to the organization rather
than as'costs'. It believes that people perform better when they are allowed to participate in
managingtheir work and make decisions.This approach motivates people by satisfying not only
their economic needs but also their socialand psychological ones. To satisfy the new generation
workforce, organizations need toconcentrate on job designs and organization of work. Further,
today's workforce is realizing theimportance of relationships and is trying to strike a
balance between career and personal lives.




Successful organizations support and provide facilities to their people to help them to
balance thescales. In this process, organizations are coming up with new and innovative ideas to
improvethe quality of work and quality of work life of every individual in the organization.
Various programs like flex time, alternative work schedules, compressed work weeks,
telecommutingetc., are being adopted by these organizations. Technological advances further
help organizationsto implement these programs successfully. Organizations are enjoying the
fruits of implementingQWL programs in the form of increased productivity, and an efficient,
satisfied, and committedworkforce which aims to achieve organizational objectives. The future
work world will also havemore women entrepreneurs and they will encourage and adopt QWL
programs.Quality of Working Life is a term that had been used to describe the broader job-
relatedexperience an individual has.Whilst there has, for many years, been much
research into job satisfaction(1), and, morerecently, an interest has arisen into the broader
concepts of stressandsubjective well-being(2),the precise nature of the relationship between these
concepts has still been little explored. Stressat work is often considered in isolation, wherein it is
assessed on the basis that attention to anindividual’s stress management skills or the sources of

                                                  1
stress will prove to provide a goodenough basis for effective intervention. Alternatively, job
satisfaction may be assessed, so thataction can be taken which will enhance an individual’s
performance. Somewhere in all this, thereis often an awareness of the greater context, whereupon
the home-work context is considered, for example, and other factors, such as an individual’s
personal characteristics, and the broader economic or cultural climate, might be seen as relevant.
In this context, subjective well-being isseen as drawing upon both work and non-work aspects of
life.However, more complex models of an individuals experience in the workplace often appear
to beset aside in an endeavour to simplify the process of trying to measuring ―stress‖ or
somesimilarly apparently discrete entity. It may be, however, that the consideration of
the bigger,more complex picture is essential, if targeted, effective action is to be taken to address
quality of working life or any of it’s sub-components in such a way as to produce real benefits,
be they for the individual or the organisation.Quality of working life has been differentiated from
the broader concept of Quality of Life.Tosome degree, this may be overly simplistic, as Elizur
and Shye,(1990)(3) concluded that qualityof work performance is affected by Quality of Life as
well as Quality of working life. However,it will be argued here that the specific attention to
work-related aspects of quality of life is valid.Whilst Quality of Life has been more widely
studied (4), Quality of working life, remainsrelatively unexplored and unexplained. A review of
the literature reveals relatively little onquality of working life. Where quality of working life has
been explored, writers differ in their views on its’ core constituents.It is argued that the whole is
greater than the sum of the parts as regards Quality of working Life,and, therefore, the failure to
attend to the bigger picture may lead to the failure of interventionswhich tackle only one
aspect. A clearer understanding of the inter-relationship of the variousfacets of quality of
working life offers the opportunity for improved analysis of cause and effect in the
workplace….This consideration of Quality of working Life as the greater context for various
factors in the workplace, such as job satisfaction and stress, may offer opportunity for more cost-
effective interventions in the workplace. The effective targeting of stress reduction, for example,
may otherwise prove a hopeless task for employers pressured to take action to meetgovernmental
requirements.




                                                  2
COMPANY PROFILE




                                           HISTORY




Samsung Group (Samsung) was founded in 1938 by Byung-Chull Lee. In the early days of its
operations, the group exported dried fish, vegetables, and fruits produced in Korea to Manchuria
and Beijing (both in China). Soon after, Samsung started small-scale manufacturing by setting up
flour mills and confectionery machines.
Samsung Corporation was incorporated in 1951. It began substituting imported goods with
domestically produced products through the establishment of Cheil Sugar, in 1953. The
following
year, Samsung established Cheil Industries.
The group acquired Feb Ankuk Fire & Marine Insurance in 1958 and the company was renamed
Samsung Fire & Marine Insurance in 1993. In 1963, Samsung acquired Jul DongBang Life
Insurance,
which was renamed as Samsung Life Insurance in 1989. Samsung also acquired DongHwa
Department Store, in 1963. In 1965, the group acquired Saehan Paper Manufacturing.
The group established Samsung Electronics, in 1969. During the 1970s, Samsung entered into
various industries including heavy industries, chemical, and petrochemical. In 1973, Samsung
established a new shipbuilding company. The next year, it established Samsung Heavy Industries


                                               3
(SHI). Samsung acquired Daesung Heavy Industry to form Samsung Shipbuilding, in 1977. In
the
same year, it established Samsung Precision (later renamed Samsung Techwin).
Until 1983, Samsung produced semiconductors for the domestic market, but with the
development
of a 64K dynamic random access memory (DRAM) chip in 1983, Samsung introduced many
new
semiconductor products worldwide. Samsung established Samsung Data Systems in 1985, which
was renamed as Samsung SDS.The next year, it established Samsung Economic Research
Institute.
In 1987, it started Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology as a main research and
development
center.
The group acquired KOCA credit card company in 1988 and renamed it Samsung Credit Card
(later
again renamed as Samsung Card in 1995). In the same year, Samsung Electronics merged with
Samsung Semiconductor & Telecommunications; and a new company Samsung General
Chemicals
was also established. In 1989, Samsung established Samsung BP Chemicals.
In 1990, the group established Cheju Shilla Hotel and Advanced Technology Research Center.
The
following year, Shinsegae Department Store, Chonju Paper Manufacturing, and Koryo Hospital
became independent from Samsung.
The group acquired Kukje Securities in 1992 (later renamed Samsung Securities), and Samsung
SDI acquired WF of Germany. In the same year, Samsung Electronics began manufacturing in
China. Samsung Electronics acquired HMS of US and 14 affiliated companies of the group
became
independent, in 1993. The group's Japan headquarters opened in 1994. In the same year, it
launched the first 256 Mb DRAM chip. Further in 1994, Samsung Corning office was
established in
Germany. In the same year, the group acquired Korea Fertilizer and renamed it Samsung Fine

                                               4
Chemicals.
The group made a number of strategic moves in 1995, including the establishment of Samsung
Corning Precision Glass, Samsung Aerospace (later folded into Samsung Techwin), and
Samsung
Finance (later renamed Samsung Capital); and also acquired Union Optical. In the same year,
Samsung Aerospace acquired Rollei, a German camera manufacturer. Samsung Aerospace test
flied
the first Korean made F 16 produced for the Korean Air Force, also in 1995.
Samsung's expansion continued during 1996, with the construction of three semiconductor
factories
in Austin, Texas by Samsung Electronics, and a manufacturing complex in Tijuana, Mexico.
In 1997, the group entered into satellite communication service and a nuclear power plant
construction
business was started by Samsung Corporation. In 1997, it entered Chinese code division multiple
access (CDMA) market with an agreement to provide broadband CDMA wireless local loop
(WLL)
network to China United Telecom.
The group established Samsung Venture Investment, in 1998. In the same year, SHI sold its
construction equipment division to Volvo of Sweden and Samsung Motors introduced its first
passenger car. Samsung Electronics entered the combi chip card business, in 1999. In the same
year,
Samsung Aerospace, Daewoo Heavy Industries, and Hyundai Space and Aircraft formed a single
business alliance, Korea Aerospace Industries.
Samsung entered into a deal with Lucent Technologies to supply internet phones, in 2000. In the
same year, it collaborated with Chosun Computer Center of North Korea. In 2002, Samsung
Electronics entered into digital related businesses, when the digital media combined the formerly
known multimedia home appliance business with the media service division. In the same year,
Samsung Electronics entered into e-commerce agreement with Yahoo!, an Internet media
company.
Samsung entered into a partnership with Telecom Italia in 2003, to develop services and
products

                                                 5
using WiFi technology, targeted at the Italian, French, German, and Dutch markets. In the same
year, Samsung Electronics produced the world's first land based DMB receiver. Samsung
Electronics
entered into a partnership with IBM, in 2004, wherein Samsung Electronics licensed the 90 nano
meter logic processing technology from IBM and together developed the 65/45 nano meter logic
processing technology.
In 2005, the S-LCD, a joint venture with Sony, started seventh generation amorphous TFT (thin
film
transistor) production facility to meet the increasing demand of LCD (liquid crystal display)
panels for
TVs. In the same year, the group made a second round of investments in its Hwaseong
semiconductor
plant with a seven year investment plan including a research and development facility and eight
abrication lines by 2012.
Samsung Electronics and Microsoft formed an alliance, in 2005, to develop gaming with high
definition
technology. Microsoft chose Samsung as the exclusive HDTV worldwide marketing partner for
the
Xbox, a high-definition gaming platform. Further in 2005, Sprint Nextel and Samsung
Telecommunications America entered into a joint wireless broadband technology agreement to
test
the IEEE 802.16e standard.
Samsung Electronics Korea made an agreement of cooperation in the area of Terrestrial Digital
Media Broadcasting (T-DMB) for the first trial service in France, with Bouygues Telecom (a
France-based mobile operator), TF1 (a French mobile TV operator), and VDL (a French digital
network provider and equipment manufacturer), in 2006.
Further in 2006, Samsung Telecommunications America announced its plans to work with
Arialink,
a regional service provider, to deploy the commercial Mobile WiMAX network in North
America,



                                                6
which enabled Arialink to launch Mobile WiMAX in Muskegon County, Michigan in early
2007.
In 2007, the company formed a joint venture agreement with IBM, Standard Charted, Infineon,
and
Freescale Semiconductor for jointly working and developing a semiconductor process along with
manufacturing agreements.
Subsequently in 2007, the company invested $57 million for the construction of a new TV plant
in
Kaluga, Russia in response to the fast-growing digital TV demands in the CIS market. In the
same
year, the company launched Ultra Edition 12.1 (U700), the slimmest high-speed downlink packet
access (HSDPA) slider phone for South Asian market. It also unveiled the latest additions to its
range
of Mobile WiMAX equipment.
Further in 2007, the company made worldwide patent cross license agreement with Ericsson for
2G
and 3G mobile technologies. In the same year, Samsung's trading and investment group
embarked
on the construction of Jindo solar power station.
Later in 2007, Samsung Electronics and Toshiba entered into an agreement to license one
another
the rights to produce and sell memory with the specifications and trademarks of Samsung's
OneNAND
and Toshiba's LBA-NAND memory chips.
In 2008, Samsung's trading and investment group acquired a Japanese steel maker, Myodo
Metal.
In the same year, the company signed agreements with HydroGen. Further in 2008, Samsung's
trading and investment group signed a contract with Taylor Energy Company for purchase of oil
and
gas production assets.



                                                    7
Subsequently in 2008, Samsung Electronics acquired the IP assets of Clairvoyante, an IP
licensing
company responsible for the development of PenTile subpixel rendering display technology and
associated gamut mapping algorithms. In the same year, Samsung's trading and investment group
won the Mexico LNG (Liquid Natural Gas) terminal BOO (Boild, own, Operate) project.
Further in 2008, Samsung C&T acquired an Indonesian bio-diesel palm plantation, and
Lobinave,
an Angolan ship repair company. In the same year, Samsung C&T incorporated Samsung
Precision
Stainless Steel in China.
Subsequently in 2008, Samsung Heavy Industries signed a contract to purchase a stake in the
Brazilian shipyard, EAS (Estaleiro Atlantico Sul) Shipyard. In the same year, Samsung Techwin
installed one of its cogeneration systems in Samsung Medical Center in Seoul. Samsung
Electronics
also entered into a partnership agreement with Netflix, the world's largest online movie rental
service.
Later in 2008, Samsung Techwin introduced NaBee, a worldwide wireless USB solution for
digital
cameras. In the same year, Cheil Industries opened the Bean Pole New York studio.
In January 2009, SHI received an order from a European shipper for an LNG-FPSO (Floating
Production Storage and Off-loading) with an annual natural gas production capacity of 2.5
million tons.
In February 2009, SHI entered into a memorandum of understanding (MOU) for partnership with
the
Russian company USC, a fully government-contributed corporation, for the modernization of the
Russian shipbuilding industry.
In May 2009, Samsung Techwin established a sales corporation in Shanghai, China. In June
2009,
Samsung Electronics signed a patent cross license agreement with Toshiba for semiconductor
technologies.
In September 2009, Samsung Electronics launched 640 gigabit (GB) and 2.5 inch Spinpoint M7

                                                8
internal hard disk drive. In the same month, Samsung Electronics introduced its first Long Term
Evolution (LTE) modem complying with the latest standards of the 3rd Generation Partnership
Project
(3GPP). During the same period, Datak Telecom selected Samsung Electronics as its sole
WiMAX
equipment vendor to bring the first WiMAX Wave2 services to Iran.
Samsung Electronics launched an environmentally friendly mobile phone, Samsung Blue Earth,
in
October 2009. The phone combines the multimedia features and designs, while achieving lower
energy consumption and incorporating eco-friendly materials.
In November 2009, Samsung Electronics collaborated with Microsoft on efficient energy usage
in
computers. In December 2009, the company acquired the Poland-based refrigerator and washing
machine manufacturing facilities from Amica, the Polish home appliance manufacturer, in a deal
valued at $76 million. The acquisition included Amica's Poznan city factory and its assembly
line for
refrigerators and washing machines. In the same month, the company collaborated with Yota, a
provider of innovative mobile services, to roll out a Mobile WiMAX service in Nicaragua.
Samsung Electronics extended its contract with Yota, the Russia-based Mobile WiMAX service
provider, for the establishment of the nationwide Mobile WiMAX network in Russia, in January
2010.
Under the new contract, Samsung Electronics would supply more than 5,000 Mobile WiMAX
macro
cellular base stations and Access Control Routers (ACR) to Yota from March 2010 onwards. In
the
same month, Samsung Electronics entered into an agreement with Rambus settling all claims
between them and licensing Rambus' patent portfolio covering all Samsung semiconductor
products.
In addition, Samsung Electronics and Rambus signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU)
relating to a new generation of memory technologies.



                                               9
In February 2010, Samsung Electronics signed a contract with WIND Telecom, a broadband
internet
and subscription TV service provider in the Dominican Republic, to build up the Mobile
WiMAX
network in Dominican Republic.
In March 2010, Samsung Techwin launched access control system solutions, which provides
separate
finger print and face recognition devices along with a total access control solution.
In April 2010, Samsung Electronics merged with Samsung Digital Imaging, an affiliated
company of
Samsung which produces digital cameras and imaging technology. In the same month, Samsung
Electronics introduced the Galaxy A (SHW-M100S) to the Korean market. Further in April
2010,
Samsung Techwin launched intrusion detection systems.
In May 2010, Samsung Electronics announced that it would increase its total investment in
manufacturing facilities and research and development for 2010 to KRW26 trillion
(approximately
$0.02 trillion). In the same month, Samsung Electronics announced to strengthen its leadership in
the digital information display (DID) market with its lineup of ultra-slim bezel and specialized
LCD
display products for applications in video walls, digital signage, and outdoor advertisement.
In July 2010, Samsung Electronics started shipping its new Spinpoint MT2 1 terabyte (TB) 2.5
inch
internal mobile hard disk drive for use in portable storage solutions, digital TVs, home media
systems
and set-top boxes.
In September 2010, Samsung Electronics and Thales, a France-based electronics company,
entered
into a partnership agreement to jointly develop and market a mobile infrastructure and terminals
solution. In the same month, Samsung Electronics launched the SF series of ultra-portable note
PCs and NF series netbooks. Subsequently in September 2010, Samsung Electronics announced

                                                10
its plans to launch its Galaxy S smartphone in China in partnership with three mobile operators.
In October 2010, Samsung Electronics launched its Galaxy S smartphone and Galaxy Tab smart
media device in Japan. In November 2010, Samsung Electronics developed and started sampling
the industry’s first monolithic four GB, low power double-data-rate 2 (LPDDR2) DRAM using
30
nanometer (nm) class technology.
In December 2010, Samsung Electronics announced the development of an 8 GB registered dual
inline memory module based on its advanced Green DDR3 DRAM. In the same month, Samsung
Electronics was chosen by Sprint, a US-based telecommunications company, as a key equipment
and services supplier for Network Vision, the next evolution of Sprint’s network.
In 2011, new or expanded partnerships with Comcast and Time Warner Cable have been
established,
in order to bring streaming video-on-demand (VOD) services to Samsung Smart TV’s via the
Samsung
Apps storefront. Samsung and Time Warner Cable also announced a partnership to deliver the
enhanced content and navigation options across multiple smart TV screens, without the need for
an
additional set-top box.
In August 2011, Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd., Panasonic Corporation, Sony Corporation and
X6D
Limited (XPAND 3D) announced their intent to collaborate on the development of a new
technology
standard for consumer 3D active glasses, under the name, ―Full HD 3D Glasses Initiative.‖
Sources: Datamonitor plc., Samsung Group:Company Profile, published December 28th,
2010.
                              Samsung Group, www.samsung.com




COMPANY PROFILE




                                               11
At Samsung, we follow a simple business philosophy: to devote our talent and technology to
creating superior products and services that contribute to a better global society.

Every day, our people bring this philosophy to life. Our leaders search for the brightest talent
from around the world, and give them the resources they need to be the best at what they do. The
result is that all of our products—from memory chips that help businesses store vital knowledge
to mobile phones that connect people across continents— have the power to enrich lives. And
that’s what making a better global society is all about.




Our Values

We believe that living by strong values is the key to good business. At Samsung, a rigorous code
of conduct and these core values are at the heart of every decision we make.




            People

Quite simply, a company is its people. At Samsung, we’re dedicated to giving our people a
wealth of opportunities to reach their full potential.




          Excellence

Everything we do at Samsung is driven by an unyielding passion for excellence—and an
unfaltering commitment to develop the best products and services on the market.




                                                  12
Change

In today’s fast-paced global economy, change is constant and innovation is critical to a
company’s survival. As we have done for 70 years, we set our sights on the future, anticipating
market needs and demands so we can steer our company toward long-term success.




           Integrity

Operating in an ethical way is the foundation of our business. Everything we do is guided by a
moral compass that ensures fairness, respect for all stakeholders and complete transparency.




           Co-prosperity

A business cannot be successful unless it creates prosperity and opportunity for others. Samsung
is dedicated to being a socially and environmentally responsible corporate citizen in every
community where we operate around the globe.




                                                13
VISION




Vision 2020

As stated in its new motto, Samsung Electronics' vision for the new decade is, "Inspire the
World, Create the Future."

This new vision reflects Samsung Electronics’ commitment to inspiring its communities by
leveraging Samsung's three key strengths: ―New Technology,‖ ―Innovative Products,‖ and
―Creative Solutions.‖ -- and to promoting new value for Samsung's core networks -- Industry,

                                               14
Partners, and Employees. Through these efforts, Samsung hopes to contribute to a better world
and a richer experience for all.




As part of this vision, Samsung has mapped out a specific plan of reaching $400 billion in
revenue and becoming one of the world’s top five brands by 2020. To this end, Samsung has also
established three strategic approaches in its management: ―Creativity,‖ ―Partnership,‖ and
―Talent.‖

Samsung is excited about the future. As we build on our previous accomplishments, we look
forward to exploring new territories, including health, medicine, and biotechnology. Samsung is

                                               15
committed to being a creative leader in new markets and becoming a truly No. 1 business going
forward.




MISSION
Guided by Christian principles, our vision will be achieved by:



Ensuring continuous distribution of Samsung quality mobile devices and introduction of

new products ahead of competition at all times.

Always seeking ways to provide excellent customer service experience, believing that the

customer is the lifeblood of the business.


Establishing a dynamic and proactive environment that will create a sense of belongingness

among the members of the organization and sustain a team of empowered employees

(trustworthy,    enthusiastic,   customer-friendly,   competent,   committed,    dynamic   and

proactive).



Providing       the   shareholders     a     maximum      return    of   their    investments

Actively supporting NGO-initiated programs.




                                               16
SAMSUNG GROUP STRUCTURE




                   17
REVIEW OF LITERATURE




Definition




Various authors and researchers have proposed models of Quality of working life which include
a wide range of factors. Selected models are reviewed below.Hackman and Oldham (1976)(5)
drew attention to what they described as psychological growthneeds as relevant to
the consideration of Quality of working life. Several such needs wereidentified; Skill variety,
Task Identity, Task significance, Autonomy and Feedback. Theysuggested that such needs have
to be addressed if employees are to experience high quality of working life.In contrast to such
theory based models, Taylor (1979)(6) more pragmatically identified theessential components of
Quality of working life as; basic extrinsic job factors of wages, hoursand working conditions,
and the intrinsic job notions of the nature of the work itself. Hesuggested that a number of other
aspects could be added, including; individual power, employee participation in the management,
fairness and equity, social support, use of one’s present skills,self development, a meaningful
future at work, social relevance of the work or product, effect onextra work activities. Taylor
suggested that relevant Quality of working life concepts may varyaccording to organisation and
employee group.Warr and colleagues (1979)(7), in an investigation of Quality of working life,
considered a rangeof apparently relevant factors, including work involvement, intrinsic job
motivation, higher order need strength, perceived intrinsic job characteristics, job satisfaction,
life satisfaction, happiness,and self-rated anxiety. They discussed a range of correlations derived
from their work, such asthose between work involvement and job satisfaction, intrinsic job
motivation and jobsatisfaction, and perceived intrinsic job characteristics and job satisfaction. In
particular, Warr etal. found evidence for a moderate association between total job satisfaction

                                                 18
and total lifesatisfaction and happiness, with a less strong, but significant association with self-
rated anxiety.Thus, whilst some authors have emphasised the workplace aspects in Quality of
working life,others have identified the relevance of personality factors, psychological well being,
and broader concepts of happiness and life satisfaction.Factors more obviously and directly
affecting work have, however, served as the main focus of attention, as researchers have tried to
tease out the important influences on Quality of workinglife in the workplace.Mirvis and Lawler
(1984)(8) suggested that Quality of working life was associated withsatisfaction with wages,
hours and working conditions, describing the ―basic elements of a goodquality of work life‖ as;
safe work environment, equitable wages, equal employmentopportunities and opportunities for
advancement.Baba and Jamal (1991)(9) listed what they described as typical indicators of quality
of workinglife, including: job satisfaction, job involvement, work role ambiguity, work role
conflict, work role overload, job stress, organisational commitment and turn-over intentions.
Baba and Jamal also explored routinisation of job content, suggesting that this facet should be
investigated as partof the concept of quality of working life.Some have argued that quality of
working life might vary between groups of workers. For example, Ellis and Pompli (2002)(10)
identified a number of factors contributing to jobdissatisfaction and quality of working life in
nurses, including: Poor working environments,Resident aggression, Workload, Unable to deliver
quality of care preferred, Balance of work andfamily, Shiftwork, Lack of involvement in
decision making, Professional isolation, Lack of recognition, Poor relationships with
supervisor/peers, Role conflict, Lack of opportunity to learnnew skills.Sirgy et al.; (2001)(11)
suggested that the key factors in quality of working life are: Needsatisfaction based on job
requirements, Need satisfaction based on Work environment, Needsatisfaction based on
Supervisory behaviour, Need satisfaction based on Ancillary programmes,Organizational
commitment. They defined quality of working life as satisfaction of these keyneeds through
resources, activities, and outcomes stemming from participation in the workplace.Maslow’s
needs were seen as relevant in underpinning this model, covering Health & safety,Economic and
family, Social, Esteem, Actualisation, Knowledge and Aesthetics, although therelevance of non-
work aspects is play down as attention is focussed on quality of work life rather than the broader
concept of quality of life.These attempts at defining quality of working life have included
theoretical approaches, lists of identified factors, correlational analyses, with opinions varying as
to whether such definitionsand explanations can be both global, or need to be specific to each

                                                  19
work setting.Bearfield, (2003)(12) used 16 questions to examine quality of working life, and
distinguished between causes of dissatisfaction in professionals, intermediate clerical, sales and
serviceworkers, indicating that different concerns might have to be addressed for different
groups.The distinction made between job satisfaction and dissatisfaction in quality of working
lifereflects the influence of job satisfaction theories. Herzberg at al., (1959)(13) used
―Hygienefactors‖ and ―Motivator factors‖ to distinguish between the separate causes of job
satisfactionand job dissatisfaction. It has been suggested that Motivator factors are intrinsic to the
job, thatis; job content, the work itself, responsibility and advancement. The Hygiene factors
or dissatisfaction-avoidance factors include aspects of the job environment such as
interpersonalrelationships, salary, working conditions and security. Of these latter, the most
common cause of job dissatisfaction can be company policy and administration, whilst
achievement can be thegreatest source of extreme satisfaction.An individual’s experience of
satisfaction or dissatisfaction can be substantially rooted in their perception, rather than simply
reflecting their ―real world‖. Further, an individual’s perceptioncan be affected by relative
comparison – am I paid as much as that person - and comparisons of internalised ideals,
aspirations, and expectations, for example, with the individual’s current state(Lawler and Porter,
1966) (1).




In summary, where it has been considered, authors differ in their views on the core
constituentsof Quality of Working Life (e.g. Sirgy, Efraty, Siegel & Lee, 2001 (11) and Warr,
Cook & Wall,1979)(7).It has generally been agreed however that Quality of Working Life is
conceptually similar towell-being of employees but differs from job satisfaction which solely
represents the workplacedomain (Lawler, 1982)(15).Quality of Working Life is not a unitary
concept, but has been seen as incorporating a hierarchyof perspectives that not only include
work-based factors such as job satisfaction, satisfaction with pay and relationships with work
colleagues, but also factors that broadly reflect life satisfactionand general feelings of well-being
(Danna & Griffin, 1999)(16). More recently, work-relatedstress and the relationship between
work and non-work life domains (Loscocco & Roschelle,1991)(17) have also been identified as
factors that should conceptually be included in Quality of Working Life.


                                                 20
Measurement


There are few recognised measures of quality of working life, and of those that exist
few haveevidence of validity and reliability, that is, there is a very limited literature based on
peer reviewed evbaluations of available assessments. A recent statistical analysis of a
new measure,the Work-Related Quality of Life scale (WRQoL)(18), indicates that this
assessment deviceshould prove to be a useful instrument, although further evaluation would be
useful. TheWRQoWL measure uses 6 core factors to explain most of the variation in an
individuals qualityof working life: Job and Career Satisfaction; Working Conditions; General
Well-Being; Home-Work Interface; Stress at Work and Control at Work.The Job & Career
Satisfaction Job and Career satisfaction (JCS)scale of the the Work-RelatedQuality of Life scale
(WRQoL) is said to reflect an employee’s feelings about, or evaluation of,their satisfaction or
contentment with their job and career and the training they receive to do it.Within the WRQoL
measure, JCS is reflected by questions asking how satisfied people feelabout their work. It has
been proposed that this Positive Job Satisfaction factor is influenced byvarious issues including
clarity of goals and role ambiguity, appraisal, recognition and reward, personal development
career benefits and enhancement and training needs.The General well-being (GWB)scale of the
Work-Related Quality of Life scale (WRQoL)(18),aims to assess the extent to which
an individual feels good or content in themselves, in a waywhich may be independent of their
work situation. It is suggested that general well-being bothinfluences, and is influenced by
work. Mental health problems, predominantly depression andanxiety disorders, are common, and
may have a major impact on the general well-being of the population. The WRQoL GWB factor
assesses issues of mood, depression and anxiety, lifesatisfaction, general quality of life, optimism
and happiness.


The WRQoL Stress at Work sub-scale (SAW) reflects the extent to which an
individual perceives they have excessive pressures, and feel stressed at work. The WRQoL SAW
factor isassessed through items dealing with demand and perception of stress and actual
demandoverload. Whilst it is possible to be pressured at work and not be stressed at work,

                                                  21
in general,high stress is associated with high pressure.The Control at Work (CAW) subsacle of
the WRQoL scale addresses how much employees feelthey can control their work through the
freedom to express their opinions and being involved indecisions at work. Perceived control at
work as measureed by the Work-Related Quality of Lifescale (WRQoL)(18)is recognized as a
central concept in the understanding of relationships between stressful experiences, behaviour
and health. Control at work, within the theoreticalmodel underpinning the WRQoL, is influenced
by issues of communication at work, decisionmaking and decision control.The WRQoL Home-
Work Interface scale (HWI) measures the extent to which an employer is perceived to support
the family and home life of employees. This factor explores theinterrelationship between home
and work life domains. Issues that appear to influence employeeHWI include adequate facilities
at work, flexibile working hours and the understanding of managers.The Working Conditions
scale of the WRQoL assesses the extent to which the employee issatisfied with the fundamental
resources, working conditions and security necessary to do their job effectively. Physical
working conditions influence employee health and safety and thusemployee Quality of working
life. This scale also taps into satisfaction with the resources provided to help people do their jobs.



Applications




Regular assessment of Quality of Working Life can potentially provide organisations
withimportant information about the welfare of their employees, such as job satisfaction,
generalwell-being, work-related stress and the home-work interface. Studies in the UK
University sector have shown a valid measure of Quality of Working Life exists (19) and can
be used as a basis for effective interventions.Worrall and Cooper (2006)(14) recently reported
that a low level of well-being at work isestimated to cost about 5-10% of Gross National
Product per annum, yet Quality of WorkingLife as a theoretical construct remains relatively
unexplored and unexplained within theorganisational psychology research literature.A large
chunk of most peoples’ lives will be spent at work. Most people recognise theimportance of
sleeping well, and actively try to enjoy the leisure time that they can snatch. Butall too often,
people tend to see work as something they just have to put up with, or evensomething they don’t
even expect to enjoy.Some of the factors used to measure quality of working life pick up on

                                                 22
things that don’t actuallymake people feel good, but which seem to make people feel bad about
work if those things are absent. For example, noise – if the place where someone works is too
noisy, they might getfrequent headaches, or find they can not concentrate, and so feel
dissatisfied. But when it is quietenough they don’t feel pleased or happy - they just don’t feel
bad. This can apply to a range of factors that affect someone's working conditions.Other things
seem to be more likely to make people feel good about work and themselves oncethe basics are
OK at work. Challenging work (not too little, not too much) can make them feelgood. Similarly,
opportunities for career progression and using their abilities can contribute tosomeone's quality
of working life.The recent publication of National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE) public
health guidance22; Promoting mental wellbeing through productive and healthy working
conditions (20)emphasises the core role of assessment and understanding of the way working
environments pose risks for psychological wellbeing through lack of control and excessive
demand. Theemphasis placed by NICE on assessment and monitoring wellbeing springs from the
fact thatthese processes are the key first step in identifying areas for improveming quality of
working lifeand addressing risks at work.



References




1. Lawler III E and Porter L, (1966). Managers pay and their satisfaction with their
pay.Personnel Psychology. XIX 363-732. Mullarkey S, Wall T, Warr P, Clegg C & Stride C
(1999) Eds.. Measures of Job Satisfaction,mental Healthand Job-related Well-being. Inst Work
psychol..3. Elizur D & Shye S 1990 Quality of work life and its relation toquality of life.
Applied psychology: An international review. 39 3 275-2914. Taillefer,-Marie-Christine;
Dupuis,-Gilles; Roberge,-Marie-Anne; Le-May,-Sylvie (2003)Health-related quality of life
models: Systematic review of the literature. Social-Indicators-Research. Nov; Vol 64 (2): 293-
3235. Hackman J & Oldham G (1974) The Job Diagnostic Survey. New Haven: Yale
University.6. Taylor J C in Cooper, CL and Mumford, E (1979) The quality of working life in
Western andEastern Europe. ABP7. Warr, P, Cook, J and Wall, T (1979) Scales for the
measurement of some work attitudes andaspects of psychological well being. Journal of


                                                 23
Occupational Psychology. 52, 129-148.8. Mirvis, P.H. and Lawler, E.E. (1984) Accounting for
the Quality of Work Life. Journal of Occupational Behaviour. 5. 197-212.
9. Baba, VV and Jamal, M (1991) Routinisation of job context and job content as related
toemployees quality of working life: a study of psychiatric nurses. Journal of
organisational behaviour. 12. 379-386.10.Ellis N & Pompli A 2002 Quality of working life for
nurses. Commonwealth Dept of Healthand Ageing. Canberra.11. Sirgy, M. J., Efraty,, D., Siegel,
P & Lee, D. (2001). A new measure of quality of work life(QoWL) based on need satisfaction
andspillover theories. Social Indicators Research, 55, 241-302.12. Bearfield, S (2003)Quality of
Working Life. Aciirt Working paper 86. University of Sydney.www.acirrt.com13. Herzberg F,
Mausner B, & Snyderman B., (1959) The Motivation to Work. NewYork:Wiley.14. Worrall, L.
& Cooper, C. L. (2006). The Quality of Working Life: Managers’ health andwell-being.
Executive Report, Chartered Management Institute.15. Lawler, E. E. (1982). Strategies for
improving the quality of work life. AmericanPsychologist, 37, 2005, 486-493.16. Danna, K. &
Griffin, R. W. (1999). Health and well-being in the workplace: A review andsynthesis of the
literature. Journal of Management, 25, 357-384.17. Loscocco, K. A. & Roschelle, A. N. (1991).
Influences on the Quality of Work and Nonwork Life: Two Decades in Review. Journal of
Vocational Behavior, 39, 182-225.18. Van Laar, D, Edwards, J & Easton, S (2007). The Work-
Related Quality of Life scale for healthcare workers. Journal of Advanced Nursing, Volume 60,
Number 3, pp. 325–33319. Edwards, J., Van Laar, D.L. & Easton, S. (2009). The Work-Related
Quality of Life(WRQoL) scale for Higher Education Employees. Quality in Higher Education.
15: 3, 207-219.20. National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE) public health guidance 22;
Promotingmental wellbeing through productive and healthy working conditions.
www.nice.org.uk/PH22




                                                24
1 . 3 . O B J E C T I V E S


PRIMARY OBJECTIVES:


To know the overall quality of work life in the organization and its impact on employeeswork
culture.


       SECONDARY OBJECTIVES:


       To measure the level of satisfaction of employees towards the quality of work life.


       To suggest suitable measures to improve the quality of work life.


       To identify the major areas of dissatisfaction if any, and provide valuable
       suggestionsimproving the employees satisfaction in those areas.


       To analyze the findings and suggestion for the study.




SCOPE OF QUALITY OF WORK LIFE:




                                               25
Quality of work life is a multi dimensional aspect. The workers expect the
   followingneeds to be fulfilled.


   Compensation the reward for the work should be fair and reasonable.


   The organization should take care of health and safety of the employees.


   Job security should be given to the employees.


   Job specification should match the individuals.


   An organization responds to employee needs for developing mechanisms to allowthem to
   share fully in making the decisions that design their lives at work.




LIMITATION OF THE STUDY:


   Time was the major constraint for the project.


   The study is restricted to HR dept., and can’t be generalized.


   The individual perspective appears to be different.


   Questionnaire is the major limitation for the project.




                                            26
CHAPTER-2


RESEARCH METHODOLOGY


Research methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem. It may
beunderstood as a science of studying how research is done scientifically. The scope
of researchmethodology is wider than that of research methods. When we talk of research
methodology wenot only talk of research methods but also consider the logic behind
the methods we use in thecontext of our research study and explain why we are using
a particular method or technique.


2.1 RESEARCH DESIGN


―A research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data ina
manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in
procedure‖.Research design is the conceptual structure within which research is conducted;
itconstitutes the blueprint for the collection, measurement and analysis of data.The type of
research design used in the project was


Descriptive research


because ithelps to describe a particular situation prevailing within a company. Careful design of
thedescriptive studies was necessary to ensure the complete interpretation of the situation and
toensure minimum bias in the collection of data.


2.2 SAMPLING TECHNIQUE
Sampling is the selection of some part of an aggregate or totality on the basis of which
a judgment about the aggregate or totality is made.


                                                27
Simple random sampling
method was used in this project. Since population was not of a homogenous group, Stratified
technique was appliedso as to obtain a representative sample. The employees were stratified into
a number of subpopulation or strata and sample items (employees) were selected from
each stratum on the basis of simple random sampling.



2.3 SIZE OF THE SAMPLE


For a research study to be perfect the sample size selected should be optimal i.e. it shouldneither
be excessively large nor too small. Here the sample size was bounded to 46.


2.4 DATA COLLECTION METHOD
Both the Primary and Secondary data collection method were used in the project. Firsttime
collected data are referred to as primary data. In this research the primary data was collected by
means of a


Structured Questionnaire The questionnaire consisted of a number of questionsin printed form. It
had both open-end closed end questions in it. Data which has already gonethrough the process of
analysis or were used by someone else earlier is referred to secondarydata. This type of data was
collected from the books, journals, company records etc.


2.5 TOOLS USED FOR ANALYSIS


Percentage analysis.


Chi-Square.


five point liker scales.


Percentage analysis:

                                                28
One of the simplest methods of analysis is the percentage method. It is one of thetraditional
statistical tools. Through the use of percentage, the data are reduced in the standardform with the
base equal to 100, which facilitates comparison.




PERSONAL DATA:


Name : _______________________ Sex:                _        _       _       _       _       _       _    _
_    _      _    _     _     _     _     _     _        _       _       _       _       _       _       Age:


below 25 yrs


25-35 yrs


35-45 yrs


45-55yrs


Above55


yrsEducational Qualification : _______________________ Marital status : _________________
______ Department : _______________________ Designation : _______________________ Ex
perience:



                                                   29
Less than 5 yrs


5-10 yrs


10-15 yrs


15-20yrs


Above20 yrs


1 . A r e yo u s a t i s f i e d w i t h yo u r s a l a r y p a c k a g e ?


Highly satisfied


satisfied


Neutral


Dissatisfied


Highly Dissatisfied




2.How far you are satisfied with your current job?




Highly satisfied


satisfied


Neutral

                                                            30
Dissatisfied


Highly Dissatisfied




3.Is the organization providing casual leave with pay?


Strongly Agree


Agree


Moderate


Disagree


Strongly Disagree


4.What do you feel about the medical facilities provided by the concern?


Strongly Agree


Agree


Moderate


Disagree


Strongly Disagree


5.Are you satisfied with the bonus provided to you?

                                         31
Strongly Agree


Agree


Moderate


Disagree


Strongly Disagree


6 . A r e yo u s a t i s f i e d w i t h yo u r c a n t e e n f a c i l i t y?




Highly satisfied


satisfied


Neutral


Dissatisfied


Highly Dissatisfied




7.How far you are satisfied with the ESI and PF given by the organization?


Strongly Agree


Agree



                                                             32
Moderate


Disagree


Strongly Disagree


8.To what extend you are satisfied with the safety and healthy working conditions?


Highly satisfied


satisfied


Neutral


Dissatisfied


Highly Dissatisfied


9.What do you feel about the job security in your organization?


Highly satisfied


satisfied


Neutral


Dissatisfied


Highly Dissatisfied


10.Are you satisfied with the promotion policies in your organization?

                                               33
Highly satisfied


satisfied


Neutral


Dissatisfied


Highly Dissatisfied




11.What do you think about the quality of work life in the organization?


very good


Good


Ok


Bad


Very bad




12.The company communicates every new change that takes place from time to time.


Strongly Agree


Agree

                                               34
Moderate


Disagree


Strongly Disagree




13.To what extend the cordial relationship exist among the employees and superiors?


Strongly Agree


Agree


Moderate


Disagree


Strongly Disagree




14.How far you are satisfied with the training given by the employer?




Highly satisfied


satisfied


Neutral


Dissatisfied

                                               35
Highly Dissatisfied




15.Are you satisfied with the training method used in your organization?


Highly satisfied


satisfied


Neutral


Dissatisfied


Highly Dissatisfied




                                               36

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Project report work life balance

  • 1. CHAPTER-1 INTRODUCTION Quality of Work Life: Quality of work life (QWL) is viewed as an alternative to the control approach of managing people. The QWL approach considers people as an 'asset' to the organization rather than as'costs'. It believes that people perform better when they are allowed to participate in managingtheir work and make decisions.This approach motivates people by satisfying not only their economic needs but also their socialand psychological ones. To satisfy the new generation workforce, organizations need toconcentrate on job designs and organization of work. Further, today's workforce is realizing theimportance of relationships and is trying to strike a balance between career and personal lives. Successful organizations support and provide facilities to their people to help them to balance thescales. In this process, organizations are coming up with new and innovative ideas to improvethe quality of work and quality of work life of every individual in the organization. Various programs like flex time, alternative work schedules, compressed work weeks, telecommutingetc., are being adopted by these organizations. Technological advances further help organizationsto implement these programs successfully. Organizations are enjoying the fruits of implementingQWL programs in the form of increased productivity, and an efficient, satisfied, and committedworkforce which aims to achieve organizational objectives. The future work world will also havemore women entrepreneurs and they will encourage and adopt QWL programs.Quality of Working Life is a term that had been used to describe the broader job- relatedexperience an individual has.Whilst there has, for many years, been much research into job satisfaction(1), and, morerecently, an interest has arisen into the broader concepts of stressandsubjective well-being(2),the precise nature of the relationship between these concepts has still been little explored. Stressat work is often considered in isolation, wherein it is assessed on the basis that attention to anindividual’s stress management skills or the sources of 1
  • 2. stress will prove to provide a goodenough basis for effective intervention. Alternatively, job satisfaction may be assessed, so thataction can be taken which will enhance an individual’s performance. Somewhere in all this, thereis often an awareness of the greater context, whereupon the home-work context is considered, for example, and other factors, such as an individual’s personal characteristics, and the broader economic or cultural climate, might be seen as relevant. In this context, subjective well-being isseen as drawing upon both work and non-work aspects of life.However, more complex models of an individuals experience in the workplace often appear to beset aside in an endeavour to simplify the process of trying to measuring ―stress‖ or somesimilarly apparently discrete entity. It may be, however, that the consideration of the bigger,more complex picture is essential, if targeted, effective action is to be taken to address quality of working life or any of it’s sub-components in such a way as to produce real benefits, be they for the individual or the organisation.Quality of working life has been differentiated from the broader concept of Quality of Life.Tosome degree, this may be overly simplistic, as Elizur and Shye,(1990)(3) concluded that qualityof work performance is affected by Quality of Life as well as Quality of working life. However,it will be argued here that the specific attention to work-related aspects of quality of life is valid.Whilst Quality of Life has been more widely studied (4), Quality of working life, remainsrelatively unexplored and unexplained. A review of the literature reveals relatively little onquality of working life. Where quality of working life has been explored, writers differ in their views on its’ core constituents.It is argued that the whole is greater than the sum of the parts as regards Quality of working Life,and, therefore, the failure to attend to the bigger picture may lead to the failure of interventionswhich tackle only one aspect. A clearer understanding of the inter-relationship of the variousfacets of quality of working life offers the opportunity for improved analysis of cause and effect in the workplace….This consideration of Quality of working Life as the greater context for various factors in the workplace, such as job satisfaction and stress, may offer opportunity for more cost- effective interventions in the workplace. The effective targeting of stress reduction, for example, may otherwise prove a hopeless task for employers pressured to take action to meetgovernmental requirements. 2
  • 3. COMPANY PROFILE HISTORY Samsung Group (Samsung) was founded in 1938 by Byung-Chull Lee. In the early days of its operations, the group exported dried fish, vegetables, and fruits produced in Korea to Manchuria and Beijing (both in China). Soon after, Samsung started small-scale manufacturing by setting up flour mills and confectionery machines. Samsung Corporation was incorporated in 1951. It began substituting imported goods with domestically produced products through the establishment of Cheil Sugar, in 1953. The following year, Samsung established Cheil Industries. The group acquired Feb Ankuk Fire & Marine Insurance in 1958 and the company was renamed Samsung Fire & Marine Insurance in 1993. In 1963, Samsung acquired Jul DongBang Life Insurance, which was renamed as Samsung Life Insurance in 1989. Samsung also acquired DongHwa Department Store, in 1963. In 1965, the group acquired Saehan Paper Manufacturing. The group established Samsung Electronics, in 1969. During the 1970s, Samsung entered into various industries including heavy industries, chemical, and petrochemical. In 1973, Samsung established a new shipbuilding company. The next year, it established Samsung Heavy Industries 3
  • 4. (SHI). Samsung acquired Daesung Heavy Industry to form Samsung Shipbuilding, in 1977. In the same year, it established Samsung Precision (later renamed Samsung Techwin). Until 1983, Samsung produced semiconductors for the domestic market, but with the development of a 64K dynamic random access memory (DRAM) chip in 1983, Samsung introduced many new semiconductor products worldwide. Samsung established Samsung Data Systems in 1985, which was renamed as Samsung SDS.The next year, it established Samsung Economic Research Institute. In 1987, it started Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology as a main research and development center. The group acquired KOCA credit card company in 1988 and renamed it Samsung Credit Card (later again renamed as Samsung Card in 1995). In the same year, Samsung Electronics merged with Samsung Semiconductor & Telecommunications; and a new company Samsung General Chemicals was also established. In 1989, Samsung established Samsung BP Chemicals. In 1990, the group established Cheju Shilla Hotel and Advanced Technology Research Center. The following year, Shinsegae Department Store, Chonju Paper Manufacturing, and Koryo Hospital became independent from Samsung. The group acquired Kukje Securities in 1992 (later renamed Samsung Securities), and Samsung SDI acquired WF of Germany. In the same year, Samsung Electronics began manufacturing in China. Samsung Electronics acquired HMS of US and 14 affiliated companies of the group became independent, in 1993. The group's Japan headquarters opened in 1994. In the same year, it launched the first 256 Mb DRAM chip. Further in 1994, Samsung Corning office was established in Germany. In the same year, the group acquired Korea Fertilizer and renamed it Samsung Fine 4
  • 5. Chemicals. The group made a number of strategic moves in 1995, including the establishment of Samsung Corning Precision Glass, Samsung Aerospace (later folded into Samsung Techwin), and Samsung Finance (later renamed Samsung Capital); and also acquired Union Optical. In the same year, Samsung Aerospace acquired Rollei, a German camera manufacturer. Samsung Aerospace test flied the first Korean made F 16 produced for the Korean Air Force, also in 1995. Samsung's expansion continued during 1996, with the construction of three semiconductor factories in Austin, Texas by Samsung Electronics, and a manufacturing complex in Tijuana, Mexico. In 1997, the group entered into satellite communication service and a nuclear power plant construction business was started by Samsung Corporation. In 1997, it entered Chinese code division multiple access (CDMA) market with an agreement to provide broadband CDMA wireless local loop (WLL) network to China United Telecom. The group established Samsung Venture Investment, in 1998. In the same year, SHI sold its construction equipment division to Volvo of Sweden and Samsung Motors introduced its first passenger car. Samsung Electronics entered the combi chip card business, in 1999. In the same year, Samsung Aerospace, Daewoo Heavy Industries, and Hyundai Space and Aircraft formed a single business alliance, Korea Aerospace Industries. Samsung entered into a deal with Lucent Technologies to supply internet phones, in 2000. In the same year, it collaborated with Chosun Computer Center of North Korea. In 2002, Samsung Electronics entered into digital related businesses, when the digital media combined the formerly known multimedia home appliance business with the media service division. In the same year, Samsung Electronics entered into e-commerce agreement with Yahoo!, an Internet media company. Samsung entered into a partnership with Telecom Italia in 2003, to develop services and products 5
  • 6. using WiFi technology, targeted at the Italian, French, German, and Dutch markets. In the same year, Samsung Electronics produced the world's first land based DMB receiver. Samsung Electronics entered into a partnership with IBM, in 2004, wherein Samsung Electronics licensed the 90 nano meter logic processing technology from IBM and together developed the 65/45 nano meter logic processing technology. In 2005, the S-LCD, a joint venture with Sony, started seventh generation amorphous TFT (thin film transistor) production facility to meet the increasing demand of LCD (liquid crystal display) panels for TVs. In the same year, the group made a second round of investments in its Hwaseong semiconductor plant with a seven year investment plan including a research and development facility and eight abrication lines by 2012. Samsung Electronics and Microsoft formed an alliance, in 2005, to develop gaming with high definition technology. Microsoft chose Samsung as the exclusive HDTV worldwide marketing partner for the Xbox, a high-definition gaming platform. Further in 2005, Sprint Nextel and Samsung Telecommunications America entered into a joint wireless broadband technology agreement to test the IEEE 802.16e standard. Samsung Electronics Korea made an agreement of cooperation in the area of Terrestrial Digital Media Broadcasting (T-DMB) for the first trial service in France, with Bouygues Telecom (a France-based mobile operator), TF1 (a French mobile TV operator), and VDL (a French digital network provider and equipment manufacturer), in 2006. Further in 2006, Samsung Telecommunications America announced its plans to work with Arialink, a regional service provider, to deploy the commercial Mobile WiMAX network in North America, 6
  • 7. which enabled Arialink to launch Mobile WiMAX in Muskegon County, Michigan in early 2007. In 2007, the company formed a joint venture agreement with IBM, Standard Charted, Infineon, and Freescale Semiconductor for jointly working and developing a semiconductor process along with manufacturing agreements. Subsequently in 2007, the company invested $57 million for the construction of a new TV plant in Kaluga, Russia in response to the fast-growing digital TV demands in the CIS market. In the same year, the company launched Ultra Edition 12.1 (U700), the slimmest high-speed downlink packet access (HSDPA) slider phone for South Asian market. It also unveiled the latest additions to its range of Mobile WiMAX equipment. Further in 2007, the company made worldwide patent cross license agreement with Ericsson for 2G and 3G mobile technologies. In the same year, Samsung's trading and investment group embarked on the construction of Jindo solar power station. Later in 2007, Samsung Electronics and Toshiba entered into an agreement to license one another the rights to produce and sell memory with the specifications and trademarks of Samsung's OneNAND and Toshiba's LBA-NAND memory chips. In 2008, Samsung's trading and investment group acquired a Japanese steel maker, Myodo Metal. In the same year, the company signed agreements with HydroGen. Further in 2008, Samsung's trading and investment group signed a contract with Taylor Energy Company for purchase of oil and gas production assets. 7
  • 8. Subsequently in 2008, Samsung Electronics acquired the IP assets of Clairvoyante, an IP licensing company responsible for the development of PenTile subpixel rendering display technology and associated gamut mapping algorithms. In the same year, Samsung's trading and investment group won the Mexico LNG (Liquid Natural Gas) terminal BOO (Boild, own, Operate) project. Further in 2008, Samsung C&T acquired an Indonesian bio-diesel palm plantation, and Lobinave, an Angolan ship repair company. In the same year, Samsung C&T incorporated Samsung Precision Stainless Steel in China. Subsequently in 2008, Samsung Heavy Industries signed a contract to purchase a stake in the Brazilian shipyard, EAS (Estaleiro Atlantico Sul) Shipyard. In the same year, Samsung Techwin installed one of its cogeneration systems in Samsung Medical Center in Seoul. Samsung Electronics also entered into a partnership agreement with Netflix, the world's largest online movie rental service. Later in 2008, Samsung Techwin introduced NaBee, a worldwide wireless USB solution for digital cameras. In the same year, Cheil Industries opened the Bean Pole New York studio. In January 2009, SHI received an order from a European shipper for an LNG-FPSO (Floating Production Storage and Off-loading) with an annual natural gas production capacity of 2.5 million tons. In February 2009, SHI entered into a memorandum of understanding (MOU) for partnership with the Russian company USC, a fully government-contributed corporation, for the modernization of the Russian shipbuilding industry. In May 2009, Samsung Techwin established a sales corporation in Shanghai, China. In June 2009, Samsung Electronics signed a patent cross license agreement with Toshiba for semiconductor technologies. In September 2009, Samsung Electronics launched 640 gigabit (GB) and 2.5 inch Spinpoint M7 8
  • 9. internal hard disk drive. In the same month, Samsung Electronics introduced its first Long Term Evolution (LTE) modem complying with the latest standards of the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP). During the same period, Datak Telecom selected Samsung Electronics as its sole WiMAX equipment vendor to bring the first WiMAX Wave2 services to Iran. Samsung Electronics launched an environmentally friendly mobile phone, Samsung Blue Earth, in October 2009. The phone combines the multimedia features and designs, while achieving lower energy consumption and incorporating eco-friendly materials. In November 2009, Samsung Electronics collaborated with Microsoft on efficient energy usage in computers. In December 2009, the company acquired the Poland-based refrigerator and washing machine manufacturing facilities from Amica, the Polish home appliance manufacturer, in a deal valued at $76 million. The acquisition included Amica's Poznan city factory and its assembly line for refrigerators and washing machines. In the same month, the company collaborated with Yota, a provider of innovative mobile services, to roll out a Mobile WiMAX service in Nicaragua. Samsung Electronics extended its contract with Yota, the Russia-based Mobile WiMAX service provider, for the establishment of the nationwide Mobile WiMAX network in Russia, in January 2010. Under the new contract, Samsung Electronics would supply more than 5,000 Mobile WiMAX macro cellular base stations and Access Control Routers (ACR) to Yota from March 2010 onwards. In the same month, Samsung Electronics entered into an agreement with Rambus settling all claims between them and licensing Rambus' patent portfolio covering all Samsung semiconductor products. In addition, Samsung Electronics and Rambus signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU) relating to a new generation of memory technologies. 9
  • 10. In February 2010, Samsung Electronics signed a contract with WIND Telecom, a broadband internet and subscription TV service provider in the Dominican Republic, to build up the Mobile WiMAX network in Dominican Republic. In March 2010, Samsung Techwin launched access control system solutions, which provides separate finger print and face recognition devices along with a total access control solution. In April 2010, Samsung Electronics merged with Samsung Digital Imaging, an affiliated company of Samsung which produces digital cameras and imaging technology. In the same month, Samsung Electronics introduced the Galaxy A (SHW-M100S) to the Korean market. Further in April 2010, Samsung Techwin launched intrusion detection systems. In May 2010, Samsung Electronics announced that it would increase its total investment in manufacturing facilities and research and development for 2010 to KRW26 trillion (approximately $0.02 trillion). In the same month, Samsung Electronics announced to strengthen its leadership in the digital information display (DID) market with its lineup of ultra-slim bezel and specialized LCD display products for applications in video walls, digital signage, and outdoor advertisement. In July 2010, Samsung Electronics started shipping its new Spinpoint MT2 1 terabyte (TB) 2.5 inch internal mobile hard disk drive for use in portable storage solutions, digital TVs, home media systems and set-top boxes. In September 2010, Samsung Electronics and Thales, a France-based electronics company, entered into a partnership agreement to jointly develop and market a mobile infrastructure and terminals solution. In the same month, Samsung Electronics launched the SF series of ultra-portable note PCs and NF series netbooks. Subsequently in September 2010, Samsung Electronics announced 10
  • 11. its plans to launch its Galaxy S smartphone in China in partnership with three mobile operators. In October 2010, Samsung Electronics launched its Galaxy S smartphone and Galaxy Tab smart media device in Japan. In November 2010, Samsung Electronics developed and started sampling the industry’s first monolithic four GB, low power double-data-rate 2 (LPDDR2) DRAM using 30 nanometer (nm) class technology. In December 2010, Samsung Electronics announced the development of an 8 GB registered dual inline memory module based on its advanced Green DDR3 DRAM. In the same month, Samsung Electronics was chosen by Sprint, a US-based telecommunications company, as a key equipment and services supplier for Network Vision, the next evolution of Sprint’s network. In 2011, new or expanded partnerships with Comcast and Time Warner Cable have been established, in order to bring streaming video-on-demand (VOD) services to Samsung Smart TV’s via the Samsung Apps storefront. Samsung and Time Warner Cable also announced a partnership to deliver the enhanced content and navigation options across multiple smart TV screens, without the need for an additional set-top box. In August 2011, Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd., Panasonic Corporation, Sony Corporation and X6D Limited (XPAND 3D) announced their intent to collaborate on the development of a new technology standard for consumer 3D active glasses, under the name, ―Full HD 3D Glasses Initiative.‖ Sources: Datamonitor plc., Samsung Group:Company Profile, published December 28th, 2010. Samsung Group, www.samsung.com COMPANY PROFILE 11
  • 12. At Samsung, we follow a simple business philosophy: to devote our talent and technology to creating superior products and services that contribute to a better global society. Every day, our people bring this philosophy to life. Our leaders search for the brightest talent from around the world, and give them the resources they need to be the best at what they do. The result is that all of our products—from memory chips that help businesses store vital knowledge to mobile phones that connect people across continents— have the power to enrich lives. And that’s what making a better global society is all about. Our Values We believe that living by strong values is the key to good business. At Samsung, a rigorous code of conduct and these core values are at the heart of every decision we make. People Quite simply, a company is its people. At Samsung, we’re dedicated to giving our people a wealth of opportunities to reach their full potential. Excellence Everything we do at Samsung is driven by an unyielding passion for excellence—and an unfaltering commitment to develop the best products and services on the market. 12
  • 13. Change In today’s fast-paced global economy, change is constant and innovation is critical to a company’s survival. As we have done for 70 years, we set our sights on the future, anticipating market needs and demands so we can steer our company toward long-term success. Integrity Operating in an ethical way is the foundation of our business. Everything we do is guided by a moral compass that ensures fairness, respect for all stakeholders and complete transparency. Co-prosperity A business cannot be successful unless it creates prosperity and opportunity for others. Samsung is dedicated to being a socially and environmentally responsible corporate citizen in every community where we operate around the globe. 13
  • 14. VISION Vision 2020 As stated in its new motto, Samsung Electronics' vision for the new decade is, "Inspire the World, Create the Future." This new vision reflects Samsung Electronics’ commitment to inspiring its communities by leveraging Samsung's three key strengths: ―New Technology,‖ ―Innovative Products,‖ and ―Creative Solutions.‖ -- and to promoting new value for Samsung's core networks -- Industry, 14
  • 15. Partners, and Employees. Through these efforts, Samsung hopes to contribute to a better world and a richer experience for all. As part of this vision, Samsung has mapped out a specific plan of reaching $400 billion in revenue and becoming one of the world’s top five brands by 2020. To this end, Samsung has also established three strategic approaches in its management: ―Creativity,‖ ―Partnership,‖ and ―Talent.‖ Samsung is excited about the future. As we build on our previous accomplishments, we look forward to exploring new territories, including health, medicine, and biotechnology. Samsung is 15
  • 16. committed to being a creative leader in new markets and becoming a truly No. 1 business going forward. MISSION Guided by Christian principles, our vision will be achieved by: Ensuring continuous distribution of Samsung quality mobile devices and introduction of new products ahead of competition at all times. Always seeking ways to provide excellent customer service experience, believing that the customer is the lifeblood of the business. Establishing a dynamic and proactive environment that will create a sense of belongingness among the members of the organization and sustain a team of empowered employees (trustworthy, enthusiastic, customer-friendly, competent, committed, dynamic and proactive). Providing the shareholders a maximum return of their investments Actively supporting NGO-initiated programs. 16
  • 18. REVIEW OF LITERATURE Definition Various authors and researchers have proposed models of Quality of working life which include a wide range of factors. Selected models are reviewed below.Hackman and Oldham (1976)(5) drew attention to what they described as psychological growthneeds as relevant to the consideration of Quality of working life. Several such needs wereidentified; Skill variety, Task Identity, Task significance, Autonomy and Feedback. Theysuggested that such needs have to be addressed if employees are to experience high quality of working life.In contrast to such theory based models, Taylor (1979)(6) more pragmatically identified theessential components of Quality of working life as; basic extrinsic job factors of wages, hoursand working conditions, and the intrinsic job notions of the nature of the work itself. Hesuggested that a number of other aspects could be added, including; individual power, employee participation in the management, fairness and equity, social support, use of one’s present skills,self development, a meaningful future at work, social relevance of the work or product, effect onextra work activities. Taylor suggested that relevant Quality of working life concepts may varyaccording to organisation and employee group.Warr and colleagues (1979)(7), in an investigation of Quality of working life, considered a rangeof apparently relevant factors, including work involvement, intrinsic job motivation, higher order need strength, perceived intrinsic job characteristics, job satisfaction, life satisfaction, happiness,and self-rated anxiety. They discussed a range of correlations derived from their work, such asthose between work involvement and job satisfaction, intrinsic job motivation and jobsatisfaction, and perceived intrinsic job characteristics and job satisfaction. In particular, Warr etal. found evidence for a moderate association between total job satisfaction 18
  • 19. and total lifesatisfaction and happiness, with a less strong, but significant association with self- rated anxiety.Thus, whilst some authors have emphasised the workplace aspects in Quality of working life,others have identified the relevance of personality factors, psychological well being, and broader concepts of happiness and life satisfaction.Factors more obviously and directly affecting work have, however, served as the main focus of attention, as researchers have tried to tease out the important influences on Quality of workinglife in the workplace.Mirvis and Lawler (1984)(8) suggested that Quality of working life was associated withsatisfaction with wages, hours and working conditions, describing the ―basic elements of a goodquality of work life‖ as; safe work environment, equitable wages, equal employmentopportunities and opportunities for advancement.Baba and Jamal (1991)(9) listed what they described as typical indicators of quality of workinglife, including: job satisfaction, job involvement, work role ambiguity, work role conflict, work role overload, job stress, organisational commitment and turn-over intentions. Baba and Jamal also explored routinisation of job content, suggesting that this facet should be investigated as partof the concept of quality of working life.Some have argued that quality of working life might vary between groups of workers. For example, Ellis and Pompli (2002)(10) identified a number of factors contributing to jobdissatisfaction and quality of working life in nurses, including: Poor working environments,Resident aggression, Workload, Unable to deliver quality of care preferred, Balance of work andfamily, Shiftwork, Lack of involvement in decision making, Professional isolation, Lack of recognition, Poor relationships with supervisor/peers, Role conflict, Lack of opportunity to learnnew skills.Sirgy et al.; (2001)(11) suggested that the key factors in quality of working life are: Needsatisfaction based on job requirements, Need satisfaction based on Work environment, Needsatisfaction based on Supervisory behaviour, Need satisfaction based on Ancillary programmes,Organizational commitment. They defined quality of working life as satisfaction of these keyneeds through resources, activities, and outcomes stemming from participation in the workplace.Maslow’s needs were seen as relevant in underpinning this model, covering Health & safety,Economic and family, Social, Esteem, Actualisation, Knowledge and Aesthetics, although therelevance of non- work aspects is play down as attention is focussed on quality of work life rather than the broader concept of quality of life.These attempts at defining quality of working life have included theoretical approaches, lists of identified factors, correlational analyses, with opinions varying as to whether such definitionsand explanations can be both global, or need to be specific to each 19
  • 20. work setting.Bearfield, (2003)(12) used 16 questions to examine quality of working life, and distinguished between causes of dissatisfaction in professionals, intermediate clerical, sales and serviceworkers, indicating that different concerns might have to be addressed for different groups.The distinction made between job satisfaction and dissatisfaction in quality of working lifereflects the influence of job satisfaction theories. Herzberg at al., (1959)(13) used ―Hygienefactors‖ and ―Motivator factors‖ to distinguish between the separate causes of job satisfactionand job dissatisfaction. It has been suggested that Motivator factors are intrinsic to the job, thatis; job content, the work itself, responsibility and advancement. The Hygiene factors or dissatisfaction-avoidance factors include aspects of the job environment such as interpersonalrelationships, salary, working conditions and security. Of these latter, the most common cause of job dissatisfaction can be company policy and administration, whilst achievement can be thegreatest source of extreme satisfaction.An individual’s experience of satisfaction or dissatisfaction can be substantially rooted in their perception, rather than simply reflecting their ―real world‖. Further, an individual’s perceptioncan be affected by relative comparison – am I paid as much as that person - and comparisons of internalised ideals, aspirations, and expectations, for example, with the individual’s current state(Lawler and Porter, 1966) (1). In summary, where it has been considered, authors differ in their views on the core constituentsof Quality of Working Life (e.g. Sirgy, Efraty, Siegel & Lee, 2001 (11) and Warr, Cook & Wall,1979)(7).It has generally been agreed however that Quality of Working Life is conceptually similar towell-being of employees but differs from job satisfaction which solely represents the workplacedomain (Lawler, 1982)(15).Quality of Working Life is not a unitary concept, but has been seen as incorporating a hierarchyof perspectives that not only include work-based factors such as job satisfaction, satisfaction with pay and relationships with work colleagues, but also factors that broadly reflect life satisfactionand general feelings of well-being (Danna & Griffin, 1999)(16). More recently, work-relatedstress and the relationship between work and non-work life domains (Loscocco & Roschelle,1991)(17) have also been identified as factors that should conceptually be included in Quality of Working Life. 20
  • 21. Measurement There are few recognised measures of quality of working life, and of those that exist few haveevidence of validity and reliability, that is, there is a very limited literature based on peer reviewed evbaluations of available assessments. A recent statistical analysis of a new measure,the Work-Related Quality of Life scale (WRQoL)(18), indicates that this assessment deviceshould prove to be a useful instrument, although further evaluation would be useful. TheWRQoWL measure uses 6 core factors to explain most of the variation in an individuals qualityof working life: Job and Career Satisfaction; Working Conditions; General Well-Being; Home-Work Interface; Stress at Work and Control at Work.The Job & Career Satisfaction Job and Career satisfaction (JCS)scale of the the Work-RelatedQuality of Life scale (WRQoL) is said to reflect an employee’s feelings about, or evaluation of,their satisfaction or contentment with their job and career and the training they receive to do it.Within the WRQoL measure, JCS is reflected by questions asking how satisfied people feelabout their work. It has been proposed that this Positive Job Satisfaction factor is influenced byvarious issues including clarity of goals and role ambiguity, appraisal, recognition and reward, personal development career benefits and enhancement and training needs.The General well-being (GWB)scale of the Work-Related Quality of Life scale (WRQoL)(18),aims to assess the extent to which an individual feels good or content in themselves, in a waywhich may be independent of their work situation. It is suggested that general well-being bothinfluences, and is influenced by work. Mental health problems, predominantly depression andanxiety disorders, are common, and may have a major impact on the general well-being of the population. The WRQoL GWB factor assesses issues of mood, depression and anxiety, lifesatisfaction, general quality of life, optimism and happiness. The WRQoL Stress at Work sub-scale (SAW) reflects the extent to which an individual perceives they have excessive pressures, and feel stressed at work. The WRQoL SAW factor isassessed through items dealing with demand and perception of stress and actual demandoverload. Whilst it is possible to be pressured at work and not be stressed at work, 21
  • 22. in general,high stress is associated with high pressure.The Control at Work (CAW) subsacle of the WRQoL scale addresses how much employees feelthey can control their work through the freedom to express their opinions and being involved indecisions at work. Perceived control at work as measureed by the Work-Related Quality of Lifescale (WRQoL)(18)is recognized as a central concept in the understanding of relationships between stressful experiences, behaviour and health. Control at work, within the theoreticalmodel underpinning the WRQoL, is influenced by issues of communication at work, decisionmaking and decision control.The WRQoL Home- Work Interface scale (HWI) measures the extent to which an employer is perceived to support the family and home life of employees. This factor explores theinterrelationship between home and work life domains. Issues that appear to influence employeeHWI include adequate facilities at work, flexibile working hours and the understanding of managers.The Working Conditions scale of the WRQoL assesses the extent to which the employee issatisfied with the fundamental resources, working conditions and security necessary to do their job effectively. Physical working conditions influence employee health and safety and thusemployee Quality of working life. This scale also taps into satisfaction with the resources provided to help people do their jobs. Applications Regular assessment of Quality of Working Life can potentially provide organisations withimportant information about the welfare of their employees, such as job satisfaction, generalwell-being, work-related stress and the home-work interface. Studies in the UK University sector have shown a valid measure of Quality of Working Life exists (19) and can be used as a basis for effective interventions.Worrall and Cooper (2006)(14) recently reported that a low level of well-being at work isestimated to cost about 5-10% of Gross National Product per annum, yet Quality of WorkingLife as a theoretical construct remains relatively unexplored and unexplained within theorganisational psychology research literature.A large chunk of most peoples’ lives will be spent at work. Most people recognise theimportance of sleeping well, and actively try to enjoy the leisure time that they can snatch. Butall too often, people tend to see work as something they just have to put up with, or evensomething they don’t even expect to enjoy.Some of the factors used to measure quality of working life pick up on 22
  • 23. things that don’t actuallymake people feel good, but which seem to make people feel bad about work if those things are absent. For example, noise – if the place where someone works is too noisy, they might getfrequent headaches, or find they can not concentrate, and so feel dissatisfied. But when it is quietenough they don’t feel pleased or happy - they just don’t feel bad. This can apply to a range of factors that affect someone's working conditions.Other things seem to be more likely to make people feel good about work and themselves oncethe basics are OK at work. Challenging work (not too little, not too much) can make them feelgood. Similarly, opportunities for career progression and using their abilities can contribute tosomeone's quality of working life.The recent publication of National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE) public health guidance22; Promoting mental wellbeing through productive and healthy working conditions (20)emphasises the core role of assessment and understanding of the way working environments pose risks for psychological wellbeing through lack of control and excessive demand. Theemphasis placed by NICE on assessment and monitoring wellbeing springs from the fact thatthese processes are the key first step in identifying areas for improveming quality of working lifeand addressing risks at work. References 1. Lawler III E and Porter L, (1966). Managers pay and their satisfaction with their pay.Personnel Psychology. XIX 363-732. Mullarkey S, Wall T, Warr P, Clegg C & Stride C (1999) Eds.. Measures of Job Satisfaction,mental Healthand Job-related Well-being. Inst Work psychol..3. Elizur D & Shye S 1990 Quality of work life and its relation toquality of life. Applied psychology: An international review. 39 3 275-2914. Taillefer,-Marie-Christine; Dupuis,-Gilles; Roberge,-Marie-Anne; Le-May,-Sylvie (2003)Health-related quality of life models: Systematic review of the literature. Social-Indicators-Research. Nov; Vol 64 (2): 293- 3235. Hackman J & Oldham G (1974) The Job Diagnostic Survey. New Haven: Yale University.6. Taylor J C in Cooper, CL and Mumford, E (1979) The quality of working life in Western andEastern Europe. ABP7. Warr, P, Cook, J and Wall, T (1979) Scales for the measurement of some work attitudes andaspects of psychological well being. Journal of 23
  • 24. Occupational Psychology. 52, 129-148.8. Mirvis, P.H. and Lawler, E.E. (1984) Accounting for the Quality of Work Life. Journal of Occupational Behaviour. 5. 197-212. 9. Baba, VV and Jamal, M (1991) Routinisation of job context and job content as related toemployees quality of working life: a study of psychiatric nurses. Journal of organisational behaviour. 12. 379-386.10.Ellis N & Pompli A 2002 Quality of working life for nurses. Commonwealth Dept of Healthand Ageing. Canberra.11. Sirgy, M. J., Efraty,, D., Siegel, P & Lee, D. (2001). A new measure of quality of work life(QoWL) based on need satisfaction andspillover theories. Social Indicators Research, 55, 241-302.12. Bearfield, S (2003)Quality of Working Life. Aciirt Working paper 86. University of Sydney.www.acirrt.com13. Herzberg F, Mausner B, & Snyderman B., (1959) The Motivation to Work. NewYork:Wiley.14. Worrall, L. & Cooper, C. L. (2006). The Quality of Working Life: Managers’ health andwell-being. Executive Report, Chartered Management Institute.15. Lawler, E. E. (1982). Strategies for improving the quality of work life. AmericanPsychologist, 37, 2005, 486-493.16. Danna, K. & Griffin, R. W. (1999). Health and well-being in the workplace: A review andsynthesis of the literature. Journal of Management, 25, 357-384.17. Loscocco, K. A. & Roschelle, A. N. (1991). Influences on the Quality of Work and Nonwork Life: Two Decades in Review. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 39, 182-225.18. Van Laar, D, Edwards, J & Easton, S (2007). The Work- Related Quality of Life scale for healthcare workers. Journal of Advanced Nursing, Volume 60, Number 3, pp. 325–33319. Edwards, J., Van Laar, D.L. & Easton, S. (2009). The Work-Related Quality of Life(WRQoL) scale for Higher Education Employees. Quality in Higher Education. 15: 3, 207-219.20. National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE) public health guidance 22; Promotingmental wellbeing through productive and healthy working conditions. www.nice.org.uk/PH22 24
  • 25. 1 . 3 . O B J E C T I V E S PRIMARY OBJECTIVES: To know the overall quality of work life in the organization and its impact on employeeswork culture. SECONDARY OBJECTIVES: To measure the level of satisfaction of employees towards the quality of work life. To suggest suitable measures to improve the quality of work life. To identify the major areas of dissatisfaction if any, and provide valuable suggestionsimproving the employees satisfaction in those areas. To analyze the findings and suggestion for the study. SCOPE OF QUALITY OF WORK LIFE: 25
  • 26. Quality of work life is a multi dimensional aspect. The workers expect the followingneeds to be fulfilled. Compensation the reward for the work should be fair and reasonable. The organization should take care of health and safety of the employees. Job security should be given to the employees. Job specification should match the individuals. An organization responds to employee needs for developing mechanisms to allowthem to share fully in making the decisions that design their lives at work. LIMITATION OF THE STUDY: Time was the major constraint for the project. The study is restricted to HR dept., and can’t be generalized. The individual perspective appears to be different. Questionnaire is the major limitation for the project. 26
  • 27. CHAPTER-2 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem. It may beunderstood as a science of studying how research is done scientifically. The scope of researchmethodology is wider than that of research methods. When we talk of research methodology wenot only talk of research methods but also consider the logic behind the methods we use in thecontext of our research study and explain why we are using a particular method or technique. 2.1 RESEARCH DESIGN ―A research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data ina manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure‖.Research design is the conceptual structure within which research is conducted; itconstitutes the blueprint for the collection, measurement and analysis of data.The type of research design used in the project was Descriptive research because ithelps to describe a particular situation prevailing within a company. Careful design of thedescriptive studies was necessary to ensure the complete interpretation of the situation and toensure minimum bias in the collection of data. 2.2 SAMPLING TECHNIQUE Sampling is the selection of some part of an aggregate or totality on the basis of which a judgment about the aggregate or totality is made. 27
  • 28. Simple random sampling method was used in this project. Since population was not of a homogenous group, Stratified technique was appliedso as to obtain a representative sample. The employees were stratified into a number of subpopulation or strata and sample items (employees) were selected from each stratum on the basis of simple random sampling. 2.3 SIZE OF THE SAMPLE For a research study to be perfect the sample size selected should be optimal i.e. it shouldneither be excessively large nor too small. Here the sample size was bounded to 46. 2.4 DATA COLLECTION METHOD Both the Primary and Secondary data collection method were used in the project. Firsttime collected data are referred to as primary data. In this research the primary data was collected by means of a Structured Questionnaire The questionnaire consisted of a number of questionsin printed form. It had both open-end closed end questions in it. Data which has already gonethrough the process of analysis or were used by someone else earlier is referred to secondarydata. This type of data was collected from the books, journals, company records etc. 2.5 TOOLS USED FOR ANALYSIS Percentage analysis. Chi-Square. five point liker scales. Percentage analysis: 28
  • 29. One of the simplest methods of analysis is the percentage method. It is one of thetraditional statistical tools. Through the use of percentage, the data are reduced in the standardform with the base equal to 100, which facilitates comparison. PERSONAL DATA: Name : _______________________ Sex: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Age: below 25 yrs 25-35 yrs 35-45 yrs 45-55yrs Above55 yrsEducational Qualification : _______________________ Marital status : _________________ ______ Department : _______________________ Designation : _______________________ Ex perience: 29
  • 30. Less than 5 yrs 5-10 yrs 10-15 yrs 15-20yrs Above20 yrs 1 . A r e yo u s a t i s f i e d w i t h yo u r s a l a r y p a c k a g e ? Highly satisfied satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied 2.How far you are satisfied with your current job? Highly satisfied satisfied Neutral 30
  • 31. Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied 3.Is the organization providing casual leave with pay? Strongly Agree Agree Moderate Disagree Strongly Disagree 4.What do you feel about the medical facilities provided by the concern? Strongly Agree Agree Moderate Disagree Strongly Disagree 5.Are you satisfied with the bonus provided to you? 31
  • 32. Strongly Agree Agree Moderate Disagree Strongly Disagree 6 . A r e yo u s a t i s f i e d w i t h yo u r c a n t e e n f a c i l i t y? Highly satisfied satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied 7.How far you are satisfied with the ESI and PF given by the organization? Strongly Agree Agree 32
  • 33. Moderate Disagree Strongly Disagree 8.To what extend you are satisfied with the safety and healthy working conditions? Highly satisfied satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied 9.What do you feel about the job security in your organization? Highly satisfied satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied 10.Are you satisfied with the promotion policies in your organization? 33
  • 34. Highly satisfied satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied 11.What do you think about the quality of work life in the organization? very good Good Ok Bad Very bad 12.The company communicates every new change that takes place from time to time. Strongly Agree Agree 34
  • 35. Moderate Disagree Strongly Disagree 13.To what extend the cordial relationship exist among the employees and superiors? Strongly Agree Agree Moderate Disagree Strongly Disagree 14.How far you are satisfied with the training given by the employer? Highly satisfied satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied 35
  • 36. Highly Dissatisfied 15.Are you satisfied with the training method used in your organization? Highly satisfied satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied 36