solid solutions

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solid solutions

  1. 1. Solid Solutions Prof. H. K. Khaira Professor, Deptt. of MSME M.A.N.I.T., Bhopal
  2. 2. Phases in Metals • Phase: a state of matter that is uniform throughout in chemical composition and physical state. (Gibbs) • It is a physically distinct and mechanically separable mass of matter.
  3. 3. Phases in Metals • The following phases may be present in metals in solid state. – 1. Solid solution – 2. Intermetallic compound
  4. 4. Phases in Metals • Solid solution - When in a solid, the atoms of solute are present in the lattice of the solvent, it is known as solid solution. • Intermetallic compound – a compound formed by two or more metals such as AlLi.
  5. 5. Solid solution • When in a solid, the atoms of solute are present in the lattice of the solvent, it is known as solid solution. • solid-state solution of one or more solutes in a solvent. • It is considered a solution rather than a compound when the crystal structure of the solvent remains unchanged by addition of the solutes.
  6. 6. • The solid solutions can be of two types. – 1. Substitutional solid solution – 2. Interstitial solid solution
  7. 7. Substitutional solid solution • When the atoms of solute substitute for the atoms of the solvent in its lattice, the solution is known as Substitutional solid solution. • The solute may incorporate into the solvent crystal lattice substitutionally by replacing a solvent particle in the lattice.
  8. 8. Substitutional solid solution Substitutional solid solution Substitutional element replaces host atoms in its lattice 8
  9. 9. Substitutional solid solution • Substitutional solid solutions can be of two types – 1. Ordered solid solution – 2. Disordered solid solution
  10. 10. Ordered solid solution • If the atoms of the solute occupy certain preferred sites in the lattice of the solvent, an ordered solid solution is formed. It may ocure only at certain fixed ratios of the solute and solvent atoms. • In Cu – Au system, Cu atoms occupying the face-centered sites and Au atoms occupying the corner sites of the FCC unit cell.
  11. 11. Ordered Substitutional solid solution Ordered Substitutional solid solution Substitutional element replaces host atoms in an orderly arrangement e.g., Ni-Al, Al-(Li,Zr) 11
  12. 12. Disordered solid solution • If the atoms of the solute are present randomly in the lattice of the solute, it is known as disordered solid solution. • Most of the solid solutions are disordered solid solutions
  13. 13. Interstitial solid solution • When the atoms of the solute occupy the interstitial spaces in the lattice of the solvent, it is known as Interstitial solid solution. • If the size of the solute is less than 40% that of solvent, interstitial solid solution may be formed. • The solute may incorporate into the solvent crystal lattice interstitially, by fitting into the space between solvent particles. • Only H, Li, Na and B form interstitial solid solution.
  14. 14. Interstitial solid solution 14

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