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PARKINSON'S DISEASE Presentation by Rajee

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Parkinson's disease is a progressive nervous system disorder that affects movement. Symptoms start gradually, sometimes starting with a barely noticeable tremor in just one hand. Tremors are common, but the disorder also commonly causes stiffness or slowing of movement.

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PARKINSON'S DISEASE Presentation by Rajee

  1. 1. welcome
  2. 2. What is Parkinson’s disease?
  3. 3. HISTORY It was described by the physician Galen as “shaking palsy” In 1817 an essay on “shaking palsy” was published by Dr. James Parkinson Jean-Martin Charcot was the first to truly recognise the importance of Dr. Parkinson’s work and renamed the disease after him.
  4. 4. FAMOUS PERSONALITIES WITH PARKINSON’S DISEASE BILLY CONNOLLY ROBIN WILLIAMS MUHAMMAD ALI ADOLF HITLER
  5. 5. DEFINITION Parkinson’s disease is a chronic, progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta
  6. 6. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF BRAIN
  7. 7. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF BRAIN
  8. 8. ETIOLOGY Idopathic Age (typically around 60years) Certain pesticides(agrochemicals such as paraquat and maneb) Virus Drugs Tumors
  9. 9. CLASSIFICATION Idiopathic Parkinsonism Atypical Parkinsonism / Parkinson Plus Syndrome
  10. 10. DIAGNOSIS Medical History Neurological Examination Physical Examination Magnetic Resonance Imaging Computed Tomography Positron Emission Tomography
  11. 11. SURGICAL MANAGEMENT Pallidotomy – A neurosurgical procedure whereby a tiny electrical probe is placed in the Globus pallidus, which is then heated to 80 degree celsius for 60 seconds, to destroy a small area (Globus pallidus) of brain cells resulting in less rigid, easy tremors
  12. 12. SURGICAL MANAGEMENT Thalamotomy- A surgical procedure in which an opening is made into the thalamus to block the things that causes the tremors from reaching the muscles.
  13. 13. SURGICAL MANAGEMENT Deep Brain Stimulation- A small device is placed inside the chest which sends electrical impulses to the brain. These impulses block nerve signals that causes Parkinson’s symptoms.
  14. 14. REHABILITATION  Regular physical exercise  Strategies such as utilizing assistive equipment (pole walking and treadmill walking)  Occupational therapy
  15. 15. REHABILITATION  Slow rotational movements of the extremities and trunk  Speech therapy  Diaphragmatic breathing
  16. 16. NURSING MANAGEMENT Assist with ambulation and provide assistive devices. Instruct client to rock back and forth to initiate movement. Instruct the client to wear low-heeled shoes. Encourage the client to lift feet when walking and avoid prolonged sitting. Provide a firm mattress, and position the client prone, without a pillow, to facilitate proper posture. Instruct in proper posture by teaching the client to hold the hands behind the back to keep the spine and neck erect.
  17. 17. NURSING MANAGEMENT Promote physical therapy and rehabilitation. Administer anticholinergic medications as prescribed to treat tremors and rigidity and to inhibit the action of acetylcholine. Administer antiparkinsonian medications to increase the level of dopamine in the CNS. Instruct the client to avoid foods high in vitamin B6 because they block the effects of antiparkinsonian medications.
  18. 18. SUMMARY • Introduction to the topic • Definition • Anatomy and physiology of brain • Etiology • Classification • Pathophysiology • Signs and symptoms • Diagnosis • Management
  19. 19. CONCLUSION Parkinson’s disease requires long term treatment. Treatment of Parkinson’s disease becomes challenging as time progresses. In addition to medicines, the person suffering with the disease should remain active, happy and perform regular exercise and physiotherapy
  20. 20. BIBLIOGRAPHY Black MJ. Management of clients with degenerative neurological disorders. In: Carroll GR, Keene MA, Melander S (eds.) Medical Surgical Nursing. 7th ed. Missouri, Elsevier; 2005.p2170-2175 Chintamani. Nursing management of chronic neurologic problems. In: Mani m(ed). Medical Surgical Nursing. Elsevier 2011. P1513-1520 Brunner, Suddarth. Management of patients with oncologic or degenerative neurologic disorders. In: Kluwer W (ed). Medical Surgical Nursing. 12th ed. Philadelphia; 2009.p1986-1992 https://www.mayfieldclinic.com/PE-PD.html

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