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Gender based violence

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Gender based violence

  1. 1. GENDER BASED VIOLENCE: A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE: THE SOCIAL, CULTURAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF GENDER VIOLENCE IN REFERENCE TO WOMEN. Rachel Wela Nkumanda Chairperson South African Women in Dialogue London
  2. 2. WHAT IS GENDER BASED VIOLENCE?  Gender based violence refers to violence on women by male perpetrators. The male perpetrators could be a brother, a father, a husband, a partner, a male relative or family friend, a colleague, a boss and lastly violence from strangers.
  3. 3. WHAT IS CLASSED AS VIOLENCE? LOOKING AT THE DIFFERENT FORMS OF VIOLENCE.
  4. 4. VERBAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL VIOLENCE REFERS TO:
  5. 5.  Angry retorts at any form of communication the woman might make  Gradually increasing negative comments about the woman’s appearance, how she performs certain tasks in the home or anything else which might be displeasing to her husband/partner  Making negative comments which are clearly not an authentic description of her, it could be telling the woman she is stupid when she is not. This is repeated until the woman starts believing she must be stupid
  6. 6.  Calling her derogatory names to belittle the woman till she starts believing him for example b---h or h---- t  Advancing to making degrading comments on social occasions with friends and acquaintances particularly what the woman wears, her looks or how she behaves  Whispering derogatory names in the woman’s ear when in company such as in parties or any other social occasion to destabilise her and make her lose her confidence when in company. This could be a way of trying to make the woman avoid attending social occasions so that he can isolate her
  7. 7.  Coercion or making constant threats and never holding a normal conversation with the woman  Being emotionally distant and unwilling to be affectionate or loving  Shifting from being scathing when alone at home and change dramatically when in company of others to being overly affectionate as a show to others how good he is to his wife/partner  Arbitrary deprivation of liberty and isolation, by not liking her family members or friends and not wanting them to visit the home or for her to see them anymore or locking her in the home
  8. 8.  Making abrupt decisions like going to a social occasion then suddenly deciding they have to leave even if they have been there for less than an hour  Constantly changing what he likes so that she never knows what he will accept when he comes home making her be hesitant constantly and telling her off for never listening or knowing anything
  9. 9. PHYSICAL VIOLENCE REFERS TO:
  10. 10.  Touching intimately or pinching breasts which is a violation of physical space  Clapping, kicking, punching, beating her head against something  Dragged by the hair or pulling hair
  11. 11.  Have a hard object thrown at her  Burning  Have limbs broken or any other skeletal injury
  12. 12.  Serious soft tissue injuries which would require medical attention  Suffocation and strangulation  Cut, stabbed or shot  Ultimately being killed by their partners or husbands.
  13. 13. SEXUAL VIOLENCE REFERS TO:
  14. 14.  Explicit verbal communication of a sexual nature it could be statements of what the man wishes to do to the woman or comments on her body parts  Touching the woman inappropriately usually on the breast or derriere  Sending sexually explicit texts and/or emails
  15. 15.  Sexual harassment, which refers to directing of persistent sexual remarks and looks or inappropriate physical contact in the work place often with threats that the woman will lose her job if not compliant.  Recently the problem of stalking, a very frightening experience, has been added to this category and is now a crime in some countries  Rape which includes marital rape. A lot of times women are raped by someone they know and also by strangers  Forced prostitution which usually involves human trafficking
  16. 16.  Child sexual abuse  Female genital mutilation/cutting  Rape in modern wars for instance the conflict in the Congo, the Rwandan genocide and the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina after the collapse of the USSR.
  17. 17. WOMEN BROUGHT UP IN DIFFERENT CULTURES EXPERIENCE:  Various forms of violence which display lower levels of appreciation and respect and as such can be positioned to receive treatment that is detrimental to their well-being.
  18. 18. Gang Rape: Earlier this year we received news via the I.B TIMES of 2 teenage girls, a 19 year old gang raped and hanged publicly; a 48 year old woman was hanged but it could not be confirmed that she had been raped. Most of these cases have occurred in India mainly in Uttar Pradesh; only one case has been reported in Pakistan.
  19. 19. Acid attacks: Common in Pakistan, Bangladesh, India, Afghanistan, Nepal and Cambodia. The women reported that men are angry with them for ending relationships and for refusing sexual harassment, sexual exploitation, proposals of marriage and demands for dowry. BBC News 19/04/2012 reported increasing acid attacks on women in Pakistan with 150 women per year being affected. There are reported acid attacks in the UK for various reasons not necessarily cultural.
  20. 20. Dowry related killings:  New Delhi, India a woman who was being tortured by her in laws over dowry agreed to donate a kidney to her husband as payment for dowry. In some publications it is alleged she then killed herself as her in laws continued to abuse after she had donated her kidney though they had promised to end the abuse if she donates her kidney. In May 2014 IB Times reported that a pregnant woman had been set on fire by her husband over dowry in Nepal. Varsha Ramakrishnan in her report for Pulitzer.com 11th October, 2013 stated “The National Crime Records Bureau of India reported 8,233 dowry deaths in 2012—in other words, one wife is killed every 60 minutes. However, since social and cultural taboos discourage women from reporting cases, the 8,233 cases represent only the tip of a predominantly submerged iceberg.”
  21. 21. Honour based violence: Usually family members believe someone has brought shame to the family or community by doing something that is not in keeping with traditional belief, some of the reasons are: having a relationship with someone from a different culture or refusing to go into an arranged marriage, wanting to get out of an arranged marriage or a forced marriage, taking part in activities considered not in keeping with tradition.
  22. 22.  Female Genital Mutilation has recently been given much attention in the UK. There are 65,000 girls (Metro, 3rd July, 2014) at risk of genital mutilation. The UK government is expected to intervene urgently to stop the cutting taking place and to introduce measures that are enshrined in law to deal with the situation  Violence Against Women in Latin America and the Caribbean: a comparative analysis of population- based data from 12 countries shows that between 41% and 82% of women who were abused by their partner experienced a physical injury, ranging from cuts and bruises to broken bones, miscarriages, and burns. (WHO, 2013.17.01)
  23. 23.  Recently we have seen kidnapping of young girls from college in Nigeria. This is still unresolved.  Women have been treated as the property of the family or husband. They can be given away for marriage to anyone as determined by their family often at a very young age.  Child Brides: In some cultures girls as young as 7 years old are dressed as brides for a mass marriage ceremony to men old enough to be their fathers.
  24. 24. THE WAY FORWARD...  Enhancing of awareness concerning violence against women through political campaigns and use of different media platforms to bring this issue in the open thus encouraging women to break their silence concerning their experience of violence.  Ensuring that expectations of service provision can be met in practice. This means specialist services for victim support, information and advice services, Free phone services/help lines and ongoing monitoring of service performance  Ensure that the campaigns deal with issues that are current and are based on existing evidence and most recent surveys
  25. 25.  Strategies to deal with gender violence should be dealt with at government level with clear strategies for tackling all issues of gender violence, improving how the criminal justice systems respond through improvement of training to include women’s rights and gender violence  Changes should be made through addressing cultural based gender discrimination and social norms so that children of both genders can learn to respect each other from a young age
  26. 26. SERVICE PROVISION FOR SURVIVORS  Safety : provision of safe accommodation for survivors of gender violence  Health care for their injuries  Health care for their sexual health and reproductive health needs  Post rape care and counselling  Aftercare to help women to rebuild their lives practically and educationally  Facilitate access to the police and justice systems  Ensure access for women who live in remote areas
  27. 27. GENDER VIOLENCE IS A HUMAN RIGHTS ISSUE WHEN THERE IS INHIBITION OF WOMEN TO ENJOY RIGHTS AND FREEDOMS WHICH ARE ENJOYED BY THEIR MALE COUNTERPARTS.
  28. 28. A BRIEF LIST OF STATISTICAL INFORMATION  In a recent research by the FRA (EU Agency for fundamental rights) presented during International Women’s Day week in Brussels in February 2014 covering countries in the EU, 55% of women have been confronted with one or more forms of sexual harassment, 33% of women had experienced sexual and/or physical violence since the age of 15 and 18% women had experienced stalking.
  29. 29. UN WOMEN GLOBAL REVIEW 2013  In the US, 83% of girls aged 12-16 have experienced some form of sexual harassment in public schools - See more at: http://www.unwomen.org/en/what-we-do/ending- violence-against-women/facts-and- figures#sthash.VVJbqwwZ.dpuf   Women and girls represent 55% of the estimated 20.9 million victims of forced labour worldwide, 98% of the estimated 4.5 million forced into sexual exploitation - See more at: http://www.unwomen.org/en/what-we-do/ending- violence-against-women/facts-and- figures#sthash.VVJbqwwZ.dpuf
  30. 30.  In Australia, Canada, Israel, South Africa and the United States, intimate partner violence accounts for between 40 and 70 percent of female murder victims - See more at: http://www.unwomen.org/en/what-we-do/ending- violence-against-women/facts-and- figures#sthash.VVJbqwwZ.dpuf  Approximately 140 million girls and women in the world have suffered female genital mutilation/cutting - See more at: http://www.unwomen.org/en/what-we-do/ending- violence-against-women/facts-and- figures#sthash.VVJbqwwZ.dpuf
  31. 31. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION  Soraya Chemally: 50 facts about Domestic Violence (google)  Varsha Ramakrishnan: The Dowry System in India – Is the trend changing? Varsha works for Pulitzer Centre for Crisis Reporting. www.pulitzercenter.org/people/varsha-ramakrishnan  freethoughtblogs.com/.../our-men-throw-acid-in-our- faces  The Co-ordinated Action Against Domestic Abuse (Caada) charity in the UK provides support for professionals and organisations working with Domestic Violence
  32. 32.  United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the empowerment of women – www.unwomen.org  FRA – EU Agency for fundamental Rightswww.fra.europa.eu  Fundamental rights set out minimum standards to ensure that a person is treated with dignity. Whether this is the right to be free from discrimination on the basis of your age, disability or ethnic background, the right to the protection of your personal data, or the right to get access to justice, these rights should all be promoted and protected.  Book: Dee Dee Glass (1995) All My Fault - Why don’t women leave abusive men, Virago Press, London,UK.

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  • karthikjayavel1

    Apr. 1, 2019
  • AshleyBumanglag

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