Gender Constructions <ul><li>Violence Against Women and Vulnerability to HIV/AIDS </li></ul><ul><li>by Vanessa Brocato </l...
What Gender?  Why Gender? <ul><li>?! ?!  Wikipedia: gender refers to the differences between men and women. ?! ?!  </li></...
Violence tree from Ghanaian workshop <ul><li>Experience of violence in the leaves </li></ul><ul><li>Causes of violence in ...
Violence tree from GMHC workshop <ul><li>Safety is the first priority (get out of the leaves) </li></ul><ul><li>Institutio...
Intimate Partner Violence <ul><li>Every day four women in the U.S. are murdered by husbands and boyfriends.  In 2000, inti...
Violence Against Women <ul><li>Childhood sexual abuse and incest : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Immediate risks </li></ul></ul><u...
Exacerbated Vulnerability to HIV Infection <ul><li>Lowered capacity to negotiate for condom use, monogamy, or testing.  </...
Educating Young People for Empowered Sexuality <ul><li>Comprehensive Sexuality Education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to provide ...
Violence and Young Women <ul><li>Approximately one in five female high school students reports being physically and/or sex...
<ul><li>Equality with subordinated, suffering men is not progress. </li></ul><ul><li>The poverty, substance abuse, and vio...
Advocacy Goals <ul><li>Sexuality education (Healthy Teens/REAL) </li></ul><ul><li>Welfare reform  </li></ul><ul><li>Violen...
Change is Possible, Inevitable, and Necessary <ul><li>“ It has become clear that culture is not a sort of ‘primordial cons...
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Gender Construction: Violence Against Women and Vulnerability to HIV/AIDS

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Vanessa Brocato
June 2008
CHAMP HIV Prevention Politics Forum at the NYC LGBT Community Center

Published in: Health & Medicine
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Gender Construction: Violence Against Women and Vulnerability to HIV/AIDS

  1. 1. Gender Constructions <ul><li>Violence Against Women and Vulnerability to HIV/AIDS </li></ul><ul><li>by Vanessa Brocato </li></ul><ul><li>June 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>HIV Prevention Politics Forum at </li></ul><ul><li>the NYC LGBT Community Center </li></ul>
  2. 2. What Gender? Why Gender? <ul><li>?! ?! Wikipedia: gender refers to the differences between men and women. ?! ?! </li></ul><ul><li>World Health Organization: Gender refers to the socially constructed roles, behaviour, activities and attributes that a particular society considers appropriate for men and women. The distinct roles and behaviour may give rise to gender inequalities, i.e. differences between men and women that systematically favour one group. In turn, such inequalities can lead to inequities between men and women in both health status and access to health care. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Violence tree from Ghanaian workshop <ul><li>Experience of violence in the leaves </li></ul><ul><li>Causes of violence in the roots: gender roles/stereotypes; women’s lack of economic resources; men’s power over women; women’s lack of education; patriarchy </li></ul>
  4. 4. Violence tree from GMHC workshop <ul><li>Safety is the first priority (get out of the leaves) </li></ul><ul><li>Institutions: family, media, business, law, religion, education, health care, custom </li></ul>
  5. 5. Intimate Partner Violence <ul><li>Every day four women in the U.S. are murdered by husbands and boyfriends. In 2000, intimate partner homicides accounted for 33.5 percent of the murders of women and less than four percent of the murders of men. The number of women who have been murdered by their intimate partners is greater than the number of soldiers killed in the Vietnam War, and theoretically, this is not a war. </li></ul><ul><li>Estimates range from 960,000 incidents of violence against a current or former spouse, boyfriend, or girlfriend per year to three million women who are physically abused by their husband or boyfriend per year. </li></ul><ul><li>In 2008, 17 family related homicides were reported in New York City; down from 48 in 2007. </li></ul><ul><li>In New York City, police respond to an average of 600 domestic violence incidents per day. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Violence Against Women <ul><li>Childhood sexual abuse and incest : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Immediate risks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adult trauma around sexuality </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stranger violence, rape & street harassment : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Violent enforcement of gender norms, links with queer bashing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marginalized women likely to suffer violence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Incarceration : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>State violence against women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Violence within women’s prisons </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Exacerbated Vulnerability to HIV Infection <ul><li>Lowered capacity to negotiate for condom use, monogamy, or testing. </li></ul><ul><li>Benefit of not using a condom outweighs the perception of risk. </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiating for condom use or other activities related to HIV-prevention may trigger a violent episode. </li></ul><ul><li>HIV-positive women face risk of violence at disclosure. </li></ul><ul><li>Pregnant women face higher rates of violence, and HIV testing during pregnancy and newborn screening for HIV may set women up for further violence. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Educating Young People for Empowered Sexuality <ul><li>Comprehensive Sexuality Education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to provide accurate information about human sexuality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to provide an opportunity for young people to develop and understand their values, attitudes, and insights about sexuality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to help young people develop relationships and interpersonal skills, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to help young people exercise responsibility regarding sexual relationships, which includes addressing abstinence, pressures to become prematurely involved in sexual intercourse, and the use of contraception and other sexual health measures. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Abstinence-only-until-marriage programs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Promote harmful gender stereotypes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Hidden curriculum” on gender </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discouraging condom use harms women and girls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teen pregnancy can harm girls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Misinformation about abortion </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Violence and Young Women <ul><li>Approximately one in five female high school students reports being physically and/or sexually abused by a dating partner. </li></ul><ul><li>Eight percent of high school age girls said “yes” when asked if “a boyfriend or date has ever forced sex against your will.” </li></ul><ul><li>Forty percent of girls age 14 to 17 report knowing someone their age who has been hit or beaten by a boyfriend. </li></ul><ul><li>During the 1996-1997 school year, there were an estimated 4,000 incidents of rape or other types of sexual assault in public schools across the country. </li></ul><ul><li>From January through March 2008, 4,842 teen calls were received by the City’s Domestic Violence Hotline; in 2007, 16,861 calls. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Equality with subordinated, suffering men is not progress. </li></ul><ul><li>The poverty, substance abuse, and violence that men experience and express are likewise complicated by the gender matrix as well as racism and homophobia. </li></ul><ul><li>Violence starts with anger, men need to be taught differently about dealing with anger. </li></ul>What About Men?
  11. 11. Advocacy Goals <ul><li>Sexuality education (Healthy Teens/REAL) </li></ul><ul><li>Welfare reform </li></ul><ul><li>Violence Against Women Act http://www.endabuse.org/vawa/ </li></ul><ul><li>PEPFAR with PATHWAYS www.pepfarwatch.org </li></ul><ul><li>Microbicides development www.microbicide.org </li></ul><ul><li>Research http://www.champnetwork.org/ </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual health integration & linkages, including family planning services and violence prevention and healing services </li></ul>
  12. 12. Change is Possible, Inevitable, and Necessary <ul><li>“ It has become clear that culture is not a sort of ‘primordial constraint’ from the past that hinders economic and social progress. Culture is constantly being changed by the people who construct it in the first place.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thoraya A. Obaid, United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) Executive Director, 2005 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>That’s ALL OF US! </li></ul>

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