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# SAFETY Instrn. - PPT _ Unit-1_ Oct. 2022.pptx

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# SAFETY Instrn. - PPT _ Unit-1_ Oct. 2022.pptx

Equipment failure, Failure rate, time dependent failure rate, confidence factor, mean time between failure, mean time to restore, relationship between MTBF, MTTR and failure rate. Probability of failure on demand. System Reliability engineering: Reliability block diagram, series and parallel configuration, fault tree analysis, Markov modeling, Markov solution technique

Equipment failure, Failure rate, time dependent failure rate, confidence factor, mean time between failure, mean time to restore, relationship between MTBF, MTTR and failure rate. Probability of failure on demand. System Reliability engineering: Reliability block diagram, series and parallel configuration, fault tree analysis, Markov modeling, Markov solution technique

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### SAFETY Instrn. - PPT _ Unit-1_ Oct. 2022.pptx

1. 1. SAFETY INSTRUMENTATION (course code: 18 EI 7 F1) Local Elective Course [Oct ‘22 – Jan ‘23] EIE Dept., RVCE. Course Coordinator: Prof. S.V.
2. 2. INTRODUCTION TO: SAFETY TERMINOLOGIES 1. WHAT DO YOU MEAN BY THE TERM, “SAFETY”? See: Video-1a & 1b. What Does Industrial Safety Mean? As the name suggests, industrial safety refers to the safety management practices that apply to the industrial sector. Those processes aim to protect industrial workers, machinery, facilities, structures, and the environment.
3. 3. Industrial Safety Objectives: 1. Preventing work-related fatalities, disabling injuries, illness, and damage to machinery or materials. 1. To achieve a safe and accident-free workplace. 1. To reduce the business’s cost to accident compensation and insurance claims related to workplace accidents. 1. To ensure a high-morale work environment for a safer and smoother productivity. 1. To have competent supervision on the workers to maximize protection. 1. Ensuring continued production by preventing disruptive incidents.
4. 4. 2. What is the difference between: “Safety” and “Protection”? Pls. find it out yourselves.
5. 5. 3. What is the difference between: “INCIDENT” & “ACCIDENT”? - Ex: an “incidence of FIRE” vs. “FIRE Accident” - Difference? - See – Video -5
6. 6. 4. What is the difference between: RISK & HAZARD? - See Videos – 2, & 3.
7. 7. 5. What is a RISK MATRIX ? - See Video - 4.
8. 8. Process Safety – Definition: • A disciplined framework for managing the integrity of operating systems and processes handling hazardous substances, by applying good design principles, emergency engineering, and operating practices. • Note: Process Safety focuses on efforts to reduce process safety Risks associated with processes handling hazardous materials and energies. • Process Safety efforts help to reduce the frequency and consequences of potential incidents. • These incidents include toxic or flammable material releases (loss events), resulting in toxic effects, fires, or explosions. • The incident impact includes harm to people (injuries, fatalities), harm to the environment, property damage, production losses, and adverse business publicity.
9. 9. WHAT is a “SAFETY Instrumented system (SIS)”? - Ref. to: Video-7
10. 10. •Industrial Accident – Youtube Videos 1. Mega Disasters Bhopal Nightmare • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zcv2PrhUZ3A 2. Mixed Connection, Toxic Result • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Tflm9mttAAI 3. Falling Through the Cracks • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uo7H_ILs1qc 4. Behind the Curve • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OCfNau54h6I 5. Filling Blind • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=41QMaJqxqIo
11. 11. “DISASTERS Analysis” • ANSWER the following QUESTIONS to ANALYZE each DISASTER : 1. Name of the company where accident happened? 2. What was being produced in the industry? 3. What is the incident that led to the disaster? 4. What actually happened? 5. Nearly how many people died, & how many injured, and how many were affected? 6. What may be the cause of the accident? Weather it is the: a. leakage of poisonous gases like ammonia / Phosgene / MIC, or massive cracks in concrete tanks, or occurrence of fire, or explosion, or chemical spill, or radiation leak, or due to simple human negligence/ is it a Bad Maintenance Issue? 7. Which Instrument/ Detector / SENSOR was involved to indicate a high pressure or gas leakage? 8. How the disaster could have been prevented? 9. WERE THE REQUIRED SAFETY MEASURES TAKEN BY THE INDUSTRY? 10. WHAT MEASURES DO YOU SUGGEST TO PREVENT SUCH ACCIDENTS OR DISASTERS OCCURRING IN FUTURE? 11. What SAFETY “Standards” need to be followed for the purpose of prevention and safe operations?
12. 12. Fire Triangle:
13. 13. Videos: • What is a Fire Alarm System? - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cVjyDgFrb2g • Fire Sprinkler Systems Explained - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o-ylvugYc0w • GOOD - How to Install Smoke and Carbon Monoxide Detectors | Ask This Old House - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ScnFObV156c • What Type Of Smoke Alarm Is Best For Your Home? - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J9zEi1otL88 • How to Safely Put Out a Kitchen Fire - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AFwkGTEles8
14. 14. The Fire Triangle • The fire triangle or combustion triangle is a simple model, from the science of firefighting, for understanding the ingredients necessary for most fires. It has largely been replaced in the industry by the fire tetrahedron, which provides a more complete model, also described later. • The triangle illustrates the rule that in order to ignite and burn, a fire requires three elements heat, fuel, and oxygen. The fire is prevented or extinguished by removing any one of them. • A fire naturally occurs when the elements are combined in the right mixture (e.g., more heat needed for igniting some fuels, unless there is concentrated oxygen).
15. 15. The Triangle
16. 16. The Fire tetrahedron • The fire triangle is a useful teaching tool, but fails to identify the fourth essential element of fire: the sustaining chemical reaction. • This has led to development of the fire tetrahedron: a triangular pyramid having four sides (including the bottom). • In most fires, it does not matter which element gets removed; the fire fails to ignite, or it goes out. However, there are certain chemical fires where knowing only the fire triangle is not good enough.
17. 17. The tetrahedron
18. 18. How the Tetrahedron can help? • Combustion is the chemical reaction that feeds a fire more heat and allows it to continue. • With most types of fires, the old fire triangle model works well enough, but when the fire involves burning metals (known as a class-D fire in the American system of fire classifications, involving metals like sodium, lithium, magnesium, etc.), it becomes useful to consider the chemistry of combustion. • Putting water on such a fire could result in the fire getting hotter (or even exploding) because such metals can react with water in an exothermic reaction to produce flammable hydrogen gas. • Therefore, other specialized chemicals must typically be used to break the chain reaction of metallic combustion and stop the fire.
19. 19. Fire control: - • Fire control consists of depriving a fire of fuel, oxygen, or heat (see fire triangle) to prevent it from spreading or to put it out entirely. • The standard and most common way to control a class-A fire (the combustion of a flammable material with oxygen and heat) is to remove heat by spraying the burning solid fuels with water from a fire-hose connected to a pump. • Other methods of controlling a class-A fire would be to "smother" the fire with carbon dioxide, such as from a fire extinguisher, cutting off it's oxygen. In a forest fire, fire control would usually consist of removing fuel in the fire's path and digging trenches - this prevents the fire from gaining new fuel and spreading.
20. 20. Classes of Fires: - 1. class-A fires 2. class-B fires 3. class-C fires 4. class-D fires 5. class-K fires
21. 21. Class A fire: • Class-A fires are the most common type of fire, that occurs when a material such as wood or other fiber becomes sufficiently hot, and has oxygen available to it, causing combustion. (See fire triangle) At this point the material bursts into flame, and will continue burning as long as the fire triangle (heat, fuel, and oxygen) continues to be available to it. • Class-A fires are used all around buildings and everywhere in the world in controlled circumstances, such as a campfire, lighter, match, or candle. This makes an example easy to come by. For example, a campfire has a fire triangle - the heat is provided by another fire (such as a match or lighter), the fuel is the wood, and the oxygen is naturally available in the open-air environment of a forest. This fire is not dangerous, because the fire is contained to the wood alone and is usually isolated from the ground by rocks. • However, when a class-A fire burns in an environment where fuel and oxygen are in accessible positions, the fire can quickly grow out of control; this is the case where firefighting and fire control techniques are required.Class-A fires are fairly simple to fight and contain - by simply removing the heat or oxygen (or in some cases fuel), the fire triangle collapses and the fire dies out. • The most common way to do this is by removing the heat by spraying the fire with water. • Other means of control or containment would be to "smother" the fire with carbon dioxide or nitrogen from a fire extinguisher, cutting off its oxygen and causing the fire to die. • Class-A fires are the most commonly encountered fires, and as such most fire departments have
22. 22. Fire Extinguisher types -ABC • 1.ABC Dry Chemical: • These are found in sizes containing from 5 to 20 pounds of monoammonium phosphate. Monoammonium phosphate is a finely ground extinguishing agent, which looks like yellow talcum powder. Nitrogen gas is used for propellant. • This extinguisher is particularly effective on class A, B, and C fires but is also extremely messy. • Operation is fairly simple. Pull the pin through the seal, aim the exinguisher at the base of the fire and sweep from side to side. The extinguisher has a range of about 15 feet. • • These extinguishers are found in hallways and occasionally in labs.
23. 23. Class B: - • Class-B fires are combustible fuels. • These fires follow the same basic fire triangle (heat, fuel, and oxygen) as class-A fires, except that the fuel in question is a solvent (liquid).
24. 24. Fighting a Class “B” fire: - • Class-B fires (hydrocarbons and fuels on fire) require much different handling than the standard water approach. • Many fuels, such as gasoline or oil float on water, and water would actually end up spreading the fire further. • Other fuels, such as coal, will not be put out by water, as fire spreads to the inside of the coal and cannot be reached by water - as soon as the water stops, the fire inside of the coal spreads back out to the outside. • Fire control of these fires requires specialized methods, and can be problematic to ordinary fire stations due to the fact that these materials may not always be available. • One way to control a class-B fire would be to dump chemical dust on it - this is also a method for handling class-A fires, and actually tends to be preferable due to the fact that sprayed water tends to cause property damage. • Gasoline fires are more often smothered in a cooling protein foam.
25. 25. Class “C” fire: - • Class-C fires are electrical fires, where the heat side of the fire triangle is caused by, for example, short-circuiting machinery or overloaded electrical outlets. • These fires can be a severe hazard to firefighters using water: when the solid stream of water hits the electrical fire, the electricity is conducted through it and into the hose, then into the firefighter's body. Electrical shocks have caused many firefighter deaths. • There are two main ways of fighting a class-C fire: cutting off its oxygen, or simply turning off the electricity to the fire from a breaker. • A class-C fire can be put out with a fire extinguisher rated for class-C fires, or with protein foam, but the primary approach is to simply turn off the power as noted above. This causes the fire to become an ordinary class-A fire, or perhaps to die out entirely.
26. 26. Fighting a Class “C” fire • Class-C fires are electrical fires - fires that are caused by an electrical source and get their heat from electricity. • These fires are dangerous because if water is used on them, electrical current will be passed through the stream and back into the firefighter. • There are only two ways to deal with this type of fire - take away the oxygen (smother it with foam or a fire extinguisher) or simply turn off the electricity, which will cause the fire to either die out or become a regular class-A fire.
27. 27. Fire Extinguisher types -C02 • 2.Carbon Dioxide: This is a high pressure vessel filled with either 5 or 10 pounds of liquid CO2. • It is only to be used on flammable liquid or electrical fires. • Because the CO2 is expelled as a gas the extinguisher has a very limited operation range of about 4 to 6 feet. • This extinguisher is found mostly in labs or mechanical rooms. The carbon dioxide extinguisher can be easily identified because it does not have a pressure gauge.
28. 28. Halon • 3.Halon: A halon fire extinguisher uses bromochlorodifluoromethane, halon 1211, as its extinguishing agent. • Halon is an extremely clean agent leaving no residue. This makes it a good agent for use around computers and other sensitive equipment. • Range is about 15 feet. Pull the pin, aim at the base of the fire and sweep from side to side. Operation is similar to the ABC extinguisher.
29. 29. Class D fires • Class-D fires are metal fires. Certain metals, such as sodium, titanium, magnesium, potassium, uranium, lithium, plutonium, calcium and others are flammable. Magnesium and titanium fires are common. • When one of these combustible metals ignites, it can easily and rapidly spread to surrounding class-A materials. • Generally, masses of combustible metals do not represent unusual fire risks because they have the ability to conduct heat away from hot spots so efficiently that the heat of combustion cannot be maintained - this means that it will require a lot of heat to ignite a mass of combustible metal. • Generally, metal fire risks exist when sawdust, machine shavings and other metal 'fines' are present. Generally, these fines can be ignited by the same types of ignition sources that would start other common fires.
30. 30. Fighting Class “D” fires • Water and other common firefighting materials can excite metal fires and make them worse. • The NFPA recommends that class D fires be fought with 'dry powder' extinguishing agents. Dry Powder agents work by smothering and heat absorption. The most common of these agents are sodium chloride granules and graphite powder. In recent years powdered copper has also come into use. • Some extinguishers use dry chemical extinguishing agents. This is easily confusable with dry powder. They are quite different, and using one of these extinguishers in error in place of dry powder can actually increase the size of a class D fire much like water.Class-D fires represent a unique hazard because people are often not aware of the characteristics of these fires and are not properly prepared to fight them. • Even a small class-D fire can spread class-A fires to the surrounding combustible materials. Most fire stations do not have class-D extinguishing agents available to them, making fighting these fires a logistical problem - however, most places where these materials are found there is a hopper filled with the proper extinguishing agent.
31. 31. Dry Powder for Class “D” • Dry Powder: These extinguishers are for use on metal fires. Extinguishment is achieved by isolating and smothering the fire with either a graphite or sodium chloride based powder. • Some of these extinguishers are cartridge operated, so they are a little different to use: before the agent can be released a plunger on the side of the extinguisher must be pushed down to charge the extinguisher with propellant. • Once charged, the operator depresses the handle at the nozzle and lets the powder flow over the fire. Range is about 1 to 2 feet • The newer dry powder extinguishers are mounted on 2 wheel carts. Operation is similar to ABC, Halon and Carbon Dioxide extinguishers. Pull pin, take the hose and wand assembly out of the retainer and aim at base of the fire. Range is 3 to 6 feet.
32. 32. Class “K” fires: - •Class-K fires are fires that involve cooking oils. •Though by definition Class-K is a subclass of Class-B, the special characteristics of these types of fires are considered important enough to recognize.
33. 33. Class K Fire Extinguishers • In recent years there has been a trend for commercial kitchens to start using much more efficient cooking appliances and unsaturated cooking oils that operate at much higher temps than the previous oils and appliances. The class K extinguisher was developed to combat this new hazard. • This extinguisher uses a wet potassium acetate based, low pH agent that has a greater fire fighting and cooling effect for this type of hazard. • Most of these extinguishers can safely be used on Class A, B, and C fires also. • Their range is 10-12 feet and will last for about 40 seconds. Once again break the seal pull the pin and aim at the base of the fire. Class K extinguishers can be found in kitchens on campus.
34. 34. When and How to fight a fire • Before deciding to fight a fire, be certain that: • The fire is small and not spreading. A fire can double in size within two or three minutes. • You have the proper fire extinguisher for what is burning. • The fire won't block your exit if you can't control it. A good way to ensure this is to keep the exit at your back. • You know your fire extinguisher works. Inspect extinguishers once a month for dents, leaks or other signs of damage. Assure the pressure is at the recommended level. On extinguishers equipped with a gauge, the needle should be in the green zone - not too high and not too low. • You know how to use your fire extinguisher. There's not enough time to read instructions when a fire occurs.
35. 35. Then Fight the Fire Safely: • Stand with an exit at your back. • Stand several feet away from the fire, moving closer once the fire starts to diminish. • Use a sweeping motion and aim at the base of the fire. • If possible, use a "buddy system" to have someone back you up or call for help if something goes wrong. • Be sure to watch the area for awhile to ensure it doesn't re-ignite.
36. 36. Never Fight A Fire If: • ･The fire is spreading rapidly. Only use a fire extinguisher when the fire is in its early stages. If the fire is already spreading quickly, evacuate and call the fire department. • You don't know what is burning. Unless you know what is burning, you won't know what type of fire extinguisher to use. Even if you have an ABC extinguisher, there could be something that will explode or produce highly toxic smoke. • You don't have the proper fire extinguisher. The wrong type of extinguisher can be dangerous or life-threatening. • There is too much smoke or you are at risk of inhaling smoke. Seven out of ten fire-related deaths occur from breathing poisonous gases produced by the fire.
37. 37. Using A Fire Extinguisher P A S S •Pull the Pin at the top of the extinguisher. The pin releases a locking mechanism and will allow you to discharge the extinguisher. •Aim at the base of the fire, not the flames. This is important - in order to put out the fire, you must extinguish the fuel. •Squeeze the lever slowly. This will release the extinguishing agent in the extinguisher. If the handle is released, the discharge will stop. •Sweep from side to side. Using a sweeping motion, move the fire extinguisher back and forth until the fire is completely out. Operate the extinguisher from a safe distance, several feet away, and then move towards the fire once it starts to diminish. Be sure to read the instructions on your fire extinguisher - different fire extinguishers recommend operating them from different distances. •Remember: Aim at the base of the fire, not at the flames!!!!
38. 38. Stop, Drop, and Roll
39. 39. Fire will Produce: •Any sort of fire will produce some amount of carbon monoxide, the most deadly gas produced by a fire. •Materials such as wool, silk, nylon and some plastics can produce other highly toxic gases such as carbon dioxide, hydrogen cyanide, or hydrogen chloride. •Beware - all of these gases can be fatal! •Smoke inhalation or exposure to fire itself can be life threatening so get educated about the basics in CPR and burn treatment.
40. 40. • A typical fire extinguisher contains 10 seconds of extinguishing power. • This could be less if it has already been partially discharged. • Always read the instructions that come with the fire extinguisher beforehand and become familiarized with its parts. • It is highly recommended by fire prevention experts that you get hands-on training before operating a fire extinguisher. • Most local fire departments offer this service. • Once the fire is out, don't walk away! Watch the area for a few minutes in case it re-ignites. • Get the extinguisher recharged immediately after use - check that this has been done as You may have to use it again. Remember:
41. 41. When in doubt, get out! • If you use a fire extinguisher, notify Mr. Holter and the nurse immediately! • Environmental Health and Safety will have to be notified soon as possible. • Never remount an extinguisher after use - set it aside in a space where it can be seen. • Remember: When in doubt, get out!!!!!
42. 42. Standards and Regulations: - 1. A "Standard" is a mandate that one has to follow. 2. "Regulation" is a guideline that one may use it. 3. Ex-1: European union was formed to ensure medical equipments are in conformance with certain medical Standards. 4. : Any car must follow European union Standard diagnostic tools, and it is a regulation. 5. REGULATION can be met using different standards. 6. EMC compliance is a Standard. 7. REGULATION says that get a certificate which is authorised by any standard third party agencies and it should be unbiased. 8. A “STANDARD” IS A BEST PRACTICE. 9. A “REGULATION” IS A LAW OF THE LAND. 10. You have to be safe to be fine. 11. So, to feel fine, and be safe, one has to be aware of and follow the norms of the Standards and stipulations of the Regulations.
43. 43. - Types of Fire Extinguisher and Their Uses - www.youtube.com/watch?v=GjSoxJF3RD4