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OSIS19_IoT :Transparent remote connectivity to short-range IoT devices, by Natalya Rozhnova

Short-range wireless communication technologies such as Bluetooth or ZigBee represent an important part of the Internet of Things ecosystem. By design, this category of smart devices has physically limited reachability inside their Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN) and are not directly compatible with the TCP/IP stack. However, users may need to access them from anywhere at any moment. To address this problem, we design a new application-agnostic approach called RCM (Remote Connection Manager) enabling transparent communication between an application and out-of-range devices. It creates new IoT use cases by seamlessly mixing remote and local devices. We implemented an open-source prototype for Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) technology on top of Linux and Android BLE stacks and demonstrated its efficiency through experiments performed on real devices.

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Transparent remote connectivity to
short-range IoT devices
Natalya Rozhnova
natalya.rozhnova@nokia-bell-labs.com
June 13th, 2019
© 2019 Nokia Public
What does the IoT world look like?
2 © 2019 Nokia Public
3 © 2019 Nokia Public
4 © 2019 Nokia Public
Basics of Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE)
Basics of Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE)
Connection establishment
5 © 2019 Nokia Public
Basics of Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE)
Connection establishment
5 © 2019 Nokia Public

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OSIS19_IoT :Transparent remote connectivity to short-range IoT devices, by Natalya Rozhnova

  • 1. Transparent remote connectivity to short-range IoT devices Natalya Rozhnova natalya.rozhnova@nokia-bell-labs.com June 13th, 2019 © 2019 Nokia Public
  • 2. What does the IoT world look like? 2 © 2019 Nokia Public
  • 3. 3 © 2019 Nokia Public
  • 4. 4 © 2019 Nokia Public Basics of Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE)
  • 5. Basics of Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) Connection establishment 5 © 2019 Nokia Public
  • 6. Basics of Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) Connection establishment 5 © 2019 Nokia Public
  • 7. Basics of Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) Connection establishment 5 © 2019 Nokia Public
  • 8. Basics of Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) Connection establishment 5 © 2019 Nokia Public
  • 9. Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) Data representation 6 © 2019 Nokia Public • A Profile is a pre-defined set of Services − e.g. Home Light Profile • A Service is a set of Characteristics used to obtain a specific functionnality − e.g. LED control Service • A Characteristic is a data value transferred between devices − e.g. LED color, Temperature
  • 10. Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) Data representation 6 © 2019 Nokia Public • A Profile is a pre-defined set of Services − e.g. Home Light Profile • A Service is a set of Characteristics used to obtain a specific functionnality − e.g. LED control Service • A Characteristic is a data value transferred between devices − e.g. LED color, Temperature
  • 11. 7 © 2019 Nokia Public Everything looks fine so far... What’s a problem?
  • 12. Remote access to the short-range devices Problem 8 © 2019 Nokia Public • Short range IoT devices may need to be accessed from anywhere However... Objective...
  • 13. Remote access to the short-range devices Objective 9 © 2019 Nokia Public Provide transparent connectivity to the out-of-range devices Connectivity is said transparent when the native applications can access both local and remote short-range devices without any modification
  • 14. 10 © 2019 Nokia Public Interconnection between heterogeneous networks
  • 15. Interconnection between heterogeneous networks Existing approaches • Gateway/Proxy-based approaches + Two networks are totally decoupled – Specific requirements to the applications – Technology constraints (e.g. WiFi, UPnP etc.) • IP-enabled approaches + No need for gateways or protocol conversion – Modification of the smart devices and the native short-range protocols APIs • Virtualization-based approaches (SDN …) + Long-range connectivity to the short-range devices – Too complex, SDN controller becomes a single point of failure • Third-party architectures (Cloud-based solutions) – Scalability, latency, privacy, stop of a service etc. 11 © 2019 Nokia Public
  • 16. Commercially available solutions Proprietary gateways • Multi-technology IoT gateways − Proprietary multi-service applications – Manual configuration needed for each Bluetooth device – Reverse engineering needed for proprietary devices • Bluetooth gateways − Adjusted native applications – Not universal – Not backward compatible 12 © 2019 Nokia Public
  • 17. Commercially available solutions Proprietary gateways • Multi-technology IoT gateways − Proprietary multi-service applications – Manual configuration needed for each Bluetooth device – Reverse engineering needed for proprietary devices • Bluetooth gateways − Adjusted native applications – Not universal – Not backward compatible 12 © 2019 Nokia Public Complex and Time consuming!
  • 18. 13 © 2019 Nokia Public Application-agnostic remote access Design objectives Remote Connection Manager (RCM) Implementation & Experimental evaluation
  • 19. Remote access to the short-range devices Existing approaches vs. Our vision 14 © 2019 Nokia Public - Application-dependency - Impact on the end devices - Proprietary devices are ignored - Privacy : third-party (e.g. Clouds) - User-friendliness : too complex - Application-agnostic - No impact on the end devices - Proprietary devices are managed - Privacy : direct connection - User-friendliness : transparent
  • 20. 15 © 2019 Nokia Public Application-agnostic remote access Design objectives Remote Connection Manager (RCM) Implementation & Experimental evaluation
  • 21. Application-agnostic remote access Big picture of the proposal 16 © 2019 Nokia Public • Two kinds of central devices: client and proxy (*) Remote Connection Manager (RCM) provides a transparent connectivity to the remote BLE devices
  • 22. Remote Connection Manager (RCM) System elements 17 © 2019 Nokia Public
  • 23. Remote Connection Manager (RCM) System elements 17 © 2019 Nokia Public → Any application for a given BLE device: native, open source, custom etc.
  • 24. Remote Connection Manager (RCM) System elements 17 © 2019 Nokia Public → Any application for a given BLE device: native, open source, custom etc. → Enables connectivity to the remote peripherals as if they were local
  • 25. Remote Connection Manager (RCM) System elements 17 © 2019 Nokia Public → Any application for a given BLE device: native, open source, custom etc. → Enables connectivity to the remote peripherals as if they were local • Allows to connect to one or more remote peripherals and access their services • No need for a physical Bluetooth interface
  • 26. Remote Connection Manager (RCM) System elements 17 © 2019 Nokia Public → Any application for a given BLE device: native, open source, custom etc. → Enables connectivity to the remote peripherals as if they were local • Allows to connect to one or more remote peripherals and access their services • No need for a physical Bluetooth interface • Exposes its local peripherals • Caches for multicast support • Must have a physical Bluetooth interface
  • 27. Remote Connection Manager (RCM) Global picture of the system design 18 © 2019 Nokia Public
  • 28. Remote Connection Manager (RCM) Communication example for starting discovery 19 © 2019 Nokia Public
  • 29. 20 © 2019 Nokia Public Application-agnostic remote access Design objectives Remote Connection Manager (RCM) Implementation & Experimental evaluation
  • 30. Remote Connection Manager (RCM) Implementation 21 © 2019 Nokia Public Implementation: - Linux/bluez-5.43 & Android/fluoride BLE stacks - Tested with native (Android) and open source (Linux) applications - RCM open-source implementation publicly available on Nokia GitHub under GPLv2 - Ported and tested on Nokia IoT Connector gateway Publications: - N. Rozhnova, M. Buob and R. Douville, “Application-agnostic remote access for Bluetooth Low Energy” IEEE INFOCOM 2018 (INFOCOM WKSHPS), Honolulu, HI - N. Rozhnova, V. Verdot, “Transparent remote connectivity to Bluetooth Low Energy devices”, demo paper, IEEE INFOCOM 2019, Paris, France
  • 31. Android native application (from Google Play) Mixing local and remote devices 22 © 2019 Nokia Public
  • 32. An example of a Linux open-source application use WebBluetooth 23 © 2019 Nokia Public
  • 33. Implementation on top of Linux and Android Bluetooth stacks Client & Proxy examples 24 © 2019 Nokia Public Linux open source application (from https://github.com/urish/web-lightbulb) Android BLE native application (from Google Play) Proxy vision (bluez implementation)
  • 34. Remote Connection Manager (RCM) Experimental evaluation (I) • Bluez 5.43 − Official Bluetooth Protocol Stack implementation on Linux • Three Linux PCs: two clients and one proxy • One BLE peripheral: Light Bulb • WebBluetooth-based Smart Light Bulb Web app on the client nodes 25 © 2019 Nokia Public
  • 35. Remote Connection Manager (RCM) Experimental evaluation (II) 26 © 2019 Nokia Public • Client/proxy mean RTT: 1.8ms • RTT variations: 10ms to 100ms [tc netem] • Client 1 starts before the client 2
  • 36. Remote Connection Manager (RCM) Experimental evaluation (II) 26 © 2019 Nokia Public • Client/proxy mean RTT: 1.8ms • RTT variations: 10ms to 100ms [tc netem] • Client 1 starts before the client 2 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Connectiondelay,[ms] IP network Round Trip Time, [ms] C1 C2 SC1,P SC2,P
  • 37. Conclusion • We presented a new solution for remote access and control to Bluetooth Low Energy devices − Remote Connection Manager (RCM): client and proxy • Presented approach is − independent from the third-party architectures − transparent to the applications • We implemented and tested our solution on real devices • We demonstrated that RCM performs as designed 27 © 2019 Nokia Public
  • 38. Future work • Multiple RCM proxies support • Discovery of proxies • Integration of other short-range technologies • Technology-independent service composition • Overall security of the system 28 © 2019 Nokia Public