Stages of production Planning Production (shooting) Post-production (editing)
Planning Idea Mood board, mind-map, brainstorm Set brief from OCR Script Including all dialogue but also direction, action and settings. (Example Script) Storyboard Visualisation of the shots to communicate the script
Post-Production Editing Export and Presentation
Scripting A film script uses the following conventions: Dialogue: Character names centre justified Dialogue indented under the character name Action Left justified Key props or features (for the production designer) and actions or sounds (for the director) in capitals See example script Return to Planning
Storyboarding A storyboard is a graphical representation of the camera shots in a film sequence which are connected together to create a “narrative flow”. The narrative of the sequence is visualised by a series of drawings which depict location, character, props and setting of each shot Images are accompanied by text detailing action, camera directions, lighting directions and sometimes basic dialogue
What are storyboards for? Helps the director to visualise the flow of camera shots Illustrates how the narrative will flow from one shot to the next for the audience Used as the basis of discussion between director and the director of photography to decide how shots need to be acted, lit and shot In a production meeting, a picture really is worth a thousand words. You can script a sequence in words as clearly as you like, and there will always be some misunderstanding. But if you use storyboards, it’s so much easier to communicate your visual and dramatic ideas.
Use of the camera – shot choice LS (Long Shot) CU (Close Up) WS (Wide Shot) VCU (Very Close Up) MS (Medium Shot) ECU (Extreme Close Up)
The Grammar of shot choice Shots tell the audience different things LS and WS set the scene and give context. When used at the start of a sequence these are called establishing shots. MS is used for action including spoken action CU is used for reaction and emotional content VCU and ECU are used to show fine detail or to make the audience uncomfortable
The “sentence” of a sequence In this sequence from The Ring notice how the director uses a long shot as his exterior establishing shot, then a wide two-shot to establish the interior The beginning of the conversation is shot with medium shots of each girl As the emotional content of the conversation increases, he moves in for close-ups When the tension is released, he pulls out to MS again for the action
The 180° Rule Two characters (or anything) within a scene should always have the same left-right relationship with one another Imagine a line (the axis) connecting the two subjects You can place your camera anywhere on one side of the line, but you can never cross the axis 2 3 When shooting a conversation, OTS (over-the- 1 shoulder) shots help the audience follow it The sequence of swapping from one view to the opposite is Notice how the same sequence called shot/reverse shot (from from The Ring obeys the 180° rule angle 2 to 3 and back) and uses OTS shots.
Angles Commonly action is shot from the same level Shooting from below the action is using a low angle shot. This puts the subject in a position of power over the audience. Shooting from above the action is using a high angle shot. This puts the audience in a position of power over the subject. Shooting the action crooked is using a canted angle. This creates disorientation. Notice how the director in The Ring uses high angles to make Katie seem vulnerable here and here. Return to Production More on use of camera
Sound There are two types of sound in a filmed sequence: Diegetic sound: this is sound that is contained in the scene that you are filming. It can include dialogue, noises made by the characters, or objects in the scene. The characters will be able to hear diegetic sounds. If you can hear it but not see it, the sound is OOS (out of shot) Non-diegetic sound: this is sound that is added on and separate to the scene. This can include musical soundtrack, voice-over and effects. Characters will not be able to hear non-diegetic sound. Listen for examples of non-diegetic sound in The Return to Production
Lighting Lighting a scene is critical to making it look good Lighting which looks natural, bright and sunny with indistinct edges is called high key lighting Obvious lighting with high contrasts, creating dramatic shadows and clear Return to Production
Editing We use Adobe Premier Pro as our editing programme in school It is available on all computers Please note that video files are very large We advise you to use a folder on the desktop of your computer. If you use your area on the network you will run out of space, and the network may not run quickly enough. Make a folder with your group’s name on it. You will need to work on the same computer each time.
Transitions Transitions between shots also communicate meaning. Don’t get too fancy… Cut: this is sequential in time from one shot to the next. The second shot follows directly on from the action in the first. Fade through black: indicates that time has passed between the second shot and the first Dissolve/Wipe: can indicate a flashback or a change of scene
Matching Action Cutting from one shot to the next should directly sequential to the audience However, you will have filmed the two shots at different times It is vital that you match the action from one shot to the next so that there is no “jump” as the camera cuts The cut should be invisible to the audience Notice how the director matches the action across cuts in our sequence from The Ring.
Putting it all together This is a video made by two ex-students, now at University studying Media Notice how they use the techniques of film-making we have discussing including: Shot choice Angles Action matching Shot/reverse shot The 180° rule Diegetic and non-diegetic sound The Stairs
Export and Presentation Once the sequence is fully edited in Premier, export it as a .avi file and upload it to YouTube before embedding it into your blog. On YouTube you can log in as ChewValleyMedia with the password mediastudies Make sure you also post your planning including script and storyboard Take some still photos of your video shoot and post them to show what you were doing Take screenshots of the edit in Premier to demonstrate your progress
Use of camera Batteries DV tapes Tripods Using the camera Sound kit
What to shoot… Framing: from long to close up As individual shots, framed, not zooming through Angles: high, straight and low Movements: Tracking (forward and backwards) Panning (left and right) Crabbing (left and right) Tilting (up and down) Craning (up and down) Focus: zoom (in and out, slow zoom/crash
Evaluating your footage1. What does the shot emphasise about the subject?2. What effect does it have on the audience?3. How might you use the shots in your preliminary production?
Editing1. Set up a new project in Premiere Pro (see separate guide)2. Import the footage from your technical skills shoot3. Edit the shots together in the order they appear on the sheet4. Caption or title each shot with the technical skill it illustrates (e.g. “Shot Composition: Close Up” or “Camera Movement: tracking shot”) Extension tasks:1. Use “dip to black” transitions between each example shot2. Put some music underneath the sequence3. Use video effects on some of the clips – change the colour balance, use filters etc.
Using the sound kit Things to remember: The microphone needs a battery Use the pre-amplifier set to the correct settings Monitor the sound with headphones Good technique The microphone should be as close to the subject as possible but out of shot at all times Try to avoid shadows The microphone is directional – point it where the sound is coming from
Preliminary Video Task Film and edit a sequence in which: a character opens a door, crosses a room and sits down in a chair opposite another character, with whom she/he then exchanges a couple of lines of dialogue. This task should demonstrate match on action, shot/reverse shot and the 180-degree rule. Try and make this interesting!
Moving Image Assessment Shooting material appropriate to the task set, including: controlled use of the camera attention to framing variety of shot sizes close attention to mise en scene Editing so that meaning is apparent to the viewer and making selective and appropriate use of shot transitions, captions and other effects Recording and editing sound with images appropriately
Main TaskMain task: the titles and opening of a newfiction film, to last a maximum of twominutes.
Titles and Opening Sequences In your blogs you will need to show detailed research and analysis of at least three title sequences and three opening sequences from fiction films (i.e. cinema releases, not TV programmes) These can be from the same films but the analysis of the title sequences and the opening sequences must be done separately
Analysing sequences Each post must contain embedded video of the sequence you are analysing The analysis must be detailed and focus on: The media language of the sequence Representations where appropriate The target audience and the impact on the audience An evaluation of the sequence You will be rewarded for reference to specific shots, timecoded to the embedded video clip
Conducting your research You can and should conduct your own research The research should lead into your production, but it need not necessarily be in the same genre Your evaluations should link to your production planning Start with www.artofthetitle.com Search for the clips on Vimeo and YouTube to embed to your own blog