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Antibiotics
β-Lactam antibiotics
Prepared by :
Dr.Narmin Hussen
Assistance lecture
College of Pharmacy
Medicinal Chemistry / 2nd Semester / 4th Stage
Lecture one
Antibiotics
 Antibiotics are medicines used to prevent and treat bacterial
infections.
Classification of Antibiotics:
1. Β-lactamantibiotics---Penicillins,Cephalosporins,Monobactams,
Carbapenems.
2. β-lactamase inhibitors—Clavulanic acid, Sulbactam,Tazobactum.
3. Tetracyclines: Oxytetracycline, Doxycycline.
4. Nitrobenzene derivative: Chloramphenicol.
5. Aminoglycosides: Streptomycin, Gentamicin,Amikacin,Neomycin.
6. Macrolideantibiotics:Erythromycin,Roxithromycin,Clarithromycin,
Azithromycin.
7. Lincosamide antibiotics: Lincomycin, Clindamycin.
8. Polypeptide antibiotics: Polymyxin-B, Colistin,Bacitracin, Tyrothricin.
2
Mechanisms of Action
3
Bacterial cell wall is made up of peptidoglycans
Cell wall of bacteria is broadly classified into two types: gram
positive and gram negative
4
5
Beta-Lactam Antibiotics
 The name “Lactam” is given to cyclic amides and is analogous to
the name “Lactone” which is given to cyclic esters .
 Antibiotics that contains the β-lactam (a four membered cyclic
amide) ring structure constitute the dominant class of agent
currently employed for the chemotherapy of bacterial infections.
 β-lactam are the most widely used group of antibiotics available.
6
Beta-lactam antibiotics
(inhibitors of cell wall synthesis)
Their structure contains a beta-lactam ring.
The major subdivisions are:
a) Penicillins whose official names usually include or end in
“cillin”
b) Cephalosporins which are recognized by the inclusion of “cef”
or “ceph” in their official names.
c) Carbapenems (e.g. meropenem, imipenem)
d) Monobactams (e.g. aztreonam)
e) Beta-lactamase inhibitors (e.g. clavulanic acid, sulbactam).
7
8
9
10
11
12
Penicillin's
 The penicillins were the first antibiotics discovered as natural
products from the mold Penicillium.
 1928 - Sir Alexander Fleming, professor of bacteriology at St.
Mary's Hospital in London, was culturing Staphylococcus
aureus. He noticed zones of inhibition where mold spores were
growing. He named the mold Penicillium rubrum. It was
determined that a secretion of the mold was effective against
Gram-positive bacteria.
 It was isolated from fungus Penicillium notatum.
 Its antibacterial agents which inhibit bacterial cell wall
synthesis.
 Most penicillins are acids with pKa values in the range of 2.5 to
3.0, but some are amphoteric. The free acids are not suitable
for oral or parenteral administration.
13
14
Chemistry of Penicillin's
Penicillin nucleus consists of:
 Thiazolidine ring (Ring A) - Sulphur containing with COOH
(Carboxyl group).
 Beta lactam ring (Ring B) – (Broken by Beta-lactamase) Side chain
is attached at position – 6- (NHCOR)
 Side chains attached through amide linkage. (Broken by Amidase).
Beta Lactam ring is broken by:
 Penicillinase (Beta Lactamase), and by gastric acid.
15
16
Bacterial Resistance
 Some bacteria, in particular most species of Gram-negative bacilli, are
naturally resistant to the action of penicillins.
 The most important biochemical mechanism of penicillin resistance is the
bacterial elaboration of enzymes that inactivate penicillins. Such enzymes,
which have been given the nonspecific name penicillinases, are of two
general types: B- lactamases and acylases.
 The more important of these are the B-lactamases, enzymes that catalyze
the hydrolytic opening of the B-lactam ring of penicillins to produce
inactive penicilloic acids.
 Specific acylases (enzymes that can hydrolyze the acylamino side chain of
penicillins) have been obtained from several species of Gram-negative
bacteria, but their possible role in bacterial resistance has not been well
defined.
 These enzymes find some commercial use in the preparation of 6-APA for
the preparation of semisynthetic penicillins. 6-APA is less active and
hydrolyzed more rapidly (enzymatically and nonenzymatically) than
penicillin. 17
• Another important resistance mechanism, especially in Gram-
negative bacteria, is decreased permeability to penicillins.
• The cell envelope in most Gram-negative bacteria is more
complex than in Gram-positive bacteria. It contains an outer
membrane (linked by lipoprotein bridges to the peptidoglycan
cell wall) not present in Gram-positive bacteria, which creates a
physical barrier to the penetration of antibiotics, especially
those that are hydrophobic.
• Bacterial resistance can result from changes in the affinity of
PBPs for penicillins. Altered PBP binding has been
demonstrated in non–B -lactamase-producing strains of
penicillin-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae and methicillin-
resistant S. aureus (MRSA).
18
Instability of beta-lactams ring
• The main cause of deterioration of penicillin is the reactivity of
the strained lactam ring, particularly to hydrolysis.
• the B-lactam carbonyl group of penicillin readily undergoes
nucleophilic attack by water or (especially) hydroxide ion to
form the inactive penicilloic acid, which is reasonably stable in
neutral to alkaline solutions but readily undergoes
decarboxylation and further hydrolytic reactions in acidic
solutions.
• Other nucleophiles, such as hydroxylamines, alkylamines, and
alcohols, open the B-lactam ring to form the corresponding
hydroxamic acids, amides, and esters.
• .
19
20
Instability of penicillins in acid
• In strongly acidic solutions (pH < 3), penicillin undergoes a
complex series of reactions leading to various inactive
degradation products
• The first step appears to involve rearrangement to the
penicillanic acid. This process is initiated by protonation of the B-
lactam nitrogen, followed by nucleophilic attack of the acyl
oxygen atom on the B-lactam carbonyl carbon.
• The subsequent opening of the B-lactam ring destabilizes the
thiazoline ring, which then also suffers acid-catalyzed ring
opening to form the penicillanic acid.
• Penillic acid (an imidazoline-2-carboxylic acid) readily
decarboxylates and suffers hydrolytic ring opening under acidic
conditions to form a second major end product of acid-catalyzed
penicillin degradation—penilloic acid.
21
• The third major product of the degradation is
penicilloaldehyde, formed by decarboxylation of penaldic acid
(a derivative of malonaldehyde).
22
23
24
25
1-Penicillin G(Benzylpenicillin):
 It is sensitive to stomach acids
 Benzylpenicillin is broken down by stomach acid and destroyed by
β-lactamases– enzymes which hydrolyse the β-lactam ring .
 Not orally active must be injected.
 It has a limited range of activity.
 Drugs of the penicillin group are effective for infections caused by
Gram-positive bacteria (streptococcus, pneumococcus, and
others).
26
Three reasons for the acid sensitivity of penicillin G:
1. Ring strain : Acid catalyzed ring opening relieves these strains by
breaking open more highly β –lactam ring.
2. Highly reactive carbonyl group : The resonance stabilization is
impossible for the β –lactam because of the increase in angle strain
that would result in having a double bond within β –lactam ring. . So
the lone pair is localized on the N atom, and the carbonyl group is
more electrophilic than one would expect for a tertiary amide.
27
3-Influence of the acyl side chain: Acyl group open up the lactam
ring . So Penicillin G has a self-destruct mechanism built in its
structure
28
2-Pencilllin - V (Phenoxy methyl penicillin):
 More acid stable than Penicillin G , but sensitive to beta
lactamase .
 Administered by oral route.
 Infact acid sensitivity can be solved by having an electron
withdrawing group on the Acyl side chain.
29
3- Methicillin:
 Bulky groups "Steric shields” can be added to penicillins to
protect them from bacterial Betalactamase (peicillinase)
enzymes.
 Infact methicillin has no electron withdrawing group on the side
chain. Methicillin is acid sensitive and has to be injected.
30
4-Isoxazoyl Penicillins:
 Penicillinase - resistant penicillins or β- lactamase- resistant
penicillins .
 The incorporation of an isoxazolyl ring in to the penicillin side
chain lead to orally active compounds which were stable to β-
lactamase enzymes of S. aureus.
 The isoxazolyl ring acts as the steric shield but it is also electron-
withdrawing, giving the structure acid stable.
31
5-Ampicillin:
 Hydrophobic groups on the side chain(Pen-G) favor gram +ve
but Poor activity against gram- ve.
 Enhancement of gram -ve activity is found if hydrophilic Groups
– NH2, - OH, -COOH are attached to the alpha carbon from the
carbonyl group on the side chain.
 All have an alpha hydrophilic group which aids the passage of
these penicillins through the porins of the Gram-ve Bacterial
outer cell membrane.
 The acidic stability of the ampicillin also attributes the electron
withdrawing character of the primary amino group which
prevents the hydrolysis of the β-lactam bond.
32
 It is administered orally and is absorbed from the intestinal tract
to produce peak plasma concentrations in about 2 hours.
 Can cause diarrhea due to poor absorption through the gut wall,
is due to dipolar nature of the molecule .This problem can be
solved by using a prodrug Pivampicillin and bacampicillin are
prodrugs of ampicillin.
 Oral doses must be repeated about every 6 hours because it is
excreted rapidly and unchanged through the kidneys.
Uses: Ampicillin HELPS to clear the Enterococci.
H – Haemophilus Influenzae.
E – Escherichia Coli.
L – Listeria monocytogenes.
P- Proteus.
S-Salmonella Typh
33
Ampicillin synthesis:
A method of directly acylating 6-APA with phenylglycine
hydrochloride.
34
Prodrugs of Ampicillin
Bacampicillin hydrochloride
 Oral absorption of bacampicillin is more rapid
and complete than that of ampicillin and less
affected by food.
 After oral absorption, bacampicillin is
hydrolyzed rapidly by esterases in the plasma
to form ampicillin.
 Effective plasma levels are sustained for 12
hours,
 allowing twice-a-day dosing
 It is a prodrug, which is thought to
enhance the oral bioavailability of
ampicillin because of its greater
lipophilicity compared to that of
ampicillin.
Pivampicillin
35
6- Amoxicillin(p.hydroxy of ampicillin).
 Amoxicillin is the very similar in structure like ampicillin, the only
difference being an extra phenol group on amoxicillin (p.hydroxy
analog of ampicillin).
Amoxicillin synthesis:
prepared by acylation of 6-APA(6-aminopenicillanic acid), with
p.hydroxyphenylglycine.
36
 Broad spectrum activity is associated with the presence of an
alpha hydrophilic group on the acyl side chain of penicillin.
 Extra phenol group is present on amoxicillin. If you compare with
ampicillin, amoxicillin are better absorbed through gut wall , less
diarrhea, and little or no effect of food on absorption.
 Acid resistant due to the –NH2 group and therefore orally active.
 Sensitive to β-lactamase.
 Same spectrum of activity as that of penicillin G but more active
against gram–ve bacteria.
Uses:
• Bronchitis, Pneumonia ,Typhoid Enteric ,fever, Gonorrhea.
37
7- Carbenicillin Disodium(Carboxypenicillins):
 Carbenicillin is not stable in acids and is inactivated by
penicillinase.
 Active over a wider range of Gram -ve bacteria than ampicillin.
 Active vs. Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
 Less active vs Gram +ve bacteria (note the hydrophilic group).
 Acid sensitive and must be injected.
 Carfecillin = prodrug for carbenicillin(It is a phenyl derivative of
carbenicillin).
 R = H Carbenicillin , R = Ph Carfecillin
Carbenicillin Disodium
R
Carfecillin 38
8- Ticarcillin Disodium (Carboxypenicillins):
 It is an isostere of carbenicillin in which the phenyl group is
replaced by a thienyl group.
 like carbenicillin, is unstable in acid and, therefore, must be
administered parenterally.
Two advantages for ticarcillin are claimed:
(a) slightly better pharmacokinetic properties, including higher serum
levels and a longer duration of action.
(b) greater in vitro potency against several species of Gram-negative
bacilli.
39
9- Piperacillin Sodium(ureidopenicillins):
 Piperacillin (Pipracil) is the most generally useful of the
extended- spectrum acylureidopenicillins.
 Piperacillin is destroyed rapidly by stomach acid; therefore, it is
active only by intramuscular or intravenous administration.
 Piperacillin is active against anaerobic bacteria, especially B.
fragilis and S. faecalis (enterococcus). B-Lactamase–producing
strains of these organisms are, however, resistant to piperacillin.
40
Β-lactamase Inhibitors
• Three such inhibitors, clavulanic acid, sulbactam, and
tazobactam.
• Has negligible antibacterial activity.
• Given with Penicillins which increases spectrum of activity.
• Two classes of B-lactamase inhibitors: class I inhibitors that have
a heteroatom leaving group at position 1 (e.g., clavulanic acid
and sulbactam) and class II inhibitors that do not (e.g., the
carbapenems).
• Because class I inhibitors cause prolonged inactivation of certain
B-lactamases, they are particularly useful in combination with
extended-spectrum, B-lactamase–sensitive penicillins to treat
infections caused by B-lactamase–producing bacteria.
• A class II inhibitor, the carbapenem derivative imipenem, has
potent antibacterial activity in addition to its ability to cause
transient inhibition of some B-lactamases.
41
42
1- Clavulanate Potassium:
 Clavulanic acid is an antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces
clavuligeris.
 Clavulanic acid exhibits very weak antibacterial activity,
comparable with that of 6-APA and, therefore, is not useful as an
antibiotic.
 It is, however, a potent inhibitor of S. aureus B-lactamase and
plasmid-mediated B-lactamases elaborated by Gram negative
bacilli.
 Combinations of amoxicillin and the potassium salt of clavulanic
acid are available (Augmentin) in various fixed-dose oral dosage
forms intended for the treatment of skin, respiratory, ear, and
urinary tract infections caused by B-lactamase–producing
bacterial strains.
43
• The oral bioavailability of amoxicillin and potassium clavulanate
is similar.
• Clavulanic acid is acid-stable. It cannot undergo penicillanic acid
formation because it lacks an amide side chain.
• Potassium clavulanate and the extended-spectrum penicillin
ticarcillin have been combined in a fixed-dose, injectable form
for the control of serious infections caused by B-lactamase–
producing bacterial strains.
• This combination has been recommended for septicemia, lower
respiratory tract infections, and urinary tract infections caused
by B- lactamase–producing Klebsiella spp., E. coli, P. aeruginosa,
and other Pseudomonas spp.
• The combination contains 3 g of ticarcillin disodium and 100 mg
of potassium clavulanate in a sterile powder for injection
(Timentin).
44
2-Sulbactam:
 Sulbactam is penicillanic acid sulfone or 1,1-dioxopenicillanic acid.
 This synthetic penicillin derivative is a potent inhibitor of S.
aureus B-lactamase as well as many B-lactamases elaborated by
Gram-negative bacilli.
 Sulbactam has weak intrinsic antibacterial activity but potentiates
the activity of ampicillin and carbenicillin against B-lactamase–
producing S. aureus.
 Fixed-dose combinations of ampicillin sodium and sulbactam
sodium, marketed under the trade name Unasyn as sterile
powders for injection.
 These combinations are recommended for the treatment of skin,
tissue, intra-abdominal, and gynecological infections
45
3-Tazobactam:
• Tazobactam is a penicillanic acid sulfone that is similar in
structure to sulbactam.
• It is a more potent B-lactamase inhibitor than sulbactam and has
a slightly broader spectrum of activity than clavulanic acid.
• Tazobactam is available in fixed-dose, injectable combinations
with piperacillin, a broad-spectrum penicillin consisting of an 8:1
ratio of piperacillin sodium to tazobactam sodium by weight and
marketed under the trade name Zosyn.
• Approved indications for the piperacillin–tazobactam
combination include the treatment of appendicitis, postpartum
endometritis, and pelvic inflammatory disease caused by B-
lactamase–producing E. coli and Bacteroides spp., skin and skin
structure infections.
46
Carbapenam
 Carbapenems are a class of β-lactam antibiotics with a broad
spectrum of antibacterial activity.
 They have a structure that renders them highly resistant to most
β-lactamases.
 Examples: Imipenem, Meropenem, and Biapenem.
 Thienamycin is a novel B-lactam antibiotic first isolated and
identified by researchers at Merck from fermentation of cultures
of Streptomyces cattleya.
 Two structural features of thienamycin are shared with the
penicillins and cephalosporins: a fused bicyclic ring system
containing a B-lactam and an equivalently attached 3-carboxyl
group.
thienamycin
47
1- Imipenem:
• Its bactericidal activity results from the inhibition of cell wall
synthesis associated with bonding to PBPs.
• Imipenem is very stable to most B-lactamases. It is an inhibitor of
B-lactamases from certain Gram-negative bacteria resistant to
other B-lactam antibiotics (e.g., P. aeruginosa, S. marcescens, and
Enterobacter spp.).
• Imipenem is inactivated by dehydropeptidases(DHP) in renal
tubules, result in low urinary concentrations, which causes it to
have an unacceptably short half-life in vivo. Cilastatin is an
inhibitor of DHP.
• The imipenem–cilastatin combination is marketed as a sterile
powder intended for the preparation of solutions for intravenous
infusion.
48
Imipenem
2- Meropenem:
• Meropenem is a second-generation carbapenem.
• Meropenem exhibits greater potency against Gram-negative and
anaerobic bacteria than does imipenem, but it is slightly less
active against most Gram-positive species.
• Meropenem is not hydrolyzed by DHP-I and is resistant to most B-
lactamases, including a few carbapenemases that hydrolyze
carbapenem.
• Like imipenem, meropenem is not active orally.
• The lower incidence of nephrotoxicity of meropenem (compared
with imipenem) has been correlated with its greater stability to
DHP-I and the absence of the DHP-I inhibitor cilastatin in the
preparation
49
3- Biapenem:
• Biapenem is a newer second-generation carbapenem with
chemical and microbiological properties similar to those of
meropenem.
• Biapenem is stable to DHP and resistant to most B-lactamases.
• It is not active orally.
50
Cephalosporins
• Cephalosporins were discovered shortly after penicillin entered
into widespread product, but not developed till the 1960’s.
• Cephalosporins are similar to penicillins but have a 6 member
dihydrothiazine ring instead of a 5 member thiazolidine ring.
• 7-aminocephalosporanic acid (7-ACA) can be obtained from
bacteria, but it is easier to expand the ring system of 7-APA
because it is so widely produced.
• Unlike penicillin, cephalosporins have two side chains which can
be easily modified.
• Cephalosporins are also more difficult for β- lactamases to
hydrolyze.
• The oral inactivation of cephalosporins has been attributed to
two causes: instability of the B-lactam ring to acid hydrolysis
(cephalothin and cephaloridine) and solvolysis or microbial
transformation of the 3-methylacetoxy group (cephalothin,
cephaloglycin).
51
52
53
1st Generation Cephalosporin's
• Cephaloridine, cephalothin , Cephalexin , cefradine and cefadroxil.
• These drugs are very active against Gram-positive cocci (such as
Pneumococci, Streptococci, and Staphylococci). They do not cross
BBB.
Cephalexin
 The B-amino group of cephalexin renders it
acid stable, and reduction of the 3-
acetoxymethyl to a methyl group circumvents
reaction at that site.
Cefadroxil
• Cefadroxil (Duricef) is an orally active semisynthetic
derivative of 7-ADCA, in which the 7-acyl group is the
Dhydroxylphenylglycylmoiety.
• The main advantage claimed for cefadroxil is its
somewhat prolonged duration of action, which
permits once-a-day dosing. The prolonged duration
of action of this compound is related to relatively
slow urinary excretion of the drug compared with
other cephalosporins. 54
Cephradine
• Cephradine (Anspor, Velosef) is the only cephalosporin
derivative available in both oral and parenteral dosage
forms.
• Cephradine is stable to acid and absorbed almost
completely after oral administration.
Cephalothin
• Its spectrum of activity is broader than that of
penicillin G and more similar to that of ampicillin.
Unlike ampicillin, cephalothin is resistant to
penicillinase produced by S. aureus.
• It is relatively nontoxic and acid stable.
55
2nd Generation Cephalosporin's
• Cefaclor , Cefamycin and Cefuroxime.
• They have a greater gram-negative spectrum while retaining
some activity against gram-positive bacteria.
• They are also more resistant to β-lactamase. No BBB Penetration.
Cefuroxime sodium
• It is, however, active against B-lactamase–producing
strains that are resistant to cefamandole, such as E.
coli, K. pneumoniae, N. gonorrhoeae, and H.
influenzae.
Cefaclor
• Cefaclor (Ceclor) is an orally active semisynthetic
cephalosporin.
• It differs structurally from cephalexin in that the 3-
methyl group has been replaced by a chlorine atom.
• Cefaclor is moderately stable in acid.
56
3rd Generation Cephalosporin's
• Ceftriaxone, Cefixime and Cefotaxime.
• Third-generation drugs exhibit the lest activity against gram-
positive bacteria, but most potent activity against gram-negative
bacteria :
(a) Extended antibacterial spectrum, include Pseud. aeruginosa;
(b) Less activity on gram-positive bacteria than first and second
generation;
(c) Most active on gram-negative bacteria;
(d) High stability with β-lactamase;
(e) Easy penetrate to different tissues, and then have broad
distribution;
(f) Little kidney toxicity
57
Cefixime
• Cefixime (Suprax) is the orally active.
• Cefixime is a broad-spectrum cephalosporin that is
resistant to many B-lactamases. It is particularly effective
against Gram-negative bacilli, including E. coli, Klebsiella
spp.
Cefotaxime Sodium,
• Cefotaxime (Claforan) was the first third-generation
cephalosporin.
• It possesses excellent broad-spectrum activity against
Gram-positive and Gram negative aerobic and anaerobic
bacteria.
• The parent drug reaches the cerebrospinal fluid in
sufficient concentration to be effective in the treatment of
meningitis.
Ceftriaxone Disodium
• Ceftriaxone (Rocephin) is a B-lactamase–resistant
cephalosporin with an extremely long serum half-life.
• Two factors contribute to the prolonged duration of action of
ceftriaxone: high protein binding in the plasma and slow
urinary excretion.
• Ceftriaxone exhibits excellent broad-spectrum antibacterial
activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative
organisms.
58
4th Generation Cephalosporin's
• Cefpirome and Cefepime.
• Good affinity for the transpeptidase enzyme.
• Low affinity for some β-lactamases.
• Cross BBB and effective in meningitis.
Cefpirome
• Cefpirome (Cefrom) is a newer parenteral, B-
lactamase– resistant cephalosporin with a
quaternary ammonium group at the 3-position of the
cephem nucleus.
• Its broad spectrum includes methicillin-sensitive
staphylococci, penicillin-resistant pneumococci, and
B-lactamase–producing strains of E. coli
• Cefpirome is excreted largely unchanged in the urine
with a half-life of 2 hours
59
Cefepime
• Cefepime (Maxipime, Axepin) is a parenteral, B-
lactamase–resistant cephalosporin.
• It also has a broad antibacterial spectrum, with
significant activity against both Gram-positive and
Gram-negative bacteria.
• The efficacy of cefepime has been demonstrated in
the treatment of urinary tract infections, lower
respiratory tract infections, skin and soft tissue
infections, chronic osteomyelitis, and intra-
abdominal and biliary infections.
60
5th Generation Cephalosporins
• Ceftobiprole
Active against :
 Methicillin-resistant-Staphylococcus aureus.
 Penicillin-resistant-Streptococcus pneumoniae.
61
Cephalosporins advantages over penicillins
 Increased acid stability compare to penicillins.
 Most of the drugs have better absorption than penicillins.
 Broad antimicrobial spectrum.
 Increased activity against resistant microorganisms.
 Decreased allergenicity.
 Increased tolerence than penicillins.
 The oral activity conferred by the phenylglycyl substituent is
attributed to increased acid stability of the lactam ring,
resulting from the presence of a protonated amino group on
the 7-acylamino portion of the molecule.
62
• The presence of the phenylglycyl side chain in its structure,
thecephalosporanic acid derivative cephaloglycin is poorly
absorbed orally, presumably because of solvolysis of the 3-
acetoxyl group in the low pH of the stomach. The resulting 3-
hydroxyl derivative undergoes lactonization under acidic
conditions. The 3-hydroxyl derivatives and, especially, the
corresponding lactones are considerably less active in vitro than
the parent cephalosporins.
• Generally, acyl derivatives of 7-ADCA show lower in vitro
antibacterial potencies than the corresponding 7-ACA analogs,
• Oral activity can also be conferred in certain cephalosporins by
esterification of the 3-carboxylic acid group to form acid-stable,
lipophilic esters that undergo hydrolysis in the plasma.
63
• Hydrolysis of the ester function, catalyzed by hepatic and renal
esterases, is responsible for some in vivo inactivation of
parenteral cephalosporins containing a 3-acetoxymethyl
substituent (e.g., cephalothin, cephapirin, and cefotaxime).
• Parenteral cephalosporins lacking a hydrolyzable group at the 3-
position are not subject to hydrolysis by esterases. Cephradine is
the only cephalosporin that is used both orally and parenterally.
64
B-Lactamase Resistance
 Cephalosporins are significantly less sensitive than all but the
B-lactamase–resistant penicillins to hydrolysis by the enzymes
from S. aureus and Bacillus subtilis.
 The polar substituents in the aminoacyl moiety of
cephalosporins appears to confer stability to some B-
lactamases.
 Two structural features confer broadly based resistance to B-
lactamases among the cephalosporins:
(a) an alkoximino function in the aminoacyl group and
(b) a methoxyl substituent at the 7-position of the cephem
nucleus having α stereochemistry.
65

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Antibiotic -Drugs/ Medicinal Chemistry

  • 1. Antibiotics β-Lactam antibiotics Prepared by : Dr.Narmin Hussen Assistance lecture College of Pharmacy Medicinal Chemistry / 2nd Semester / 4th Stage Lecture one
  • 2. Antibiotics  Antibiotics are medicines used to prevent and treat bacterial infections. Classification of Antibiotics: 1. Β-lactamantibiotics---Penicillins,Cephalosporins,Monobactams, Carbapenems. 2. β-lactamase inhibitors—Clavulanic acid, Sulbactam,Tazobactum. 3. Tetracyclines: Oxytetracycline, Doxycycline. 4. Nitrobenzene derivative: Chloramphenicol. 5. Aminoglycosides: Streptomycin, Gentamicin,Amikacin,Neomycin. 6. Macrolideantibiotics:Erythromycin,Roxithromycin,Clarithromycin, Azithromycin. 7. Lincosamide antibiotics: Lincomycin, Clindamycin. 8. Polypeptide antibiotics: Polymyxin-B, Colistin,Bacitracin, Tyrothricin. 2
  • 4. Bacterial cell wall is made up of peptidoglycans Cell wall of bacteria is broadly classified into two types: gram positive and gram negative 4
  • 5. 5
  • 6. Beta-Lactam Antibiotics  The name “Lactam” is given to cyclic amides and is analogous to the name “Lactone” which is given to cyclic esters .  Antibiotics that contains the β-lactam (a four membered cyclic amide) ring structure constitute the dominant class of agent currently employed for the chemotherapy of bacterial infections.  β-lactam are the most widely used group of antibiotics available. 6
  • 7. Beta-lactam antibiotics (inhibitors of cell wall synthesis) Their structure contains a beta-lactam ring. The major subdivisions are: a) Penicillins whose official names usually include or end in “cillin” b) Cephalosporins which are recognized by the inclusion of “cef” or “ceph” in their official names. c) Carbapenems (e.g. meropenem, imipenem) d) Monobactams (e.g. aztreonam) e) Beta-lactamase inhibitors (e.g. clavulanic acid, sulbactam). 7
  • 8. 8
  • 9. 9
  • 10. 10
  • 11. 11
  • 12. 12
  • 13. Penicillin's  The penicillins were the first antibiotics discovered as natural products from the mold Penicillium.  1928 - Sir Alexander Fleming, professor of bacteriology at St. Mary's Hospital in London, was culturing Staphylococcus aureus. He noticed zones of inhibition where mold spores were growing. He named the mold Penicillium rubrum. It was determined that a secretion of the mold was effective against Gram-positive bacteria.  It was isolated from fungus Penicillium notatum.  Its antibacterial agents which inhibit bacterial cell wall synthesis.  Most penicillins are acids with pKa values in the range of 2.5 to 3.0, but some are amphoteric. The free acids are not suitable for oral or parenteral administration. 13
  • 14. 14
  • 15. Chemistry of Penicillin's Penicillin nucleus consists of:  Thiazolidine ring (Ring A) - Sulphur containing with COOH (Carboxyl group).  Beta lactam ring (Ring B) – (Broken by Beta-lactamase) Side chain is attached at position – 6- (NHCOR)  Side chains attached through amide linkage. (Broken by Amidase). Beta Lactam ring is broken by:  Penicillinase (Beta Lactamase), and by gastric acid. 15
  • 16. 16
  • 17. Bacterial Resistance  Some bacteria, in particular most species of Gram-negative bacilli, are naturally resistant to the action of penicillins.  The most important biochemical mechanism of penicillin resistance is the bacterial elaboration of enzymes that inactivate penicillins. Such enzymes, which have been given the nonspecific name penicillinases, are of two general types: B- lactamases and acylases.  The more important of these are the B-lactamases, enzymes that catalyze the hydrolytic opening of the B-lactam ring of penicillins to produce inactive penicilloic acids.  Specific acylases (enzymes that can hydrolyze the acylamino side chain of penicillins) have been obtained from several species of Gram-negative bacteria, but their possible role in bacterial resistance has not been well defined.  These enzymes find some commercial use in the preparation of 6-APA for the preparation of semisynthetic penicillins. 6-APA is less active and hydrolyzed more rapidly (enzymatically and nonenzymatically) than penicillin. 17
  • 18. • Another important resistance mechanism, especially in Gram- negative bacteria, is decreased permeability to penicillins. • The cell envelope in most Gram-negative bacteria is more complex than in Gram-positive bacteria. It contains an outer membrane (linked by lipoprotein bridges to the peptidoglycan cell wall) not present in Gram-positive bacteria, which creates a physical barrier to the penetration of antibiotics, especially those that are hydrophobic. • Bacterial resistance can result from changes in the affinity of PBPs for penicillins. Altered PBP binding has been demonstrated in non–B -lactamase-producing strains of penicillin-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae and methicillin- resistant S. aureus (MRSA). 18
  • 19. Instability of beta-lactams ring • The main cause of deterioration of penicillin is the reactivity of the strained lactam ring, particularly to hydrolysis. • the B-lactam carbonyl group of penicillin readily undergoes nucleophilic attack by water or (especially) hydroxide ion to form the inactive penicilloic acid, which is reasonably stable in neutral to alkaline solutions but readily undergoes decarboxylation and further hydrolytic reactions in acidic solutions. • Other nucleophiles, such as hydroxylamines, alkylamines, and alcohols, open the B-lactam ring to form the corresponding hydroxamic acids, amides, and esters. • . 19
  • 20. 20
  • 21. Instability of penicillins in acid • In strongly acidic solutions (pH < 3), penicillin undergoes a complex series of reactions leading to various inactive degradation products • The first step appears to involve rearrangement to the penicillanic acid. This process is initiated by protonation of the B- lactam nitrogen, followed by nucleophilic attack of the acyl oxygen atom on the B-lactam carbonyl carbon. • The subsequent opening of the B-lactam ring destabilizes the thiazoline ring, which then also suffers acid-catalyzed ring opening to form the penicillanic acid. • Penillic acid (an imidazoline-2-carboxylic acid) readily decarboxylates and suffers hydrolytic ring opening under acidic conditions to form a second major end product of acid-catalyzed penicillin degradation—penilloic acid. 21
  • 22. • The third major product of the degradation is penicilloaldehyde, formed by decarboxylation of penaldic acid (a derivative of malonaldehyde). 22
  • 23. 23
  • 24. 24
  • 25. 25
  • 26. 1-Penicillin G(Benzylpenicillin):  It is sensitive to stomach acids  Benzylpenicillin is broken down by stomach acid and destroyed by β-lactamases– enzymes which hydrolyse the β-lactam ring .  Not orally active must be injected.  It has a limited range of activity.  Drugs of the penicillin group are effective for infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria (streptococcus, pneumococcus, and others). 26
  • 27. Three reasons for the acid sensitivity of penicillin G: 1. Ring strain : Acid catalyzed ring opening relieves these strains by breaking open more highly β –lactam ring. 2. Highly reactive carbonyl group : The resonance stabilization is impossible for the β –lactam because of the increase in angle strain that would result in having a double bond within β –lactam ring. . So the lone pair is localized on the N atom, and the carbonyl group is more electrophilic than one would expect for a tertiary amide. 27
  • 28. 3-Influence of the acyl side chain: Acyl group open up the lactam ring . So Penicillin G has a self-destruct mechanism built in its structure 28
  • 29. 2-Pencilllin - V (Phenoxy methyl penicillin):  More acid stable than Penicillin G , but sensitive to beta lactamase .  Administered by oral route.  Infact acid sensitivity can be solved by having an electron withdrawing group on the Acyl side chain. 29
  • 30. 3- Methicillin:  Bulky groups "Steric shields” can be added to penicillins to protect them from bacterial Betalactamase (peicillinase) enzymes.  Infact methicillin has no electron withdrawing group on the side chain. Methicillin is acid sensitive and has to be injected. 30
  • 31. 4-Isoxazoyl Penicillins:  Penicillinase - resistant penicillins or β- lactamase- resistant penicillins .  The incorporation of an isoxazolyl ring in to the penicillin side chain lead to orally active compounds which were stable to β- lactamase enzymes of S. aureus.  The isoxazolyl ring acts as the steric shield but it is also electron- withdrawing, giving the structure acid stable. 31
  • 32. 5-Ampicillin:  Hydrophobic groups on the side chain(Pen-G) favor gram +ve but Poor activity against gram- ve.  Enhancement of gram -ve activity is found if hydrophilic Groups – NH2, - OH, -COOH are attached to the alpha carbon from the carbonyl group on the side chain.  All have an alpha hydrophilic group which aids the passage of these penicillins through the porins of the Gram-ve Bacterial outer cell membrane.  The acidic stability of the ampicillin also attributes the electron withdrawing character of the primary amino group which prevents the hydrolysis of the β-lactam bond. 32
  • 33.  It is administered orally and is absorbed from the intestinal tract to produce peak plasma concentrations in about 2 hours.  Can cause diarrhea due to poor absorption through the gut wall, is due to dipolar nature of the molecule .This problem can be solved by using a prodrug Pivampicillin and bacampicillin are prodrugs of ampicillin.  Oral doses must be repeated about every 6 hours because it is excreted rapidly and unchanged through the kidneys. Uses: Ampicillin HELPS to clear the Enterococci. H – Haemophilus Influenzae. E – Escherichia Coli. L – Listeria monocytogenes. P- Proteus. S-Salmonella Typh 33
  • 34. Ampicillin synthesis: A method of directly acylating 6-APA with phenylglycine hydrochloride. 34
  • 35. Prodrugs of Ampicillin Bacampicillin hydrochloride  Oral absorption of bacampicillin is more rapid and complete than that of ampicillin and less affected by food.  After oral absorption, bacampicillin is hydrolyzed rapidly by esterases in the plasma to form ampicillin.  Effective plasma levels are sustained for 12 hours,  allowing twice-a-day dosing  It is a prodrug, which is thought to enhance the oral bioavailability of ampicillin because of its greater lipophilicity compared to that of ampicillin. Pivampicillin 35
  • 36. 6- Amoxicillin(p.hydroxy of ampicillin).  Amoxicillin is the very similar in structure like ampicillin, the only difference being an extra phenol group on amoxicillin (p.hydroxy analog of ampicillin). Amoxicillin synthesis: prepared by acylation of 6-APA(6-aminopenicillanic acid), with p.hydroxyphenylglycine. 36
  • 37.  Broad spectrum activity is associated with the presence of an alpha hydrophilic group on the acyl side chain of penicillin.  Extra phenol group is present on amoxicillin. If you compare with ampicillin, amoxicillin are better absorbed through gut wall , less diarrhea, and little or no effect of food on absorption.  Acid resistant due to the –NH2 group and therefore orally active.  Sensitive to β-lactamase.  Same spectrum of activity as that of penicillin G but more active against gram–ve bacteria. Uses: • Bronchitis, Pneumonia ,Typhoid Enteric ,fever, Gonorrhea. 37
  • 38. 7- Carbenicillin Disodium(Carboxypenicillins):  Carbenicillin is not stable in acids and is inactivated by penicillinase.  Active over a wider range of Gram -ve bacteria than ampicillin.  Active vs. Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  Less active vs Gram +ve bacteria (note the hydrophilic group).  Acid sensitive and must be injected.  Carfecillin = prodrug for carbenicillin(It is a phenyl derivative of carbenicillin).  R = H Carbenicillin , R = Ph Carfecillin Carbenicillin Disodium R Carfecillin 38
  • 39. 8- Ticarcillin Disodium (Carboxypenicillins):  It is an isostere of carbenicillin in which the phenyl group is replaced by a thienyl group.  like carbenicillin, is unstable in acid and, therefore, must be administered parenterally. Two advantages for ticarcillin are claimed: (a) slightly better pharmacokinetic properties, including higher serum levels and a longer duration of action. (b) greater in vitro potency against several species of Gram-negative bacilli. 39
  • 40. 9- Piperacillin Sodium(ureidopenicillins):  Piperacillin (Pipracil) is the most generally useful of the extended- spectrum acylureidopenicillins.  Piperacillin is destroyed rapidly by stomach acid; therefore, it is active only by intramuscular or intravenous administration.  Piperacillin is active against anaerobic bacteria, especially B. fragilis and S. faecalis (enterococcus). B-Lactamase–producing strains of these organisms are, however, resistant to piperacillin. 40
  • 41. Β-lactamase Inhibitors • Three such inhibitors, clavulanic acid, sulbactam, and tazobactam. • Has negligible antibacterial activity. • Given with Penicillins which increases spectrum of activity. • Two classes of B-lactamase inhibitors: class I inhibitors that have a heteroatom leaving group at position 1 (e.g., clavulanic acid and sulbactam) and class II inhibitors that do not (e.g., the carbapenems). • Because class I inhibitors cause prolonged inactivation of certain B-lactamases, they are particularly useful in combination with extended-spectrum, B-lactamase–sensitive penicillins to treat infections caused by B-lactamase–producing bacteria. • A class II inhibitor, the carbapenem derivative imipenem, has potent antibacterial activity in addition to its ability to cause transient inhibition of some B-lactamases. 41
  • 42. 42
  • 43. 1- Clavulanate Potassium:  Clavulanic acid is an antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces clavuligeris.  Clavulanic acid exhibits very weak antibacterial activity, comparable with that of 6-APA and, therefore, is not useful as an antibiotic.  It is, however, a potent inhibitor of S. aureus B-lactamase and plasmid-mediated B-lactamases elaborated by Gram negative bacilli.  Combinations of amoxicillin and the potassium salt of clavulanic acid are available (Augmentin) in various fixed-dose oral dosage forms intended for the treatment of skin, respiratory, ear, and urinary tract infections caused by B-lactamase–producing bacterial strains. 43
  • 44. • The oral bioavailability of amoxicillin and potassium clavulanate is similar. • Clavulanic acid is acid-stable. It cannot undergo penicillanic acid formation because it lacks an amide side chain. • Potassium clavulanate and the extended-spectrum penicillin ticarcillin have been combined in a fixed-dose, injectable form for the control of serious infections caused by B-lactamase– producing bacterial strains. • This combination has been recommended for septicemia, lower respiratory tract infections, and urinary tract infections caused by B- lactamase–producing Klebsiella spp., E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and other Pseudomonas spp. • The combination contains 3 g of ticarcillin disodium and 100 mg of potassium clavulanate in a sterile powder for injection (Timentin). 44
  • 45. 2-Sulbactam:  Sulbactam is penicillanic acid sulfone or 1,1-dioxopenicillanic acid.  This synthetic penicillin derivative is a potent inhibitor of S. aureus B-lactamase as well as many B-lactamases elaborated by Gram-negative bacilli.  Sulbactam has weak intrinsic antibacterial activity but potentiates the activity of ampicillin and carbenicillin against B-lactamase– producing S. aureus.  Fixed-dose combinations of ampicillin sodium and sulbactam sodium, marketed under the trade name Unasyn as sterile powders for injection.  These combinations are recommended for the treatment of skin, tissue, intra-abdominal, and gynecological infections 45
  • 46. 3-Tazobactam: • Tazobactam is a penicillanic acid sulfone that is similar in structure to sulbactam. • It is a more potent B-lactamase inhibitor than sulbactam and has a slightly broader spectrum of activity than clavulanic acid. • Tazobactam is available in fixed-dose, injectable combinations with piperacillin, a broad-spectrum penicillin consisting of an 8:1 ratio of piperacillin sodium to tazobactam sodium by weight and marketed under the trade name Zosyn. • Approved indications for the piperacillin–tazobactam combination include the treatment of appendicitis, postpartum endometritis, and pelvic inflammatory disease caused by B- lactamase–producing E. coli and Bacteroides spp., skin and skin structure infections. 46
  • 47. Carbapenam  Carbapenems are a class of β-lactam antibiotics with a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity.  They have a structure that renders them highly resistant to most β-lactamases.  Examples: Imipenem, Meropenem, and Biapenem.  Thienamycin is a novel B-lactam antibiotic first isolated and identified by researchers at Merck from fermentation of cultures of Streptomyces cattleya.  Two structural features of thienamycin are shared with the penicillins and cephalosporins: a fused bicyclic ring system containing a B-lactam and an equivalently attached 3-carboxyl group. thienamycin 47
  • 48. 1- Imipenem: • Its bactericidal activity results from the inhibition of cell wall synthesis associated with bonding to PBPs. • Imipenem is very stable to most B-lactamases. It is an inhibitor of B-lactamases from certain Gram-negative bacteria resistant to other B-lactam antibiotics (e.g., P. aeruginosa, S. marcescens, and Enterobacter spp.). • Imipenem is inactivated by dehydropeptidases(DHP) in renal tubules, result in low urinary concentrations, which causes it to have an unacceptably short half-life in vivo. Cilastatin is an inhibitor of DHP. • The imipenem–cilastatin combination is marketed as a sterile powder intended for the preparation of solutions for intravenous infusion. 48 Imipenem
  • 49. 2- Meropenem: • Meropenem is a second-generation carbapenem. • Meropenem exhibits greater potency against Gram-negative and anaerobic bacteria than does imipenem, but it is slightly less active against most Gram-positive species. • Meropenem is not hydrolyzed by DHP-I and is resistant to most B- lactamases, including a few carbapenemases that hydrolyze carbapenem. • Like imipenem, meropenem is not active orally. • The lower incidence of nephrotoxicity of meropenem (compared with imipenem) has been correlated with its greater stability to DHP-I and the absence of the DHP-I inhibitor cilastatin in the preparation 49
  • 50. 3- Biapenem: • Biapenem is a newer second-generation carbapenem with chemical and microbiological properties similar to those of meropenem. • Biapenem is stable to DHP and resistant to most B-lactamases. • It is not active orally. 50
  • 51. Cephalosporins • Cephalosporins were discovered shortly after penicillin entered into widespread product, but not developed till the 1960’s. • Cephalosporins are similar to penicillins but have a 6 member dihydrothiazine ring instead of a 5 member thiazolidine ring. • 7-aminocephalosporanic acid (7-ACA) can be obtained from bacteria, but it is easier to expand the ring system of 7-APA because it is so widely produced. • Unlike penicillin, cephalosporins have two side chains which can be easily modified. • Cephalosporins are also more difficult for β- lactamases to hydrolyze. • The oral inactivation of cephalosporins has been attributed to two causes: instability of the B-lactam ring to acid hydrolysis (cephalothin and cephaloridine) and solvolysis or microbial transformation of the 3-methylacetoxy group (cephalothin, cephaloglycin). 51
  • 52. 52
  • 53. 53
  • 54. 1st Generation Cephalosporin's • Cephaloridine, cephalothin , Cephalexin , cefradine and cefadroxil. • These drugs are very active against Gram-positive cocci (such as Pneumococci, Streptococci, and Staphylococci). They do not cross BBB. Cephalexin  The B-amino group of cephalexin renders it acid stable, and reduction of the 3- acetoxymethyl to a methyl group circumvents reaction at that site. Cefadroxil • Cefadroxil (Duricef) is an orally active semisynthetic derivative of 7-ADCA, in which the 7-acyl group is the Dhydroxylphenylglycylmoiety. • The main advantage claimed for cefadroxil is its somewhat prolonged duration of action, which permits once-a-day dosing. The prolonged duration of action of this compound is related to relatively slow urinary excretion of the drug compared with other cephalosporins. 54
  • 55. Cephradine • Cephradine (Anspor, Velosef) is the only cephalosporin derivative available in both oral and parenteral dosage forms. • Cephradine is stable to acid and absorbed almost completely after oral administration. Cephalothin • Its spectrum of activity is broader than that of penicillin G and more similar to that of ampicillin. Unlike ampicillin, cephalothin is resistant to penicillinase produced by S. aureus. • It is relatively nontoxic and acid stable. 55
  • 56. 2nd Generation Cephalosporin's • Cefaclor , Cefamycin and Cefuroxime. • They have a greater gram-negative spectrum while retaining some activity against gram-positive bacteria. • They are also more resistant to β-lactamase. No BBB Penetration. Cefuroxime sodium • It is, however, active against B-lactamase–producing strains that are resistant to cefamandole, such as E. coli, K. pneumoniae, N. gonorrhoeae, and H. influenzae. Cefaclor • Cefaclor (Ceclor) is an orally active semisynthetic cephalosporin. • It differs structurally from cephalexin in that the 3- methyl group has been replaced by a chlorine atom. • Cefaclor is moderately stable in acid. 56
  • 57. 3rd Generation Cephalosporin's • Ceftriaxone, Cefixime and Cefotaxime. • Third-generation drugs exhibit the lest activity against gram- positive bacteria, but most potent activity against gram-negative bacteria : (a) Extended antibacterial spectrum, include Pseud. aeruginosa; (b) Less activity on gram-positive bacteria than first and second generation; (c) Most active on gram-negative bacteria; (d) High stability with β-lactamase; (e) Easy penetrate to different tissues, and then have broad distribution; (f) Little kidney toxicity 57
  • 58. Cefixime • Cefixime (Suprax) is the orally active. • Cefixime is a broad-spectrum cephalosporin that is resistant to many B-lactamases. It is particularly effective against Gram-negative bacilli, including E. coli, Klebsiella spp. Cefotaxime Sodium, • Cefotaxime (Claforan) was the first third-generation cephalosporin. • It possesses excellent broad-spectrum activity against Gram-positive and Gram negative aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. • The parent drug reaches the cerebrospinal fluid in sufficient concentration to be effective in the treatment of meningitis. Ceftriaxone Disodium • Ceftriaxone (Rocephin) is a B-lactamase–resistant cephalosporin with an extremely long serum half-life. • Two factors contribute to the prolonged duration of action of ceftriaxone: high protein binding in the plasma and slow urinary excretion. • Ceftriaxone exhibits excellent broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms. 58
  • 59. 4th Generation Cephalosporin's • Cefpirome and Cefepime. • Good affinity for the transpeptidase enzyme. • Low affinity for some β-lactamases. • Cross BBB and effective in meningitis. Cefpirome • Cefpirome (Cefrom) is a newer parenteral, B- lactamase– resistant cephalosporin with a quaternary ammonium group at the 3-position of the cephem nucleus. • Its broad spectrum includes methicillin-sensitive staphylococci, penicillin-resistant pneumococci, and B-lactamase–producing strains of E. coli • Cefpirome is excreted largely unchanged in the urine with a half-life of 2 hours 59
  • 60. Cefepime • Cefepime (Maxipime, Axepin) is a parenteral, B- lactamase–resistant cephalosporin. • It also has a broad antibacterial spectrum, with significant activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. • The efficacy of cefepime has been demonstrated in the treatment of urinary tract infections, lower respiratory tract infections, skin and soft tissue infections, chronic osteomyelitis, and intra- abdominal and biliary infections. 60
  • 61. 5th Generation Cephalosporins • Ceftobiprole Active against :  Methicillin-resistant-Staphylococcus aureus.  Penicillin-resistant-Streptococcus pneumoniae. 61
  • 62. Cephalosporins advantages over penicillins  Increased acid stability compare to penicillins.  Most of the drugs have better absorption than penicillins.  Broad antimicrobial spectrum.  Increased activity against resistant microorganisms.  Decreased allergenicity.  Increased tolerence than penicillins.  The oral activity conferred by the phenylglycyl substituent is attributed to increased acid stability of the lactam ring, resulting from the presence of a protonated amino group on the 7-acylamino portion of the molecule. 62
  • 63. • The presence of the phenylglycyl side chain in its structure, thecephalosporanic acid derivative cephaloglycin is poorly absorbed orally, presumably because of solvolysis of the 3- acetoxyl group in the low pH of the stomach. The resulting 3- hydroxyl derivative undergoes lactonization under acidic conditions. The 3-hydroxyl derivatives and, especially, the corresponding lactones are considerably less active in vitro than the parent cephalosporins. • Generally, acyl derivatives of 7-ADCA show lower in vitro antibacterial potencies than the corresponding 7-ACA analogs, • Oral activity can also be conferred in certain cephalosporins by esterification of the 3-carboxylic acid group to form acid-stable, lipophilic esters that undergo hydrolysis in the plasma. 63
  • 64. • Hydrolysis of the ester function, catalyzed by hepatic and renal esterases, is responsible for some in vivo inactivation of parenteral cephalosporins containing a 3-acetoxymethyl substituent (e.g., cephalothin, cephapirin, and cefotaxime). • Parenteral cephalosporins lacking a hydrolyzable group at the 3- position are not subject to hydrolysis by esterases. Cephradine is the only cephalosporin that is used both orally and parenterally. 64
  • 65. B-Lactamase Resistance  Cephalosporins are significantly less sensitive than all but the B-lactamase–resistant penicillins to hydrolysis by the enzymes from S. aureus and Bacillus subtilis.  The polar substituents in the aminoacyl moiety of cephalosporins appears to confer stability to some B- lactamases.  Two structural features confer broadly based resistance to B- lactamases among the cephalosporins: (a) an alkoximino function in the aminoacyl group and (b) a methoxyl substituent at the 7-position of the cephem nucleus having α stereochemistry. 65