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Dams 10 1 final

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Dams 10 1 final

  1. 1. DAMS http://www.cromwell.org.nz/aerial_photos/images/Clyde%20Dam_jpg.jpg http://www.centralbasin.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/2009/03/hoover-dam-directions.jpg http://www.goodlife.com.ng/uploads/Yeunde-Farinloye_120_dam1.gif http://www.destination360.com/north-america/us/nevada/las-vegas/images/s/las-vegas-hoover-dam.jpg http://www.physics.uiowa.edu/~umallik/adventure/nov_06-04/Grand%20Coulee%20Dam.jpg
  2. 2. Dam Structure http://www.americanwhitewater.org/photos/archive/medium/18665.jpg
  3. 3. Dam Structure 2 http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_GmlJ2al7e_k/Su2-BeKr25I/AAAAAAAAGwc/QsNga5IwUT8/s400/damgif
  4. 4. Dam Structure <ul><li>Impermeable Membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Strength </li></ul><ul><li>Outlet Valve </li></ul><ul><li>Spillway </li></ul>http://www.parks.ca.gov/pages/500/images/folsomdam.jpg (5)
  5. 5. Types of Dams <ul><li>Concrete </li></ul><ul><li>Gravity </li></ul><ul><li>Arch & Buttress </li></ul><ul><li>Fill (Embankment) </li></ul><ul><li>Earth </li></ul><ul><li>Earth & Rock Fill </li></ul><ul><li>Concrete Faced Rock Fill </li></ul>(5)
  6. 6. Uses of Dams <ul><li>To provide H 2 O (towns/irrigation) </li></ul><ul><li>To store waste (from mines) </li></ul><ul><li>To generate electricity </li></ul><ul><li>To help control floods </li></ul>(5)
  7. 7. Positive Sides of Dams <ul><li>20% of electrical energy production </li></ul><ul><li>Cheap energy </li></ul><ul><li>Long life </li></ul><ul><li>Attracting tourists </li></ul>(5)
  8. 8. Negative Impacts of Dams http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b5/Arch_dam_Oymapinar_%28Manavgat_River,_Turkey%29.JPG
  9. 9. Impacts on Water Diversion <ul><li>Upstream ->stationary reservoir: </li></ul><ul><li>standing water for long periods 1 </li></ul><ul><li>organic material-> decompose-> consume the limited oxygen-> dead zones 1 </li></ul><ul><li>algae growth (toxic for rivers) 1 </li></ul><ul><li>temperatures: too low at the bottom and too high on the surface no turnover 1 </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Downstream: </li></ul><ul><li>Depends on the season-long periods without flow 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Flow-high Energy of water- moves rocks, sand, sediments 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Water- polluted, without oxygen, smells rotten (sulphurous hydrogen disposal) 2 </li></ul><ul><li>The ecosystem-damaged 2 </li></ul>
  11. 11. Impact on Fish 5 <ul><li>http://inadawords.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/01/nemo.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>Dams prevent the migration: salmon ->river-> sea </li></ul><ul><li>Fish cannot pass the dam ->not enough food-> die </li></ul><ul><li>Slow moving water: many fish-> victims of predators </li></ul><ul><li>No circulation (t is not balanced), not enough oxygen, toxic water ->death </li></ul>
  12. 12. Impacts on Human <ul><li>People have to abandon their home, agricultural lands, environment-> start living in a new way, adjust to new conditions 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Collapse: lack of precise engineering 3 , too much rain 4 </li></ul><ul><li>“ China is plagued by the world's worst dam hazards” (Minister Chen) , rainfalls, earthquakes 4 </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Immediate evacuation </li></ul><ul><li>Causes: floods-> death of many people, environmental destructions 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Living near dam-dangerous(esp. in China) 4 </li></ul>http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2005/08/photogalleries/New_Orleans_flood/images/primary/katrina28.jpg http://www.ecy.wa.gov/programs/wr/dams/Images/Taiwan_Dam_Failure_16Sta5_Dam.jpg
  14. 14. Aswan Dam http://geoeyemediaportal.s3.amazonaws.com/assets/images/gallery/manmade/structures/hires/aswan_dam.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6a/Lake_Nasser_location.png
  15. 15. Aswan Dam <ul><li>Aswan Dam is the general name for two dams – High and Low dam. </li></ul><ul><li>Low – constructed in 1902 </li></ul><ul><li>High – 1970 </li></ul><ul><li>Aim = to increase the economic production trough regulating the annual river flooding </li></ul>http://farm1.static.flickr.com/111/295438443_40c30138e6.jpg (8)
  16. 16. Aswan Da m - Benefits <ul><li>Decreased the effect of the dangerous floods – 1964 and 1973 </li></ul><ul><li>Increased the farmland drastically </li></ul><ul><li>Powered a huge amount of the country </li></ul>(8)
  17. 17. Aswan Dam Enviromental and cultural problems <ul><li>Flooding lower Nubia </li></ul><ul><li>Silt held back </li></ul><ul><li>Logging soils </li></ul><ul><li>Erosion </li></ul><ul><li>Endangering historical sites </li></ul>(8)
  18. 18. Aral Sea D am http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/85/Aral_map.png http://guanakolandia.files.wordpress.com/2010/04/mar-de-aral-aral-sea-dam_788415c.jpg
  19. 19. Aral Sea <ul><li>One of the biggest lakes on Earth </li></ul><ul><li>Located in Central Asia between Kazakhstan, and Uzbekistan </li></ul><ul><li>Dam project in 2005 in order to save the Aral Sea </li></ul>(7)
  20. 20. Aral Sea <ul><li>Nearly destroyed ecosystems! </li></ul><ul><li>Health problems for people </li></ul><ul><li>Almost no fishing industry </li></ul>http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/95/Aral_Sea_1989-2008.jpg (7)
  21. 21. Last hope – the dam <ul><li>The last attempt to save the sea was to build a Dam </li></ul><ul><li>Water lever raised by 12m </li></ul><ul><li>Salinity was dropped </li></ul><ul><li>Fishing rates raised again </li></ul>(7)
  22. 22. Work Cited <ul><li>8. Antelava, Natalya. &quot;BBC NEWS | Asia-Pacific | Dam Project Aims to save Aral Sea.&quot; BBC NEWS | News Front Page . BBC, 9 Apr. 2007. Web. 14 June 2010. <http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/6538219.stm>. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Antelava, Natalya. “Dam project aims to save Aral Sea .” BBC News . BBC, 2010. Web. 14 June 2010. <http://news.bbc.co.uk/‌2/‌hi/‌asia-pacific/‌6538219.stm>. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Kelly, Peggy. “Cause of St. Francis Dam collapse more concrete than initially verified.” Santa Paula Times Online . Santa Paula Times, 2010. Web. 14 June 2010. <http://www.santapaulatimes.com/‌news/‌fullstory.php/‌aid/‌18775/‌Cause_of_St._Francis_Dam_collapse_more_concrete_than_initially_verified.html,>. </li></ul><ul><li>4. “More than 37,000 Chinese dams could collapse from excess rain.” AsiaNews.it . Autogestione contenuti di AsiaNews, 8 May 2009. Web. 14 June 2010. <http://www.asianews.it/‌news-en/‌More-than-37,000-Chinese-dams-could-collapse-from-excess-rain-15189.html>. </li></ul><ul><li>1. “Poorly Run Hydro.” Dam Effects . Hydropower Reform Coalition, 2009. Web. 14 June 2010. <http://www.dameffects.org/>. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Sait TAHMİSCİOĞLU, M., et al. “POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE IMPACTS OF DAMS.” DSI . N.p., 2007. Web. 14 June 2010. <http://www.dsi.gov.tr/‌english/‌congress2007/‌chapter_2/‌60.pdf>. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Smith, S. E. “Why are Dams Potentially Harmful to Fish?” Wise Geek . conjecture corporation , 12 Apr. 2010. Web. 14June 2010. <http://www.wisegeek.com/‌why-are-dams-potentially-harmful-to-fish.htm>. </li></ul><ul><li>7. &quot;The Kazakh Miracle: Recovery of the North Aral Sea.&quot; Environment News Service . Environment News Service (ENS), 1 Aug. 2008. Web. 14 June 2010. <http://www.ens-newswire.com/ens/aug2008/2008-08-01-01.asp>. </li></ul>

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