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Government Regulation of Methamphetamines<br />Today’s Presenter: Michael J. Ochs<br />
What is Methamphetamine?<br /><ul><li>Psycho-stimulant
Powerful upper
Affects the central nervous system
Increases metabolism, heart rate, blood pressure
Increases body temperature and rate of breathing
Produces euphoria
“Poor Man’s Cocaine” </li></li></ul><li>
5000 YEARS AGO<br />Ma huang<br />Ephedra plants<br />Used to treat bronchial and sinus illnesses<br />Ephedrine is the ac...
1887 SYNTHETIC ALTERNATIVE<br />Synthesized in Germany<br />Amphetamine<br />
1919 MORE POTENT FORM<br />Japanese pharmacologist<br />Methamphetamine<br />
WORLD WAR II<br />Given to allied troops to fight hunger and fatigue<br />Hitler is said to have used it 8 times a day<br ...
1960s “SPEED, CHALK, CRANK”<br />Amphetamine trade<br />Smuggled by biker gangs in crankcases of bikes “crank.”<br />Speed...
9<br />Q: What over-the-counter (OTC) drug is used to make illegal methamphetamine?<br />
The answer is…<br />Pseudoephedrine can be used to make 	methamphetamine<br />10<br />
99% OF METH USED IN U.S. COMES FROM PSEUDOEPHEDRINE<br />
THE CHEMICAL PROCESS<br />C10H15NO<br />Ephedrine / Pseudoephedrine<br />
THE CHEMICAL PROCESS<br />O<br />C10H15NO<br />C10H15N<br />Methamphetamine<br />
THE CHEMICAL PROCESS<br />O<br />C10H15NO<br />C10H15N<br />+ HCl<br />Add Hydrogen Chloride to make it water-soluble<br />
Red Phosphorus Method<br />This method combines red phosphorous, usually taken from the strips in matchboxes: pseudoephedr...
The Ammonia Method<br />The other method, more common in farming country, involves anhydrous ammonia, a liquid fertilizer,...
SCRATCH ONE OXYGEN ATOM<br />Drain<br />Cleaner<br />Extracted<br />Sodium or<br />Lithium Metal<br />3<br />Li<br />Lithi...
What do “Clandestine” <br />Labs look like<br /><ul><li>Toxic time bombs
Highly flammable liquids
Caustics
Acids
Gases
Explosive</li></li></ul><li>Q. Does methamphetamine production have an impact on the environment?<br />
Yes!<br />For each pound of methamphetamine produced, five to seven pounds of toxic waste remain, which is often introduce...
Federal Legislation<br />
National Oversight Agencies<br />Food and Drug Administration (FDA)<br />Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA)<br />Occupa...
Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) on controlling drug diversion<br />Most of its effort spent on illegal drug traffick...
Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970– (Federal)<br />Referred to as the Controlled Substances Act<b...
Abuse Potential and Schedules<br />Examples<br />I - marijuana, heroin, no medical usage<br />II - morphine, oxycodone (Ox...
Combat Methamphetamine Epidemic Act of 2005–  (Federal){Title VII of Public Law 109-177}<br />Restricts the availability o...
Methamphetamine Production Prevention Act of 2007<br />Systemic state-wide means for law enforcement to capture the identi...
Illinois Legislation<br />
M.M.C.R.S.C.A. and  M.P.C.A<br />In 2004  Lisa Madigan proposed the Methamphetamine Manufacturing Chemical Retail Sale Con...
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G&amp; B 2011 Reg Of Methamphetamines

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2011 Government &amp; Business

Government Regulation of Methamphetamines

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G&amp; B 2011 Reg Of Methamphetamines

  1. 1. Government Regulation of Methamphetamines<br />Today’s Presenter: Michael J. Ochs<br />
  2. 2. What is Methamphetamine?<br /><ul><li>Psycho-stimulant
  3. 3. Powerful upper
  4. 4. Affects the central nervous system
  5. 5. Increases metabolism, heart rate, blood pressure
  6. 6. Increases body temperature and rate of breathing
  7. 7. Produces euphoria
  8. 8. “Poor Man’s Cocaine” </li></li></ul><li>
  9. 9. 5000 YEARS AGO<br />Ma huang<br />Ephedra plants<br />Used to treat bronchial and sinus illnesses<br />Ephedrine is the active ingredient.<br />
  10. 10. 1887 SYNTHETIC ALTERNATIVE<br />Synthesized in Germany<br />Amphetamine<br />
  11. 11. 1919 MORE POTENT FORM<br />Japanese pharmacologist<br />Methamphetamine<br />
  12. 12. WORLD WAR II<br />Given to allied troops to fight hunger and fatigue<br />Hitler is said to have used it 8 times a day<br />Used by kamikaze pilots for courage<br />
  13. 13. 1960s “SPEED, CHALK, CRANK”<br />Amphetamine trade<br />Smuggled by biker gangs in crankcases of bikes “crank.”<br />Speedballs-combination of amphetamine and heroin shot up<br />
  14. 14. 9<br />Q: What over-the-counter (OTC) drug is used to make illegal methamphetamine?<br />
  15. 15. The answer is…<br />Pseudoephedrine can be used to make methamphetamine<br />10<br />
  16. 16. 99% OF METH USED IN U.S. COMES FROM PSEUDOEPHEDRINE<br />
  17. 17. THE CHEMICAL PROCESS<br />C10H15NO<br />Ephedrine / Pseudoephedrine<br />
  18. 18. THE CHEMICAL PROCESS<br />O<br />C10H15NO<br />C10H15N<br />Methamphetamine<br />
  19. 19. THE CHEMICAL PROCESS<br />O<br />C10H15NO<br />C10H15N<br />+ HCl<br />Add Hydrogen Chloride to make it water-soluble<br />
  20. 20. Red Phosphorus Method<br />This method combines red phosphorous, usually taken from the strips in matchboxes: pseudoephedrine, from cold tablets and iodine.<br />This method produces phosphine gas which can be lethal!<br />
  21. 21. The Ammonia Method<br />The other method, more common in farming country, involves anhydrous ammonia, a liquid fertilizer, cooked with PSE & lithium, taken from batteries<br />This method produces a cloud of ammonia gas, which is extremely dangerous!<br />
  22. 22. SCRATCH ONE OXYGEN ATOM<br />Drain<br />Cleaner<br />Extracted<br />Sodium or<br />Lithium Metal<br />3<br />Li<br />Lithium<br />11<br />Na<br />Sodium<br />Alkali Metals<br />Lithium Batteries<br />Lye – Sodium Hydroxide<br />Gas<br />
  23. 23. What do “Clandestine” <br />Labs look like<br /><ul><li>Toxic time bombs
  24. 24. Highly flammable liquids
  25. 25. Caustics
  26. 26. Acids
  27. 27. Gases
  28. 28. Explosive</li></li></ul><li>Q. Does methamphetamine production have an impact on the environment?<br />
  29. 29. Yes!<br />For each pound of methamphetamine produced, five to seven pounds of toxic waste remain, which is often introduced into the environment via streams, septic systems, and surface water run-off.<br />
  30. 30. Federal Legislation<br />
  31. 31. National Oversight Agencies<br />Food and Drug Administration (FDA)<br />Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA)<br />Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)<br />National Association of Boards of Pharmacy (NABP)<br />State boards of pharmacy<br />Michael J. Ochs.<br />22<br />
  32. 32. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) on controlling drug diversion<br />Most of its effort spent on illegal drug trafficking, but also supervises legal use of controlled substances<br />Inspects medical facilities and pharmacies; usually just those where suspicious activity has been detected<br />It monitors shipping of legal controlled substances across United States borders, and gives permits for imports/exports. <br />Michael J. Ochs<br />23<br />
  33. 33. Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970– (Federal)<br />Referred to as the Controlled Substances Act<br />1986 attempted revision fought by drug manufacturers. <br />Created to combat drug abuse<br />Classified drugs according to their potential for abuse<br />Michael J. Ochs<br />24<br />
  34. 34. Abuse Potential and Schedules<br />Examples<br />I - marijuana, heroin, no medical usage<br />II - morphine, oxycodone (OxyContin®), hydromorphone (Dilaudid®)<br />III - methylphenidate (Ritalin®), hydrocodone (Vicodin®, Lortab®), anabolic steroids (Anadrol® )<br />IV - benzodiazepines such as diazepam (Valium®) and alprazolam (Xanax®)<br />V - Medications having limited opioids in combination with other substances (codeine containing analgesics, cough and cold preparations)<br />25<br />Schedule<br /> Most Abusive<br />LessAbusive<br />
  35. 35. Combat Methamphetamine Epidemic Act of 2005– (Federal){Title VII of Public Law 109-177}<br />Restricts the availability of products used to make it:<br />Pseudoephedrine<br />Ephedrine<br />Products must be stored “behind the counter” and purchases must be documented.<br />Michael J. Ochs<br />26<br />
  36. 36. Methamphetamine Production Prevention Act of 2007<br />Systemic state-wide means for law enforcement to capture the identity of purchasers, the date and time of purchase, and the identity and quantity of the product purchased from the retail industry; to analyze the data; and to make it readily accessible to other retailers and police agencies<br />
  37. 37. Illinois Legislation<br />
  38. 38. M.M.C.R.S.C.A. and M.P.C.A<br />In 2004 Lisa Madigan proposed the Methamphetamine Manufacturing Chemical Retail Sale Control Act(MMCRSCA).<br />Effective 2005, required retailers to place adult-strength cold tablets with ephedrine or pseudoephedrine as their sole active ingredient behind store counters or in locked cases.<br />In 2006, in response to tougher restrictions within neighboring states, the Methamphetamine Precursor Control Act(M.P.C.A.), made all products containing PSE/EPH, C-V (control schedule 5) substances. <br />
  39. 39. Manufacturer’s Response<br />Pfizer and McNeil preemptively took steps to avoid angry customers and appease government.<br />Reformulation of Sudafed called Sudafed PE.<br />“Un-Cookable “<br />
  40. 40. Retail Implications <br />
  41. 41. Results?<br />Figures vary<br />Domestic labs are down <br />Purity is up<br />Price is down<br />
  42. 42. But Where is it Coming From?<br />
  43. 43. Multi-state electronic PSE sales blocking system.<br />Accessible to any state that authorizes real-time, statewide electronic blocking of illegal PSE sales. <br />National Precursor Log Exchange (NPLEx)<br />
  44. 44.
  45. 45. This map include all meth incidents, including labs, "dumpsites" or "chemical and glassware" seizures.<br />
  46. 46.
  47. 47. Questions? <br />The End<br />

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