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final project for Anthropology 39

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  1. 1. Methamphetamine and HIV Prevalence in the United States
  2. 2. What is Methamphetamine <ul><li>Methamphetamine is a white odorless, bitter tasting powder that dissolves easily in water or alcohol. It goes by the names such as speed, tina, crank, crystal meth, chalk, ice, and glass </li></ul><ul><li>It is a derivative of amphetamine which was developed originally for use in nasal decongestant and bronchial inhaler. </li></ul><ul><li>In the 1950’s, Methamphetamine was given to soldiers to keep them awake and alert. </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is Methamphetamine Cont’d <ul><li>It was also given to pilots who were scheduled for long flights but was discontinued when it was realized that the pilots needed to sleep in order to work efficiently. </li></ul><ul><li>Legally, it is now used in limited quantity to treat narcolepsy (a sleep disorder), and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Making of Methamphetamine <ul><li>Meth is made of highly toxic substances put together in various combination according to the producer. Meth is made in small illegal laboratories and sometimes in the kitchens of the producers’ home. </li></ul><ul><li>It is made of cheap ingredient obtained in local hardware stores and pharmacies. These ingredients includes ephedrine (found in over the counter cold medicine), ether, battery acid, insecticide, solvent and lye. </li></ul>
  5. 5. How is Meth obtained <ul><li>Meth is purchased through websites using code names </li></ul><ul><li>In rave clubs, where it is sold on the dance floor and in the bathroom stalls. </li></ul><ul><li>In gay clubs and circuit parties </li></ul><ul><li>On the streets </li></ul>
  6. 6. Who use Crystal Meth <ul><li>In a survey taken in 2005 by NIDA (National Institute of Drug Abuse), about 10.4 million people age 12 years older admitted to trying crystal meth at least once with 1.3 million reporting use in the past year and 512,000 reported recent use. </li></ul><ul><li>It is prevalent among young people wanting to lose weight or in the rave dance scenes and white men who have sex with other men (MSM) </li></ul>
  7. 7. How is Crystal Meth taken <ul><li>Swallowing </li></ul><ul><li>Snorting </li></ul><ul><li>Smoking </li></ul><ul><li>Injecting </li></ul><ul><li>Suppositories </li></ul>
  8. 8. Effects of Meth on the user <ul><li>Increases attention </li></ul><ul><li>Increases libido </li></ul><ul><li>Increases physical activity </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease appetite </li></ul><ul><li>Decreases fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>Long lasting sense of euphoria </li></ul><ul><li>Feeling of Invincibility </li></ul>
  9. 9. Other effects of Meth <ul><li>Injecting meth increases the risk for abscesses, which may cause skin and muscle damage. </li></ul><ul><li>It causes stomach cramps, shaking , anxiety, high blood pressure, elevated temperature, convulsions, weight loss, dental problems and death. </li></ul><ul><li>After the drug wears off, the user may experience what is known as a “crash”, this includes insomnia, severe depression and suicide tendencies. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Effects of Meth use Cont’d
  11. 11. Effect on Meth on others <ul><li>Meth users tend to stay by themselves or with other abusers, therefore, they abandon their families. </li></ul><ul><li>Meth use causes parents to abuse their children </li></ul><ul><li>Meth users steal from their families and others to purchase their next “high” </li></ul>
  12. 12. Transmission of HIV by Meth Users <ul><li>HIV is a virus that attacks the immune system of the body. It is spread through the reuse of contaminated needles, syringes and other equipment used by more than one person. This means that meth users who share injecting equipment are at risk for contracting HIV. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Transmission of HIV by Meth Users Cont’d <ul><li>Meth use also gives a person to feel invincible and it increases the sex drive. This cause users especially men who have sex with men to involve themselves in risky sexual behaviors; using no protection and having multiple partner at the same time leading to a high rate of HIV transmission. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Effect of Meth on HIV Patients <ul><li>Causes drug interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty complying with medication regimen </li></ul><ul><li>Drug resistant variants of HIV </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid progress of HIV into AIDS </li></ul><ul><li>Drug addiction </li></ul>
  15. 15. Factors that increases addiction to Meth <ul><li>It is an inexpensive high </li></ul><ul><li>If use by injecting or smoking, onset time is fast, therefore more is needed to obtain the same effect </li></ul><ul><li>If abuser of Meth is HIV positive, the HIV medication increases the absorption time of Meth while decreasing the effect, therefore more is needed for the same effect. </li></ul><ul><li>HIV positive patients take Meth to deal with their every day lives and illness. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Treatment <ul><li>Treatment centers are located in every district. The cost is covered by most insurances. </li></ul><ul><li>These centers use behavioral therapies such as cognitive behavioral and contingency management. </li></ul><ul><li>They also treat the many diseases that goes along with the use of Meth (HIV/AIDS, Hepatitis and Syphilis) </li></ul><ul><li>They teach prevention and community based outreach programs. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Citations <ul><li>Fact sheet: crystal Meth and HIV, </li></ul><ul><li>Crystal Meth, HIV and the gay community-The Body. www.thebody,com/content/art30508.html </li></ul><ul><li>AIDS Fondation of Chicago. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Citations Cont’d <ul><li>National Institute of drug Abuse, the Science of drug abuse and addiction. </li></ul><ul><li>Crystal Meth and HIV/AIDS: The perfect storm-aids clinical care. </li></ul><ul><li>CBC-The fifth estate-dark crystal, facts about Meth. March 23, 2005. </li></ul>