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# Digital Multimeters- Basic Guide

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• Fluke information about using digital multimeter, explaining all the symbols has been very very helpful for a layman like me who takes out time to correct minor electric faults by himself.

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• &lt;a href=&quot;http://www.fluke.com/fluke/inen/products/Digital-Multimeters.htm&quot; title=&quot;Digital Multimeters&quot;&gt;Digital Multimeters&lt;/a&gt; and &lt;a href=&quot;http://www.fluke.com/Fluke/inen/Digital-Multimeters/Fluke-117.htm?PID=55996 &quot; title=“Electrical Multimeters&quot;&gt;Electrical Multimeters&lt;/a&gt; can be used to measure current, voltage, resistance and other parameters for both Industrial &amp; Laboratory Purposes.
• ### Digital Multimeters- Basic Guide

1. 1. Digital Multimeter – Basic Guide
2. 2. What is a Digital Multimeter? • A Digital Multi-meter (DMM) is simply an electronic instrument that measure electrical parameters. • A DMM measures • AC / DC volts, • AC / DC current • Resistance • DMM may have a variety of special features that are designed for a wide number of applications. • Frequency • Temperature • Capacitance • Continuity in circuit • Diode checkhttp://www.fluke.com/fluke/inen/products/Thermometers.htm
3. 3. Front Panel Symbols Symbol Meaning V V DC V V AC mV millivolts (.001V or 1/1,000V) A Amps mA milliamps (.001A or 1/1000A) µA microA (.000001A or 1/1,000,000A)  Resistance (Ohms) k   kilo-Ohms, Megohms )))) Continuity beeperhttp://www.fluke.com/fluke/inen/products/Digital-Multimeters.htm
4. 4. Front Panel Symbols Symbol Meaning Capacitance (uF: Microfarads) (nF: Nanofarads) Diode test Hz Hertz (cycles/sec) REL  Relative or offset reading Range Manual override of autorange Hold Touch Hold-last stable reading MIN MAX Highest, lowest recorded readings Dangerous voltage levels Caution: see manualhttp://www.fluke.com/fluke/inen/products/Digital-Multimeters.htm
5. 5. DMM Specifications • Display • Accuracy • Range & Resolution Electronics Electricalhttp://www.fluke.com/fluke/inen/products/Digital-Multimeters.htm 5 Digital Multimeter Basics DMMBASE1.PPT
6. 6. Understanding DMM Display Specs Display is specified as Digits or as Count 20,000 count • Digits: 3 1/2, 4 1/2, etc. – Example: 3 1/2: (read as three and half digit DMM) – starting from the least significant digit (right most), 3 “full” digits from 0-9 – Left most digit - 1 “half” digit (can read less than 9). Ex: 1999 • Count: 3200, 4000, etc... – 4000 count display reads from 0-3999 – 3200 count display reads from 0-3199http://www.fluke.com/fluke/inen/products/Digital-Multimeters.htm 6 Digital Multimeter Basics DMMBASE1.PPT
7. 7. Understanding DMM Accuracy Specs Accuracy is specified in percentage % • Closeness with which an instrument reading approaches the true value being measured; or largest allowable error. • Percentage of reading (digital multi-meters) vs. percentage of scale or range (analog meters): Example: 1%scale vs. 1% reading % scale: If scale or range is 1000V, an accuracy of 1% is equal to +/- 10V. 120V reading could = 110-130V. % reading: 1% accuracy with 120V reading= 118.8-121.2V. • Least significant digit unstable: Example: Accuracy spec = +/-(1%+2) Reading of 200.0mV= 197.8 - 202.2mVhttp://www.fluke.com/fluke/inen/products/Digital-Multimeters.htm 7 Digital Multimeter Basics DMMBASE1.PPT
8. 8. Understanding DMM Specs Range and Resolution • Resolution is the smallest change in measured value to which the instrument will respond. • As the range increases, the resolution decreases: Range: Resolution: 400.0mV .1mV (=1/10 mV) 4.000V .001V (=1mV) 40.00V .01V (=10mV) 400.0V 0.1V (=100mV) 1000V 1V (=1000mV) • For maximum resolution, choose the lowest possible range.http://www.fluke.com/fluke/inen/products/Digital-Multimeters.htm 8 Digital Multimeter Basics DMMBASE1.PPT
9. 9. Measurements using Multimeter • Measuring voltage – Testing for proper supply voltage is usually the first step when troubleshooting a circuit. How to make voltage measurements : • Select V~ (ac) or V (dc), as desired. • Plug the black test probe into the COM input jack. Plug the red test probe into the V input jack. • If the DMM has manual ranging only, select the highest range so as not to overload the input. • Touch the probe tips to the circuit across a load or power source (in parallel to the circuit). • View the reading, being sure to note the unit of measurement.http://www.fluke.com/fluke/inen/products/Digital-Multimeters.htm
10. 10. Measurements using Multimeter • Resistance Measurement – Most DMMs measure down to 0.1Ω, and some measure as high as 300 MΩ (300,000,000 ohms). Infinite resistance (open circuit) is read as“OL” on the meter display. How to make resistance measurements: • Turn off power to the circuit. • Select resistance (Ω). • Plug the black test probe into the COM input jack. Plug the red test probe into the Ω input jack. • Connect the probe tips across the component or portion of the circuit for which you want to determine resistance. • View the reading, being sure to note the unit of measurement– ohms (Ω), kilohms(kΩ), or megohms (MΩ).http://www.fluke.com/fluke/inen/products/Digital-Multimeters.htm
11. 11. Measurements using Multimeter • DC and AC current – Current measurements taken with the DMM alone require placing the meter in series with the circuit being measured. This means opening the circuit and using the DMM test leads to complete the circuit. How to make current measurements • Turn off power to the circuit. • Cut or unsolder the circuit, creating a place where the meter probes can be inserted. • Select A~ (ac) or A (dc) as desired. • Plug the black test probe into the COM input jack. Plug the red test probe into the amp or milliamp input jack, depending on the expected value of the reading. • Connect the probe tips to the circuit across the break so that all current will flow through the DMM (a series connection). • Turn the circuit power back on. • View the reading, being sure to note the unit of measurement.http://www.fluke.com/fluke/inen/products/Digital-Multimeters.htm
12. 12. True-rms vs. Average-sensing What does “rms” mean • RMS is the Root Mean Square or effective heating value of any ac voltage or current waveform. • RMS is the equivalent DC heating value of an AC waveform. Power consumed in R1 is same for both AC and DC source if the VacRMS = Vdc.http://www.fluke.com/fluke/inen/products/Digital-Multimeters.htm 12 Digital Multimeter Basics DMMBASE1.PPT
13. 13. True-rms vs. Average-sensing Average-sensing works for a perfect sinewave • An average-sensing meter assumes a non-distorted sine wave and does the following calculation: • RMS value = 1.11 X Average valuehttp://www.fluke.com/fluke/inen/products/Digital-Multimeters.htm 13 Digital Multimeter Basics DMMBASE1.PPT
14. 14. True-rms vs. Average-sensing What if the waveform is non-sinusoidal? • For this current waveform, the effective or True-rms value = 1.85 x Average value. • An average-sensing meter’s reading (1.11 x Average) would be 40 % too low.http://www.fluke.com/fluke/inen/products/Digital-Multimeters.htm 14 Digital Multimeter Basics DMMBASE1.PPT
15. 15. True-rms vs. Average-sensing What if the waveform is non-sinusoidal? • Average-sensing meters typically measure RMS high for voltage and low for current where there is waveform distortion. • True-rms meter or clamp accurately measures both distorted waveforms and sine waves. Multimeter Type Average True RMS Response to sine wave Correct Correct Response to square wave 10% High Correct Response to single phase diode rectifier 40% low Correct Response to 3 phase diode rectifier 5-30% low Correcthttp://www.fluke.com/fluke/inen/products/Digital-Multimeters.htm 15 Digital Multimeter Basics DMMBASE1.PPT
16. 16. True-rms vs. Average-sensing What is Crest Factor? • Crest Factor = Peak / RMS • For ideal sine wave, CF = 1.414http://www.fluke.com/fluke/inen/products/Digital-Multimeters.htm 16 Digital Multimeter Basics DMMBASE1.PPT
17. 17. True-rms vs. Average-sensing What is Crest Factor? • For this current waveform, Crest Factor = 2.917 Digital Multimeter Basics DMMBASE1.PPT
18. 18. True-rms vs. Average-sensing Crest Factor is an indication of harmonics • For current measurement, the higher the CF, the greater the waveform distortion. • CF spec important for current clamp, since current distortion is typically higher than voltage distortion. C.F. = 1.43 C.F. = 2.39 C.F. = 4.6818 Digital Multimeter Basics DMMBASE1.PPT
19. 19. True-rms vs. Average-sensing Summary Minimum specifications for measurements on electrical power systems: • True RMS – Accurate for both linear and non-linear loads • Crest Factor 3 – Accurate for current waveforms with CF not exceeding 3 – CF=3 at max range; CF=6 at half-range • IEC 1010-1 CAT III-600 V – Distribution level: power distribution equipment.http://www.fluke.com/fluke/inen/products/Digital-Multimeters.htm 19 Digital Multimeter Basics DMMBASE1.PPT
20. 20. Some Digital Multimeters Provided by FLUKEhttp://www.fluke.com/fluke/inen/products/Digital-Multimeters.htm
21. 21. Why Choose Fluke ? • Fluke designs its DMMs to the latest, most demanding safety standards. • Fluke offers many DMMs with different combinations of features like Touch Hold, analog bar graphs, and enhanced resolution. • Accessories for high current and temperature measurements are available to extend the capabilities of DMMs.http://www.fluke.com/fluke/inen/products/Digital-Multimeters.htm
22. 22. • Company Name : Fluke Corporation - India• Website: http://www.fluke.com/fluke/inen/home/default.htm• Address: Division of DHR Holding India Pvt. Ltd. 10th Floor, Sigma Hiranandani Business Park, Powai Mumbai, Maharashtra 400076• Contact Number: 1 800 209 9110
23. 23. Thank You