Basic Electronics2003

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  • Studting electronics in Yr two semester one this year and i feel that this powerpoint helps to get to grip with the core basic of electronics.
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Basic Electronics2003

  1. 1. ELECTRONICS L.C.TECHNOLOGY 07/07/09 ................ L.C.TECHNOLOGIES ................ 1
  2. 2. BASIC ELECTRONICS 07/07/09 ................ L.C.TECHNOLOGIES ................ 2
  3. 3. Basic Electronics Things to be covered: • What is electricity • Voltage, Current, Resistance • Ohm’s Law • Capacitors, Inductors • Semiconductors • Mechanical Components • Digital Electronics 07/07/09 ................ L.C.TECHNOLOGIES ................ 3
  4. 4. OUTLINE • Basic Electronics and symbols • Measuring Equipment • Resistors • Capacitors • Diode • IC • Power Supply • Circuits
  5. 5. What is Electricity • Everything is made of atoms • There are 118 elements, an atom is a single part of an element • Atom consists of electrons, protons, and neutrons 07/07/09 ................ L.C.TECHNOLOGIES ................ 5
  6. 6. • Electrons (- charge) are attracted to protons (+ charge), this holds the atom together • Some materials have strong attraction and refuse to loss electrons, these are called insulators (air, glass, rubber, most plastics) • Some materials have weak attractions and allow electrons to be lost, these are called conductors (copper, silver, gold, aluminum) • Electrons can be made to move from one atom to another, this is called a current of electricity. 07/07/09 ................ L.C.TECHNOLOGIES ................ 6
  7. 7. • Surplus of electrons is called a negative charge (-). A shortage of electrons is called a positive charge (+). • A battery provides a surplus of electrons by chemical reaction. • By connecting a conductor from the positive terminal to negative terminal electrons will flow. 07/07/09 ................ L.C.TECHNOLOGIES ................ 7
  8. 8. Basic Symbols in Electronics 07/07/09 ................ L.C.TECHNOLOGIES ................ 8
  9. 9. Wires and Connections Wire Wires not joined Wires joined 07/07/09 ................ L.C.TECHNOLOGIES ................ 9
  10. 10. Power Supplies Cell Battery AC supply DC supply Ground Fuse Transformer 07/07/09 ................ L.C.TECHNOLOGIES ................ 10
  11. 11. Electronic Components Diode Resistor Capacitor Variable Resistor Variable Capacitor Transistor 07/07/09 ................ L.C.TECHNOLOGIES ................ 11
  12. 12. Amplifier Ariel On/Off switch Microphone 2-way switch Earphone 07/07/09 ................ L.C.TECHNOLOGIES ................ 12
  13. 13. Measurement Voltmeter Ohmmeter Galvanometer Ammeter Oscilloscope 07/07/09 ................ L.C.TECHNOLOGIES ................ 13
  14. 14. Voltage • A battery positive terminal (+) and a negative terminal (-). The difference in charge between each terminal is the potential energy the battery can provide. This is labeled in units of volts. Water Analogy 07/07/09 ................ L.C.TECHNOLOGIES ................ 14
  15. 15. Voltage Sources: 07/07/09 ................ L.C.TECHNOLOGIES ................ 15
  16. 16. • Voltage is like differential pressure, always measure between two points. • Measure voltage between two points or across a component in a circuit. • When measuring DC voltage make sure polarity of meter is correct, positive (+) red, negative (-) black. 07/07/09 ................ L.C.TECHNOLOGIES ................ 16
  17. 17. Ground 07/07/09 ................ L.C.TECHNOLOGIES ................ 17
  18. 18. Exercise • Measure DC voltage from power supply using multimeter • Measure DC voltage from power supply using oscilloscope • Measure DC voltage from battery using multimeter • Measure AC voltage from wall outlet using a multimeter • Measure AC voltage from wall outlet using an oscilloscope Effective or Root Mean Square Voltage (Measured with multimeter) ERMS=0.707xEA E 07/07/09 ................ L.C.TECHNOLOGIES ................ 18
  19. 19. Current • Uniform flow of electrons thru a circuit is called current. WILL USE CONVENTIONAL FLOW NOTATION ON ALL SCHEMATICS 07/07/09 ................ L.C.TECHNOLOGIES ................ 19
  20. 20. • To measure current, must break circuit and install meter in line. • Measurement is imperfect because of voltage drop created by meter. 07/07/09 ................ L.C.TECHNOLOGIES ................ 20
  21. 21. Connecting Meters Voltmeter Ammeter 07/07/09 ................ L.C.TECHNOLOGIES ................ 21
  22. 22. Resistance • All materials have a resistance that is dependent on cross- sectional area, material type and temperature. • A resistor dissipates power in the form of heat 07/07/09 ................ L.C.TECHNOLOGIES ................ 22
  23. 23. Various resistors types 07/07/09 ................ L.C.TECHNOLOGIES ................ 23
  24. 24. When measuring resistance, remove component from the circuit. 07/07/09 ................ L.C.TECHNOLOGIES ................ 24
  25. 25. Resistor Color Code 07/07/09 ................ L.C.TECHNOLOGIES ................ 25
  26. 26. Exercise • Determine the resistance of various resistors of unknown value using the resistor color code • Using the multimeter, compare the specified resistance and measured resistance • Using the multimeter to examine the characteristics of various potentiometers 07/07/09 ................ L.C.TECHNOLOGIES ................ 26
  27. 27. Ohm’s Law 07/07/09 ................ L.C.TECHNOLOGIES ................ 27
  28. 28. Prototyping Board Example of how components are Inserted in the protoboard 07/07/09 ................ L.C.TECHNOLOGIES ................ 28
  29. 29. Exercise • Calculate the total current and voltage drop across each resistor shown in Figure 1 • Build the circuit in Figure 1 on the prototype board • Measure the total circuit current and voltage drops across each resistor and compare the calculated and measured values 07/07/09 ................ L.C.TECHNOLOGIES ................ 29
  30. 30. Capacitance A capacitor is used to store charge for a short amount of time Capacitor Battery Unit = Farad Pico Farad - pF = 10-12F Micro Farad - uF = 10-6F 07/07/09 ................ L.C.TECHNOLOGIES ................ 30
  31. 31. 07/07/09 ................ L.C.TECHNOLOGIES ................ 31
  32. 32. Capacitor Charging 07/07/09 ................ L.C.TECHNOLOGIES ................ 32
  33. 33. Capacitor Discharge 07/07/09 ................ L.C.TECHNOLOGIES ................ 33
  34. 34. Inductance 07/07/09 ................ L.C.TECHNOLOGIES ................ 34
  35. 35. 07/07/09 ................ L.C.TECHNOLOGIES ................ 35
  36. 36. Gates • NOT Gate • AND Gate • OR Gate • XOR Gate • NAND Gate • NOR Gate • XNOR Gate
  37. 37. NOT Gate A B A B 1 0 0 1
  38. 38. AND Gate A B Q A 0 0 0 Q 1 0 0 B 0 1 0 1 1 1
  39. 39. OR Gate A B Q A Q 0 0 0 B 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1
  40. 40. XOR Gate A B Q 0 0 0 A Q 1 0 1 B 0 1 1 1 1 0
  41. 41. NAND Gate A B Q A Q 0 0 1 B 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0
  42. 42. NOR Gate A B Q 0 0 1 A Q 1 0 0 B 0 1 0 1 1 0
  43. 43. XNOR Gate A B Q 0 0 1 A Q 1 0 0 B 0 1 0 1 1 1
  44. 44. 44

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