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THE FAMOUS FESTIVAL IN CHINA
Spring Festival
The most important festival in China is the Spring Festival.
It is said that the Spring Festival evolved from an activity
known as the Winter Sacrifice. It was a custom practiced by
the people of primitive society. The Spring Festival marks the
beginning of the Chinese Lunar New Year,so the first meal is
rather important. People usually eat Jiaozi or dumplings
shaped like a crescent moon on that special day. As for
recreational activities during the Sping Festival, the Dragon
Dance and Lion Dance are traditionally performed .
Lantern Festival
The Lantern Festival (also called Yuanxiao Festival) is on
the 15th day of the first Chinese lunar month. It is closely
related to Spring Festival. Yuan literally means first, while
Xiao refers to night. Yuanxiao is the first time when we see
the full moon in the new year. It is traditionally a time for
family reunion. The displaying of lanterns is a big event on
that day, and another important part of the Festival is eating
small dumpling balls made of glutinous rice flour. We call
these balls Yuanxiao.
Qingming
Qingming, meaning clear and bright, is the day for
mourning the dead. It falls in early April every year. It
corresponds with the onset of warmer weather, the start of
spring plowing, and of family outings. Springtime, especially
in North China, is the windy season, just right for flying kites.
It is not surprising that kite flying is very popular during the
Qingming season.
THE FAMOUS FESTIVAL IN JAPAN
Sendai Tanabata Festival
—A Famous Festival in Japan
The Sendai Tanabata Festival is held from August 6th
to 8th every year. In downtown Sendai, stores compete
to see who can create the most beautiful Tanabata
bamboo decorations with colorful Japanese paper
(washi). Decorative balls and strips of paper with
wishes written on them are attached to the decorations.
More than 2 million visitors flock to Sendai to enjoy
these beautiful decorations.
Sendai Aoba Festival (May)
The Aoba Matsuri Festival signals the arrival of spring
in Sendai and is held in May every year. The main
festival held on Sunday features magnificent
yamaboko floats and samurai processions parading
the zelkova-lined streets in downtown Sendai. The
taiko drums and cheers heard on the main streets
engulf the entire city in festivity.
The highlight of the Saturday evening festival is the
Sparrow Dance contest. Anyone can join the dancing and experience the festival's excitement.
Michinoku YOSAKOI Festival (October)
The Michinoku YOSAKOI Festival is a dynamic
festival. People dance to comtemporary arrangements
of Tohoku (northeast) region folk songs with original
costumes and choreography. Over 8000 dancers
participate in the festival from all over Japan. The two
day festival, held every October, attracts and enthralls
700 thousand spectators.
THE FAMOUS FESTIVAL IN THE PHILIPPINES
Ati-Atihan Festival: The Ati-Atihan, held every third sunday
of January in the town of Kalibo, Aklan, is the wildest among
Philippine fiestas.
Panagbenga Festival: Also known as Baguio Flower Festival
celebrates the festival in February and the highlights of the
festivities includes flower, flower exhibits, lectures, garden
tours, floral contest and a parade of floats.
Paraw Regatta Festival: The Iloilo Paraw (sailboat) Regatta is a
race among native outriggers in the strait between Guimaras
Island and Iloilo City.
THE WEDDING TRADITION IN CHINA
Matchmaking
Matchmaking is a process of making a
match of unmarried man and woman by a
matchmaker...
Birthday Matching & Auspicious Day
Choosing
The record of a person's horoscope indicates
the sun's position at the time when the
person was born. Therefore...
Sending Dowry & Betrothal Gifts
When the two families agree to the
marriage, the man's family is supposed to
send some betrothal gifts to the woman's
family...
THE WEDDING TRADITION IN JAPAN
Mi-ai
Arranged
marriages
often had
more to do
with politics.
More
Yui-no
The "Yui-no" betrothal is
a serious step in a
Japanese wedding. More
Nakodo
The go between.
Traditional Japanese
Wedding Ceremony
Part 1
Part 2
Traditional Japanese
Wedding Reception
Includes the Japanese
wedding kimono.
THE WEDDING TRADITION IN THE PHILIPPINES
Although Filipinos infuse a touch of
modernity in their wedding rites, as a
predominantly Catholic country, they still
generally stick to traditional Catholic
wedding rites, with a few rites from the
Spanish and Americans thrown in. One
thing is for sure, though: whether done in
church or elsewhere, Filipinos are big on
weddings and all its traditional trappings.
Prior to the wedding, there is usually the
traditional period of courtship (panliligaw),
followed by the engagement (kasunduan), and then the pamamanhikan. The last is when the
would-be groom, together with members of his family, meets with his fiancée and her family,
usually at the latter’s home, to formalize the marriage proposal. After accepting the proposal,
both parties discuss the wedding arrangements and other details. It is usual for the groom’s
family to shoulder the expenses, but in these modern times, the bride often agrees to pay for
part of the cost. Afterwards, the bride’s family holds a despedida de soltera as she bids goodbye
to singlehood, while the groom may hold a bachelor’s or stag party.
Wedding customs and symbols
The bride’s gown is white or a shaded variation
such as ecru, while the groom usually wears a
barong tagalog over a pair of black slacks.
Wedding designs usually follow an overall color
scheme, which can be seen from the invitations,
to the garments of the wedding entourage, the
flowers and even the tablecloths used during the
wedding reception.
In selecting the members of the entourage, the
couple usually considers one or several pairs of principal sponsors or godparents (ninong and
ninang) to serve as the primary witnesses of the wedding ceremony. Ideally, some of them may
be the couple’s baptismal godparents. They are people whom the couple admire and respect
and expect guidance from. There are also secondary sponsors, usually made up of the couple’s
friends or younger relatives: the best man, groomsmen, maid/matron of honor and
bridesmaids, along with veil, cord and candle sponsors. They are followed by the coin/arrhae,
ring and flower bearers, and the occasional Bible bearer.
The lighting of the pair of candles, one on each side of the couple, is reminiscent of their
baptism and symbolizes the presence and guidance of God in their married life. Later, the
couple may decide to light a “unity candle” using
these two candles to signify the joining of their
families and of the couple’s oneness.
Apart from the bridal veil, which may form part of
her gown, the veil is made of sheer white material,
and it is more traditional to have only one during
the ceremony. It “clothes” two persons and unifies
them in marriage, as well as signifies their
commitment to protect each other. This is why it is
draped and pinned over the groom’s shoulder and
over the head of the bride, to represent his strength and protection of his soon-to-be wife.
THE UNIQUE CUISINES DISHES IN CHINA
Chinese New Year Food
Chinese New Year Foods are very important to Chinese people. All family members come
together to eat at this time. Chinese New Year foods are not only delicious but it is traditional to
eat certain foods over this festival. Chinese Dumplings, Fish, Spring Rolls, Nian Gao are usually
seen as delicious and eaten at this time.
Chinese Vegetarian Food
Most Chinese vegetarians are Buddhists, following the Buddhist teachings about minimizing
suffering. In addition, many Yoga enthusiasts in China are vegetarians or vegans. Nowadays, in
order to keep healthy and fit, more and more Chinese people who are not vegetarians or
vegans, tend to eat vegetarian food from time to time.
Chinese Medicinal Food
Medicinal food is food with the function of dietetic therapy, which is made by taking medicine
and food as materials and processing them through cooking. It is the product of the
combination of Chinese traditional medical knowledge and cooking experience.
THE UNIQUE CUISINES DISHES IN JAPAN
Maki-zushi (巻寿司)
Maki zushi is rolled sushi that is usually wrapped in
nori (seaweed). Maki sushi includes some of the most
popular sushi varieties such as kappa maki (cucumber),
tekka maki (tuna), negitoro maki(tuna, scallion),
tsunamayo maki(tuna and mayo) and kanpyō maki
(tuna and carrots).
Soba (そば)
Thin buckwheat noodles served cold with wasabi
or hot with toppings such as tempura, duck, mochi
or mountain vegetables.
Takoyaki (たこ焼き)
Takoyaki are Japanese octopus dumplings from
Osaka. They are prepared with a light batter and
a single piece of octopus in the center and deep-
fried. Takoyaki are usually topped with
okonomiyaki sauce, mayonnaise, seaweed
(aonori) and fish shavings(katsuobushi).
Takoyaki can be prepared at home and are a
crowd-pleasing snack at festivals.
THE UNIQUE CUISINES DISHES IN THE PHILIPPINES
ADOBO
usually pork or chicken cooked in a marinade of vinegar, soy sauce, bay leaves, and
peppercorn plus some sugar to sweeten
NILAGA
usually beef boiled in onions and peppercorn until tender; then cabbage, string beans,
carrots, and sweet corn are added
TAPSILOG
a popular breakfast consists of beef jerky (‘tap’ short for ‘tapa’), fried rice (‘si’ for
‘sinangag’), and sunny egg (‘log’ short for ‘itlog’)
THE FAMILY VALUES IN CHINA
Family Interdependence
 Connected to filial piety is a belief in the
interdependence of family members. Though
practices have been gradually changing since the
20th century, sons traditionally lived with their
parents for their whole lives. Contrary to the
expectation in most Western families, Chinese
parents typically raise their children not to be
independent, but to be integrated into the family.
This way, families can depend on each other rather than relying on outside help.
This includes an expectation that sons will support and care for their parents in
old age. Family interdependence extends even beyond the living world: In the
traditional religion still practiced by many Chinese people today, ancestors are
believed to aid and protect their descendants in return for worship and offerings.

Men in the Family
Chinese families have always had very clear-cut gender
roles for men and women. Although these are changing
nowadays because of westernization, there are some
elements of the gender roles left behind; some are more
evident in some families. In very traditional families, the
man of the household is responsible for taking care of
everyone in the house. He is the sole breadwinner of the
family. He is responsible for everyone's education, clothing,
food, and even marriages. He also has the final say in all
decisions regarding his wife and his children. However, in modern families, the
children have much more power and the women of the house also works.
Women in the Family
Like the male gender role in the traditional Chinese family,
women also have a very straightforward gender role. Unlike
the men in the house, women do not go to work in a
traditional Chinese family. They stay at home, and are
responsible for cooking, cleaning, and taking care of the
children. The man of the house is supposed to take care of
the women. However, China has become progressive in the
last few decades. Therefore, more and more women go to
work and less stay at home. However, even then, many
women do rely on their fathers and husbands for financial support from time to time.
The Family Values In Japan
Family ties are strong in Japan and bind not
only the living extended family but also
generations of ancestors. You may notice that
Japanese are not physically demonstrative in
public and you won’t see any kissing and
hugging on the streets. You do see friends
and parents and children holding hands. One
of the ways families express warmth and
affection is to snuggle around the kotatsu
(heated table covered with a comforter) in the
winter, eating mikan (mandarin oranges) and
watching TV. Another way is to scrub each other’s backs in the family bath. Parents and
children sleep together on the family futon, often until the children are age 10 or so.
If you get lost in the city, there is no need to panic; people are genuinely helpful. Don’t
be surprised if they even lead you to your final destination.You will find that most
people are very honest. If you forget something on the subway, you will most likely
find it at the lost and found office. Once I left a silver tray, which was a gift for
someone, on the train. I called the railway station and recovered it the same day.
Another time I forgot my camera and got it back again. I feel safe riding the subway at
midnight. If you get lost in the city, there is no need to panic; people are genuinely
helpful. Don’t be surprised if they even lead you to your final destination. And there’s
always a kouban, or police box, nearby with detailed maps to help you find your way.
Shared Values
Every culture transmits values to its youth, first in the context of family, and then through the
educational process. In Japan, some of the core values are thinking of others, doing your best,
not giving up, respecting your elders, knowing your role, and working in a group. These
concepts are taught explicitly and implicitly from nursery school into the working world. From
a very young age, Japanese children are taught omoiyari (to notice and think of others). Students
must pass difficult entrance examinations to move to the next level of education, and in the
process, they learn that ganbaru (effort) and gaman (enduring) are more crucial in reaching their
goals than innate ability.
In every social situation, identity and status are largely determined by age, gender, sibling rank,
and your year of entry to the group—which are also cues for the appropriate thing to say (or
not) to each other. Having clear social roles provides a sense of security and comfort, but it can
also feel binding. For those coming from a Western culture with a strong sense of independence,
work situations where interactions are based on age or seniority, rather than talent or ability,
may feel confining and frustrating. Greater awareness of cultural differences and values is
helpful in understanding such situations.
Japanese values are reflected in the phrases used in daily interactions, which smooth
relationships and acknowledge the presence of others. Wherever you go in Japan, everyone
knows the precise words to say before and after meals, when you leave home, when you arrive
at school or work, when you part with someone and meet them again. When you enter a store,
restaurant, bank, or post office, the entire staff welcomes you with “Irasshai-mase” and showers
you with “Arigatoo gozaimasu” when you leave. Soon you absorb the rhythm of these
expressions so thoroughly that you miss them when you leave Japan.
The most versatile phrase to learn before you go to Japan is “Onegai shimasu,” which means,
roughly, “I wish for” or “I sincerely request.” It’s the perfect thing to say when you introduce
yourself, when you buy something, when you ask a favor, when you order in a restaurant, and
when you ask someone to dance.
Island Mentality
Before going to Japan, you may expect that everyone will look the same, dress the same,
live the same, and talk the same. To a certain extent, this is true. Japanese people may
appear to be more or less uniform in dress or behavior. This reflects an underlying
value of not calling attention to oneself in public, especially among the older generation.
However, Japan is neither monocultural nor monolingual. In addition to Ainu, the
indigenous people of Japan, a flow of people and ideas has entered the country from
China, Korea, Portugal, Spain, Germany, France, the Netherlands, England, North
America, Brazil, and elsewhere for at least 2,000 years. Buddhism and Christianity, the
writing system, medicine, models of government, business, and education, as well as
sports and cuisine have derived—in part—from the outside and become a part of
Japanese culture. In turn, Japan has exerted an influence on many other cultures.
The fact that Japan is an island nation with no land bridge to other countries seems to
have an effect on the Japanese psyche and identity. When I lived in Japan, people would
say almost apologetically, “We’re just a small island nation.” Overlooked is the fact that
plenty of other smaller island nations, like England, New Zealand, and Madagascar,
don’t apologize for their size. On the flip side, a long history of being isolated and
battered by typhoons and earthquakes has fostered a sense of shima-guni konjo, or the
island fighting spirit.
Being surrounded by a vast sea, Japanese children are naturally curious about what’s on
the other side and express it in a song called Umi: “The ocean is so wide and big, I wish
I could go see other countries.” Maybe it’s this longing to see what’s on the other side
that fuels the stream of millions of travelers who take to the air at New Year’s, Golden
Week (early May), and Obon (mid-August), landing in Hong Kong, Hawaii, New York,
and Paris. Needless to say, holiday periods are good times not to plan your trip to
Japan!
The Family Values in the Philippines
“Paggalang” – In English it means being respectful or giving
due respect for a person. Filipinos are accustomed to using the
words “po,” “opo,” and “ho” when they are conversing with
older people or sometimes to people with higher position or
status in the society. Using these words is customary in the
Philippines and it shows sign of respect. Paggalang can also be
given to the elders by virtue of kissing their hands before
leaving and upon arrival. Younger member of the family gives
due respect to older siblings by calling them kuya (older brother) or ate (older sister).
“Pakikisama” or Getting along well with people – The
yearning of the Filipinos to be accepted and well liked by his
friends, colleagues, boss and even relatives steers them
perform pakikisama. The word pakikisama means helping
others. This trait usually fosters cooperation and doing good
deeds which are favorable to other people.
“Pagpapahalaga sa Pamilya” or Putting importance to
family - This implies that a person will put a high regards and
concerns over the family before anything else. This is one of
the reasons why a father or a mother in a Filipino family will
seek employment abroad just to earn decent earnings for their
family, to meet the family’s basic needs and want.
The Literature in China
Dream Of The Red Chamber
For more than a century and a half, Dream of the Red Chamber has
been recognized in China as the greatest of its novels, a Chinese
Romeo-and-Juliet love story and a portrait of one of the world's great
civilizations. Chi-chen Wang's translation is skillful, accurate and
fascinating.
Red Sorghum
The acclaimed novel of love and resistance during late 1930s
China by Mo Yan, winner of the 2012 Nobel Prize in Literature
Spanning three generations, this novel of family and myth is
told through a series of flashbacks that depict events of
staggering horror set against a landscape of gemlike beauty, as
the Chinese battle both Japanese invaders and each other in the
turbulent 1930s.
A legend in China, where it won major literary awards and
inspired an Oscar-nominated film directed by Zhang Yimou, Red Sorghum is a book in
which fable and history collide to produce fiction that is entirely new—and
unforgettable.
Shanghai Baby
A story of love, sex and self-discovery - banned in China.
Publicly burned in China for its sensual nature and irreverent style,
this novel is the semi-autobiographical story of Coco, a cafe waitress,
who is full of enthusiasm and impatience for life. She meets a young
man, Tian Tian, for whom she feels tenderness and love, but he is
reclusive, impotent and an increasing us
The Literature in Japan
The Reason I Jump: The Inner Voice of a Thirteen-Year-Old
Boy with Autism
by Naoki Higashida
3.75 of 5 stars 3.75 avg rating — 14,434 ratings — published 2007
NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLERYou’ve never read a book like
The Reason I Jump. Written by Naoki Higashida, a very smart, very
self-aware, and very charming thirteen-year-old boy with autism, it
is a one-of-a-kind memoir that demonstrates how an autistic mind
thinks, feels, perceives, and responds in ways...more
All You Need Is Kill
by Hiroshi Sakurazaka, 桜坂洋, Alexander O. Smith (Translator)
There’s one thing worse than dying. It’s coming back to do it again and
again… When the alien Gitai invade, Keiji Kiriya is just one of many raw
recruits shoved into a suit of battle armor and sent out to kill. Keiji dies on
the battlefield, only to find himself reborn each morning to fight and die
again and again. On the 158th iteration though, he sees something
different...
Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon, Vol. 7 (Pretty Soldier
Sailor Moon Renewal Editions #7)
by Naoko Takeuchi, William Flanagan (Translator)
Old friends and new enemies lurk in the mysteries surrounding Mugen
Academe. The Death Busters crave the Hoste, the human energies, of
Sailor Moon and her friends – and they’ll prey on the girls’ dreams and
weaknesses to get it! Furthermore, prophetic dreams hint of “talismans”
that could awaken a “Deity of Destruction.” Could these things be
connected to the guardians’ po...
The Literature in the Philippines
Top of Form
Noli Me Tangere (Touch Me Not)
by José Rizal, Harold Augenbraum (Translator)
In more than a century since its appearance, José Rizal's Noli Me
Tangere has become widely known as the great novel of the
Philippines. A passionate love story set against the ugly political
backdrop of repression, torture, and murder, "The Noli," as it is called
in the Philippines, was the first major artistic manifestation of Asian
resistance to European colonialism, an...
El Filibusterismo (Subversion)
by José Rizal, Ma. Soledad Lacson-Locsin (Translator), Raul L. Locsin
(Editor)
El Filibusterismo (The Subversive) is the second novel by Jose Rizal
(1861-1896), national hero of the Philippines. Like its predecessor, the
better-known Noli Me Tangere, the Fili was written in Castilian while
Rizal was traveling and studying in Europe. It was published in Ghent
in 1891 and later translated into English, German, French, Japanese,
Tagalog, Ilonggo, and ot...more
Philippine Literature: A History And Anthology
by Bienvenido L. Lumbera (Editor), Cynthia Nograles Lumbera (Editor)
Through the years, this book on Philippine Literature has helped students understand the
pressures which shaped Philippine writing, and how writers and their audience responded to
those pressures. Philippine Literature: A History and Anthology gives direction to the study of
Philippine Literature and provides an interpretation of literary development in the Philippines.
The Martial Arts in China
Chinese Kung Fu (Martial Arts or as popularly referred to as Gongfu or Wushu) is a
series of fighting styles which has developed over a long historical period in China.
Nowadays, it is regarded as a traditional sport gaining more and more popularity and
even stands as a representative for Chinese culture.
The Martial Arts in Japan
Japanese Karate is primarily a striking art.
All styles use similar moves; blows made
with the closed fist, the open hand, the
legendary Karate Chop, the elbow, feet and
knees as well as an array of blocks,
deflections, sweeps, throws - even grappling.
Some Karate schools train with weapons
even although Karate means ‘empty hand’. Moves vary depending on the philosophy of the
style and whether the emphasis is on destructive power or subduing an attacker. Whether a
Karate kick or punch is delivered with the raw power of Kyokushin, the speed and finesse of
Wado Ryu, the immovable strength of Goju Ryu or the dynamism and depth of Shotokan, it's
still a kick or a punch only the method changes.
The Martial Arts in the Philippines
Modern Arnis is the system of Filipino martial arts founded by
Remy Presas as a self-defense system. His goal was to create an
injury-free training method as well as an effective self-defense
system in order to preserve the older Arnis systems. The term
Modern Arnis was used by Remy Presas' younger brother Ernesto
Presas to describe his style of Filipino martial arts; since 1999
Ernesto Presas has called his system Kombatan. It is derived
principally from the traditional Presas family style of the Bolo
(machete) and the stick-dueling art of Balintawak Eskrima, with influences from other
Filipino and Japanese martial arts.
THE SOCIAL VALUES IN CHINA
Social Values in China
Could you tell me some brief introduction about Confucianism in China?
The Confucius, who lived 2,500 years ago, largely shaped
the modern mentality and culture of the Chinese people and
society. Confucianism is not so much a religion as it is a code
for social conduct. The basic principles of Confucian thought
are obedience to and respect for superiors and parents, duty
to family, loyalty to friends, humility, sincerity and courtesy.
What is the Chinese attitude towards family according to
Confucianism?
The family is the pre-eminent institution in China. One's first
duty is to the welfare of one's family, and working family
members often pool their financial resources. In many ways,
Chinese view themselves more as parts of the family unit than
as free individuals. Grown children often live with their
parents, even if they are married, and have a duty to support
them in old age.
It is said that Chinese are the most courteous people toward
their friends, is it right?
Yes. Confucianism honors humility and courtesy. Chinese are seldom overly boastful or
self-satisfied, even if their achievements are splendid. When Chinese are being polite,
they can be excessively self-deprecating. Chinese are among the most courteous people
in the world toward their friends. Every detail of a guest's stay with a Chinese friend
may be prearranged, and the guest may not be allowed to spend money on even the
smallest items. For Western individualists, this form of courtesy may be overwhelming.
What ways may cause Chinese to lose face, and what ways can
save their face?
The easiest way to cause someone to lose face is to insult the
individual or to criticize him or her in front of others.
Westerners can offend Chinese unintentionally by making fun
of them in the good-natured way that is common among
friends in the West. Another way to cause someone to lose face
is to treat him or her as a junior when his or her official status in an organization is high.
People must always be treated with proper respect. Failure to do so makes them and the
offender lose face for all others aware of the situation. But just as face can be lost, it can
also be given by praising someone for good work in front of peers or superiors or by
thanking someone for doing a good job. Giving someone face earns respect and loyalty,
and it should be done whenever the situation warrants. However, it is not a good idea
to praise others too much, as it can make you appear to be insincere. You can also save
someone's face by helping him to avoid an embarrassing situation.
THE SOCIAL VALUES IN JAPAN
Greetings
Upon meeting each other for the first, second or umpteenth
time, men and women usually bow, although the more
cosmopolitan may shake hands. Often, people will bow and
shake hands simultaneously! Ask your advisor for advice
about how to greet people who are older and younger than
you, your peers, and other categories of people you will
meet in Japan. When in doubt, always ask someone,
preferably older than you, for suggestions.
Use of Names
First names are generally not used in Japan. Most Japanese
use the family name followed by san (Mr./Miss/Mrs.),
sensei (literally, “teacher,” but used in addressing not only
professors but also physicians, dentists, politicians), or the
title of the person being addressed (e.g., Tanaka Kyoju /
Professor Tanaka, Tanaka Bucho / Director Tanaka, Tanaka
Gakucho / President Tanaka). If you are in doubt and there
is no one immediately available to ask for advice, use san.
Since your name may be difficult for Japanese to pronounce, you may be asked to
provide a nickname, e.g., “Mak-san” for Mr. McDonald. Japanese may use nicknames
or first names among themselves but foreigners should refrain from doing so until they
are asked!
Entertaining Friends
Invitations are extended either in person, by telephone or
on printed invitations for formal receptions or dinners and
all should be taken seriously. If invited to a meal, it is likely
that it will be at a restaurant rather than at someone’s
home. It is polite to arrive on time, to take a small token of
your appreciation (a potted plant, flowers, sweets),
especially if you are going to a private home, and to say
thank you afterwards by telephone, postcard, or letter.
The SOCIAL VALUES IN THE PHILIPPINES
Bonds of ritual kinship, sealed on any of three ceremonial occasions--
baptism, confirmation, and marriage--intensify and extend personal
alliances. This mutual kinship system, known as compadrazgo, meaning
godparenthood or sponsorship, dates back at least to the introduction of
Christianity and perhaps earlier. It is a primary method of extending the
group from which one can expect help in the way of favors, such as jobs,
loans, or just simple gifts on special occasions. But in asking a friend to
become godparent to a child, a Filipino is also asking that person to
become a closer friend. Thus it is common to ask acquaintances who are
of higher economic or social status than oneself to be sponsors. Such
ritual kinship cannot be depended on in moments of crisis to the same
extent as real kinship, but it still functions for small and regular acts of
support such as gift giving.
A dyadic bond--between two individuals--may be formed based
on the concept of utang na loob. Although it is expected that the
debtor will attempt repayment, it is widely recognized that the
debt (as in one's obligation to a parent) can never be fully repaid
and the obligation can last for generations. Saving another's life,
providing employment, or making it possible for another to
become educated are "gifts" that incur utang na loob. Moreover,
such gifts initiate a long-term reciprocal interdependency in
which the grantor of the favor can expect help from the debtor
whenever the need arises and the debtor can, in turn, ask other
favors. Such reciprocal personal alliances have had obvious implications for the society in
general and the political system in particular. In 1990 educated Filipinos were less likely to feel
obligated to extend help (thereby not initiating an utang na loob relationship) than were rural
dwellers among whom traditional values remained strong. Some observers believed that as
Philippine society became more modernized and urban in
orientation, utang na loob would become less important in the
political and social systems.
In the commercial context, suki relationships (market- exchange
partnerships) may develop between two people who agree to
become regular customer and supplier. In the marketplace, Filipinos
will regularly buy from certain specific suppliers who will give
them, in return, reduced prices, good quality, and, often, credit. Suki relationships often apply
in other contexts as well. For example, regular patrons of restaurants and small neighborhood
retail shops and tailoring shops often receive special treatment in return for their patronage.
Suki does more than help develop economic exchange relationships. Because trust is such a vital
aspect, it creates a platform for personal relationships that can blossom into genuine friendship
between individuals
THE POPULAR CULTURE IN CHINA
Shanzhai
Shanzhai (Chinese: 山寨; pinyin: shānzhài; Jyutping: saan1 zaai6;
alternatively spelt shanzai or shan zhai) refers to Chinese imitation and
pirated brands and goods, particularly electronics.[1] Literally "mountain
village" or "mountain stronghold", the term refers to the mountain
stockades of regional warlords or bandits, far away from official control.
"Shanzhai" can also be stretched to refer to people who are lookalikes,
low-quality or improved goods, as well as things done in parody..
Diaosi
Diaosi (Chinese: 屌丝) is a Chinese slang term, referring to a young
male of mediocre appearance. Born in a humble or ordinary family,
he has no car, no house, and typically has poor socializing skills. He
dreams of having a "goddess" as a girlfriend, but when interacting
with said "goddess" he feels inferior and behaves awkwardly,
knowing the "goddess" belongs with a gaofushuai, his polar
opposite: tall, rich and handsome. Their major pastimes are
computers, the internet and online games. Programmers and media
industry workers have the highest percentage of self-identified
diaosi. Yet as the term went viral on the Internet, Chinese youth from all backgrounds
began to embrace it. It is slowly transforming into a descriptor of the ordinary Chinese
citizen who faces everyday struggles and hardships
Tuzki
Tuzki (Chinese: 兔斯基; pinyin: Tùsījī) is a popular illustrated rabbit character, created in 2006
by Momo Wang of the Beijing Broadcasting Institute. Featured in a variety of emoticons, her
character has become popular with QQ and MSN users.[citation needed]
Nowadays Tuzki has extended his emoticon popularity to different
major messaging app platforms including WeChat, KakaoTalk,
Facebook and ChatOn.
Tuzki is managed and owned by TurnOut Ventures, a joint venture
between Turner Broadcasting and Outblaze established in Hong Kong
in 2008.
In 2007 Motorola used the Tuzki images to promote its Motorola Q9h
smartphone in Asia, touting its Internet and instant messaging
capabilities.[1]
In January 2013 during the KFC#China premium campaign, over 9.5
million units of Tuzki premium figurines were distributed nationwide in China through more
than 3,000 KFC restaurants.[2]
THE POPULAR CULTURE IN JAPAN
“Increasing Services!” - Japanese Vending Machines
If you walk around a town in Japan, you will notice that there are vending machines
packed with sense of enjoyment.
The New Era of “SAKE”
With its features that harmonize seamlessly with any dish, the use of Japanese sake is
rapidly spreading among famous hotels and long-established restaurants overseas.
Up-And-Coming Creators In Japanese Anime
A half century after the start of TV animation, the focus will be on the up-and-coming
young film creators who will drive the Japanese animation industry.
THE POPULAR CULTURE IN THE PHILIPPINES
The early music of the Philippines featured a mixture of
indigenous, Islamic and a variety of Asian sounds. Spanish settlers
and natives played a variety of musical instruments including,
guitar, ukulele, violin, trumpets and drums. They performed
songs and dances to celebrate festive occasions. Modern day
Philippine music features several styles. Most music genres are
contemporary such as Filipino rock, hip hop and other musical
styles. Philippine folk dances include the Tinikling and Cariñosa.
The Nipa Hut or Bahay Kubo is the typical form of housing of the
early Filipinos and until now in remote areas. It is characterized
by the use of simple materials such as bamboo and coconut as the
main sources of wood. The Spaniards introduced stones as
housing and building materials. Spanish architecture can be found
in Intramuros, Vigan, Iloilo and other parts of the Philippines.
The Philippines is considered as the melting pot of Asia. Eating
out is a favorite Filipino pastime. A typical Pinoy diet consists at
most of six meals a day. Rice is a staple in Filipino diet and it is
usually eaten together with other dishes. Filipinos regularly use
spoons together with forks and knives; some also eat with their
hands. Popular dishes in the Philippines are adobo which is a
meat stew made from either pork or chicken; lumpia, a meat or
vegetable roll; pancit or noodle; and lechon or roasted pig. Some
interesting delicacies are balut which is a boiled egg with a
fertilized duckling inside; and dinuguan which is a soup made
from pork blood.

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Kultura at Tradisyon ng Bansang China, Japan at Pilipinas

  • 1.
  • 2.
  • 3.
  • 4. THE FAMOUS FESTIVAL IN CHINA Spring Festival The most important festival in China is the Spring Festival. It is said that the Spring Festival evolved from an activity known as the Winter Sacrifice. It was a custom practiced by the people of primitive society. The Spring Festival marks the beginning of the Chinese Lunar New Year,so the first meal is rather important. People usually eat Jiaozi or dumplings shaped like a crescent moon on that special day. As for recreational activities during the Sping Festival, the Dragon Dance and Lion Dance are traditionally performed . Lantern Festival The Lantern Festival (also called Yuanxiao Festival) is on the 15th day of the first Chinese lunar month. It is closely related to Spring Festival. Yuan literally means first, while Xiao refers to night. Yuanxiao is the first time when we see the full moon in the new year. It is traditionally a time for family reunion. The displaying of lanterns is a big event on that day, and another important part of the Festival is eating small dumpling balls made of glutinous rice flour. We call these balls Yuanxiao. Qingming Qingming, meaning clear and bright, is the day for mourning the dead. It falls in early April every year. It corresponds with the onset of warmer weather, the start of spring plowing, and of family outings. Springtime, especially in North China, is the windy season, just right for flying kites. It is not surprising that kite flying is very popular during the Qingming season.
  • 5. THE FAMOUS FESTIVAL IN JAPAN Sendai Tanabata Festival —A Famous Festival in Japan The Sendai Tanabata Festival is held from August 6th to 8th every year. In downtown Sendai, stores compete to see who can create the most beautiful Tanabata bamboo decorations with colorful Japanese paper (washi). Decorative balls and strips of paper with wishes written on them are attached to the decorations. More than 2 million visitors flock to Sendai to enjoy these beautiful decorations. Sendai Aoba Festival (May) The Aoba Matsuri Festival signals the arrival of spring in Sendai and is held in May every year. The main festival held on Sunday features magnificent yamaboko floats and samurai processions parading the zelkova-lined streets in downtown Sendai. The taiko drums and cheers heard on the main streets engulf the entire city in festivity. The highlight of the Saturday evening festival is the Sparrow Dance contest. Anyone can join the dancing and experience the festival's excitement. Michinoku YOSAKOI Festival (October) The Michinoku YOSAKOI Festival is a dynamic festival. People dance to comtemporary arrangements of Tohoku (northeast) region folk songs with original costumes and choreography. Over 8000 dancers participate in the festival from all over Japan. The two day festival, held every October, attracts and enthralls 700 thousand spectators.
  • 6. THE FAMOUS FESTIVAL IN THE PHILIPPINES Ati-Atihan Festival: The Ati-Atihan, held every third sunday of January in the town of Kalibo, Aklan, is the wildest among Philippine fiestas. Panagbenga Festival: Also known as Baguio Flower Festival celebrates the festival in February and the highlights of the festivities includes flower, flower exhibits, lectures, garden tours, floral contest and a parade of floats. Paraw Regatta Festival: The Iloilo Paraw (sailboat) Regatta is a race among native outriggers in the strait between Guimaras Island and Iloilo City.
  • 7. THE WEDDING TRADITION IN CHINA Matchmaking Matchmaking is a process of making a match of unmarried man and woman by a matchmaker... Birthday Matching & Auspicious Day Choosing The record of a person's horoscope indicates the sun's position at the time when the person was born. Therefore... Sending Dowry & Betrothal Gifts When the two families agree to the marriage, the man's family is supposed to send some betrothal gifts to the woman's family...
  • 8. THE WEDDING TRADITION IN JAPAN Mi-ai Arranged marriages often had more to do with politics. More Yui-no The "Yui-no" betrothal is a serious step in a Japanese wedding. More Nakodo The go between. Traditional Japanese Wedding Ceremony Part 1 Part 2 Traditional Japanese Wedding Reception Includes the Japanese wedding kimono.
  • 9. THE WEDDING TRADITION IN THE PHILIPPINES Although Filipinos infuse a touch of modernity in their wedding rites, as a predominantly Catholic country, they still generally stick to traditional Catholic wedding rites, with a few rites from the Spanish and Americans thrown in. One thing is for sure, though: whether done in church or elsewhere, Filipinos are big on weddings and all its traditional trappings. Prior to the wedding, there is usually the traditional period of courtship (panliligaw), followed by the engagement (kasunduan), and then the pamamanhikan. The last is when the would-be groom, together with members of his family, meets with his fiancée and her family, usually at the latter’s home, to formalize the marriage proposal. After accepting the proposal, both parties discuss the wedding arrangements and other details. It is usual for the groom’s family to shoulder the expenses, but in these modern times, the bride often agrees to pay for part of the cost. Afterwards, the bride’s family holds a despedida de soltera as she bids goodbye to singlehood, while the groom may hold a bachelor’s or stag party. Wedding customs and symbols The bride’s gown is white or a shaded variation such as ecru, while the groom usually wears a barong tagalog over a pair of black slacks. Wedding designs usually follow an overall color scheme, which can be seen from the invitations, to the garments of the wedding entourage, the flowers and even the tablecloths used during the wedding reception. In selecting the members of the entourage, the couple usually considers one or several pairs of principal sponsors or godparents (ninong and ninang) to serve as the primary witnesses of the wedding ceremony. Ideally, some of them may be the couple’s baptismal godparents. They are people whom the couple admire and respect and expect guidance from. There are also secondary sponsors, usually made up of the couple’s friends or younger relatives: the best man, groomsmen, maid/matron of honor and bridesmaids, along with veil, cord and candle sponsors. They are followed by the coin/arrhae, ring and flower bearers, and the occasional Bible bearer. The lighting of the pair of candles, one on each side of the couple, is reminiscent of their baptism and symbolizes the presence and guidance of God in their married life. Later, the couple may decide to light a “unity candle” using these two candles to signify the joining of their families and of the couple’s oneness. Apart from the bridal veil, which may form part of her gown, the veil is made of sheer white material, and it is more traditional to have only one during the ceremony. It “clothes” two persons and unifies them in marriage, as well as signifies their commitment to protect each other. This is why it is draped and pinned over the groom’s shoulder and over the head of the bride, to represent his strength and protection of his soon-to-be wife.
  • 10. THE UNIQUE CUISINES DISHES IN CHINA Chinese New Year Food Chinese New Year Foods are very important to Chinese people. All family members come together to eat at this time. Chinese New Year foods are not only delicious but it is traditional to eat certain foods over this festival. Chinese Dumplings, Fish, Spring Rolls, Nian Gao are usually seen as delicious and eaten at this time. Chinese Vegetarian Food Most Chinese vegetarians are Buddhists, following the Buddhist teachings about minimizing suffering. In addition, many Yoga enthusiasts in China are vegetarians or vegans. Nowadays, in order to keep healthy and fit, more and more Chinese people who are not vegetarians or vegans, tend to eat vegetarian food from time to time. Chinese Medicinal Food Medicinal food is food with the function of dietetic therapy, which is made by taking medicine and food as materials and processing them through cooking. It is the product of the combination of Chinese traditional medical knowledge and cooking experience.
  • 11. THE UNIQUE CUISINES DISHES IN JAPAN Maki-zushi (巻寿司) Maki zushi is rolled sushi that is usually wrapped in nori (seaweed). Maki sushi includes some of the most popular sushi varieties such as kappa maki (cucumber), tekka maki (tuna), negitoro maki(tuna, scallion), tsunamayo maki(tuna and mayo) and kanpyō maki (tuna and carrots). Soba (そば) Thin buckwheat noodles served cold with wasabi or hot with toppings such as tempura, duck, mochi or mountain vegetables. Takoyaki (たこ焼き) Takoyaki are Japanese octopus dumplings from Osaka. They are prepared with a light batter and a single piece of octopus in the center and deep- fried. Takoyaki are usually topped with okonomiyaki sauce, mayonnaise, seaweed (aonori) and fish shavings(katsuobushi). Takoyaki can be prepared at home and are a crowd-pleasing snack at festivals.
  • 12. THE UNIQUE CUISINES DISHES IN THE PHILIPPINES ADOBO usually pork or chicken cooked in a marinade of vinegar, soy sauce, bay leaves, and peppercorn plus some sugar to sweeten NILAGA usually beef boiled in onions and peppercorn until tender; then cabbage, string beans, carrots, and sweet corn are added TAPSILOG a popular breakfast consists of beef jerky (‘tap’ short for ‘tapa’), fried rice (‘si’ for ‘sinangag’), and sunny egg (‘log’ short for ‘itlog’)
  • 13. THE FAMILY VALUES IN CHINA Family Interdependence  Connected to filial piety is a belief in the interdependence of family members. Though practices have been gradually changing since the 20th century, sons traditionally lived with their parents for their whole lives. Contrary to the expectation in most Western families, Chinese parents typically raise their children not to be independent, but to be integrated into the family. This way, families can depend on each other rather than relying on outside help. This includes an expectation that sons will support and care for their parents in old age. Family interdependence extends even beyond the living world: In the traditional religion still practiced by many Chinese people today, ancestors are believed to aid and protect their descendants in return for worship and offerings.  Men in the Family Chinese families have always had very clear-cut gender roles for men and women. Although these are changing nowadays because of westernization, there are some elements of the gender roles left behind; some are more evident in some families. In very traditional families, the man of the household is responsible for taking care of everyone in the house. He is the sole breadwinner of the family. He is responsible for everyone's education, clothing, food, and even marriages. He also has the final say in all decisions regarding his wife and his children. However, in modern families, the children have much more power and the women of the house also works. Women in the Family Like the male gender role in the traditional Chinese family, women also have a very straightforward gender role. Unlike the men in the house, women do not go to work in a traditional Chinese family. They stay at home, and are responsible for cooking, cleaning, and taking care of the children. The man of the house is supposed to take care of the women. However, China has become progressive in the last few decades. Therefore, more and more women go to work and less stay at home. However, even then, many women do rely on their fathers and husbands for financial support from time to time.
  • 14. The Family Values In Japan Family ties are strong in Japan and bind not only the living extended family but also generations of ancestors. You may notice that Japanese are not physically demonstrative in public and you won’t see any kissing and hugging on the streets. You do see friends and parents and children holding hands. One of the ways families express warmth and affection is to snuggle around the kotatsu (heated table covered with a comforter) in the winter, eating mikan (mandarin oranges) and watching TV. Another way is to scrub each other’s backs in the family bath. Parents and children sleep together on the family futon, often until the children are age 10 or so. If you get lost in the city, there is no need to panic; people are genuinely helpful. Don’t be surprised if they even lead you to your final destination.You will find that most people are very honest. If you forget something on the subway, you will most likely find it at the lost and found office. Once I left a silver tray, which was a gift for someone, on the train. I called the railway station and recovered it the same day. Another time I forgot my camera and got it back again. I feel safe riding the subway at midnight. If you get lost in the city, there is no need to panic; people are genuinely helpful. Don’t be surprised if they even lead you to your final destination. And there’s always a kouban, or police box, nearby with detailed maps to help you find your way. Shared Values Every culture transmits values to its youth, first in the context of family, and then through the educational process. In Japan, some of the core values are thinking of others, doing your best, not giving up, respecting your elders, knowing your role, and working in a group. These concepts are taught explicitly and implicitly from nursery school into the working world. From a very young age, Japanese children are taught omoiyari (to notice and think of others). Students must pass difficult entrance examinations to move to the next level of education, and in the process, they learn that ganbaru (effort) and gaman (enduring) are more crucial in reaching their goals than innate ability. In every social situation, identity and status are largely determined by age, gender, sibling rank, and your year of entry to the group—which are also cues for the appropriate thing to say (or not) to each other. Having clear social roles provides a sense of security and comfort, but it can also feel binding. For those coming from a Western culture with a strong sense of independence, work situations where interactions are based on age or seniority, rather than talent or ability, may feel confining and frustrating. Greater awareness of cultural differences and values is helpful in understanding such situations. Japanese values are reflected in the phrases used in daily interactions, which smooth relationships and acknowledge the presence of others. Wherever you go in Japan, everyone knows the precise words to say before and after meals, when you leave home, when you arrive at school or work, when you part with someone and meet them again. When you enter a store, restaurant, bank, or post office, the entire staff welcomes you with “Irasshai-mase” and showers you with “Arigatoo gozaimasu” when you leave. Soon you absorb the rhythm of these expressions so thoroughly that you miss them when you leave Japan.
  • 15. The most versatile phrase to learn before you go to Japan is “Onegai shimasu,” which means, roughly, “I wish for” or “I sincerely request.” It’s the perfect thing to say when you introduce yourself, when you buy something, when you ask a favor, when you order in a restaurant, and when you ask someone to dance. Island Mentality Before going to Japan, you may expect that everyone will look the same, dress the same, live the same, and talk the same. To a certain extent, this is true. Japanese people may appear to be more or less uniform in dress or behavior. This reflects an underlying value of not calling attention to oneself in public, especially among the older generation. However, Japan is neither monocultural nor monolingual. In addition to Ainu, the indigenous people of Japan, a flow of people and ideas has entered the country from China, Korea, Portugal, Spain, Germany, France, the Netherlands, England, North America, Brazil, and elsewhere for at least 2,000 years. Buddhism and Christianity, the writing system, medicine, models of government, business, and education, as well as sports and cuisine have derived—in part—from the outside and become a part of Japanese culture. In turn, Japan has exerted an influence on many other cultures. The fact that Japan is an island nation with no land bridge to other countries seems to have an effect on the Japanese psyche and identity. When I lived in Japan, people would say almost apologetically, “We’re just a small island nation.” Overlooked is the fact that plenty of other smaller island nations, like England, New Zealand, and Madagascar, don’t apologize for their size. On the flip side, a long history of being isolated and battered by typhoons and earthquakes has fostered a sense of shima-guni konjo, or the island fighting spirit. Being surrounded by a vast sea, Japanese children are naturally curious about what’s on the other side and express it in a song called Umi: “The ocean is so wide and big, I wish I could go see other countries.” Maybe it’s this longing to see what’s on the other side that fuels the stream of millions of travelers who take to the air at New Year’s, Golden Week (early May), and Obon (mid-August), landing in Hong Kong, Hawaii, New York, and Paris. Needless to say, holiday periods are good times not to plan your trip to Japan!
  • 16. The Family Values in the Philippines “Paggalang” – In English it means being respectful or giving due respect for a person. Filipinos are accustomed to using the words “po,” “opo,” and “ho” when they are conversing with older people or sometimes to people with higher position or status in the society. Using these words is customary in the Philippines and it shows sign of respect. Paggalang can also be given to the elders by virtue of kissing their hands before leaving and upon arrival. Younger member of the family gives due respect to older siblings by calling them kuya (older brother) or ate (older sister). “Pakikisama” or Getting along well with people – The yearning of the Filipinos to be accepted and well liked by his friends, colleagues, boss and even relatives steers them perform pakikisama. The word pakikisama means helping others. This trait usually fosters cooperation and doing good deeds which are favorable to other people. “Pagpapahalaga sa Pamilya” or Putting importance to family - This implies that a person will put a high regards and concerns over the family before anything else. This is one of the reasons why a father or a mother in a Filipino family will seek employment abroad just to earn decent earnings for their family, to meet the family’s basic needs and want.
  • 17. The Literature in China Dream Of The Red Chamber For more than a century and a half, Dream of the Red Chamber has been recognized in China as the greatest of its novels, a Chinese Romeo-and-Juliet love story and a portrait of one of the world's great civilizations. Chi-chen Wang's translation is skillful, accurate and fascinating. Red Sorghum The acclaimed novel of love and resistance during late 1930s China by Mo Yan, winner of the 2012 Nobel Prize in Literature Spanning three generations, this novel of family and myth is told through a series of flashbacks that depict events of staggering horror set against a landscape of gemlike beauty, as the Chinese battle both Japanese invaders and each other in the turbulent 1930s. A legend in China, where it won major literary awards and inspired an Oscar-nominated film directed by Zhang Yimou, Red Sorghum is a book in which fable and history collide to produce fiction that is entirely new—and unforgettable. Shanghai Baby A story of love, sex and self-discovery - banned in China. Publicly burned in China for its sensual nature and irreverent style, this novel is the semi-autobiographical story of Coco, a cafe waitress, who is full of enthusiasm and impatience for life. She meets a young man, Tian Tian, for whom she feels tenderness and love, but he is reclusive, impotent and an increasing us
  • 18. The Literature in Japan The Reason I Jump: The Inner Voice of a Thirteen-Year-Old Boy with Autism by Naoki Higashida 3.75 of 5 stars 3.75 avg rating — 14,434 ratings — published 2007 NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLERYou’ve never read a book like The Reason I Jump. Written by Naoki Higashida, a very smart, very self-aware, and very charming thirteen-year-old boy with autism, it is a one-of-a-kind memoir that demonstrates how an autistic mind thinks, feels, perceives, and responds in ways...more All You Need Is Kill by Hiroshi Sakurazaka, 桜坂洋, Alexander O. Smith (Translator) There’s one thing worse than dying. It’s coming back to do it again and again… When the alien Gitai invade, Keiji Kiriya is just one of many raw recruits shoved into a suit of battle armor and sent out to kill. Keiji dies on the battlefield, only to find himself reborn each morning to fight and die again and again. On the 158th iteration though, he sees something different... Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon, Vol. 7 (Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon Renewal Editions #7) by Naoko Takeuchi, William Flanagan (Translator) Old friends and new enemies lurk in the mysteries surrounding Mugen Academe. The Death Busters crave the Hoste, the human energies, of Sailor Moon and her friends – and they’ll prey on the girls’ dreams and weaknesses to get it! Furthermore, prophetic dreams hint of “talismans” that could awaken a “Deity of Destruction.” Could these things be connected to the guardians’ po...
  • 19. The Literature in the Philippines Top of Form Noli Me Tangere (Touch Me Not) by José Rizal, Harold Augenbraum (Translator) In more than a century since its appearance, José Rizal's Noli Me Tangere has become widely known as the great novel of the Philippines. A passionate love story set against the ugly political backdrop of repression, torture, and murder, "The Noli," as it is called in the Philippines, was the first major artistic manifestation of Asian resistance to European colonialism, an... El Filibusterismo (Subversion) by José Rizal, Ma. Soledad Lacson-Locsin (Translator), Raul L. Locsin (Editor) El Filibusterismo (The Subversive) is the second novel by Jose Rizal (1861-1896), national hero of the Philippines. Like its predecessor, the better-known Noli Me Tangere, the Fili was written in Castilian while Rizal was traveling and studying in Europe. It was published in Ghent in 1891 and later translated into English, German, French, Japanese, Tagalog, Ilonggo, and ot...more Philippine Literature: A History And Anthology by Bienvenido L. Lumbera (Editor), Cynthia Nograles Lumbera (Editor) Through the years, this book on Philippine Literature has helped students understand the pressures which shaped Philippine writing, and how writers and their audience responded to those pressures. Philippine Literature: A History and Anthology gives direction to the study of Philippine Literature and provides an interpretation of literary development in the Philippines.
  • 20. The Martial Arts in China Chinese Kung Fu (Martial Arts or as popularly referred to as Gongfu or Wushu) is a series of fighting styles which has developed over a long historical period in China. Nowadays, it is regarded as a traditional sport gaining more and more popularity and even stands as a representative for Chinese culture. The Martial Arts in Japan Japanese Karate is primarily a striking art. All styles use similar moves; blows made with the closed fist, the open hand, the legendary Karate Chop, the elbow, feet and knees as well as an array of blocks, deflections, sweeps, throws - even grappling. Some Karate schools train with weapons even although Karate means ‘empty hand’. Moves vary depending on the philosophy of the style and whether the emphasis is on destructive power or subduing an attacker. Whether a Karate kick or punch is delivered with the raw power of Kyokushin, the speed and finesse of Wado Ryu, the immovable strength of Goju Ryu or the dynamism and depth of Shotokan, it's still a kick or a punch only the method changes. The Martial Arts in the Philippines Modern Arnis is the system of Filipino martial arts founded by Remy Presas as a self-defense system. His goal was to create an injury-free training method as well as an effective self-defense system in order to preserve the older Arnis systems. The term Modern Arnis was used by Remy Presas' younger brother Ernesto Presas to describe his style of Filipino martial arts; since 1999 Ernesto Presas has called his system Kombatan. It is derived principally from the traditional Presas family style of the Bolo (machete) and the stick-dueling art of Balintawak Eskrima, with influences from other Filipino and Japanese martial arts.
  • 21. THE SOCIAL VALUES IN CHINA Social Values in China Could you tell me some brief introduction about Confucianism in China? The Confucius, who lived 2,500 years ago, largely shaped the modern mentality and culture of the Chinese people and society. Confucianism is not so much a religion as it is a code for social conduct. The basic principles of Confucian thought are obedience to and respect for superiors and parents, duty to family, loyalty to friends, humility, sincerity and courtesy. What is the Chinese attitude towards family according to Confucianism? The family is the pre-eminent institution in China. One's first duty is to the welfare of one's family, and working family members often pool their financial resources. In many ways, Chinese view themselves more as parts of the family unit than as free individuals. Grown children often live with their parents, even if they are married, and have a duty to support them in old age. It is said that Chinese are the most courteous people toward their friends, is it right? Yes. Confucianism honors humility and courtesy. Chinese are seldom overly boastful or self-satisfied, even if their achievements are splendid. When Chinese are being polite, they can be excessively self-deprecating. Chinese are among the most courteous people in the world toward their friends. Every detail of a guest's stay with a Chinese friend may be prearranged, and the guest may not be allowed to spend money on even the smallest items. For Western individualists, this form of courtesy may be overwhelming. What ways may cause Chinese to lose face, and what ways can save their face? The easiest way to cause someone to lose face is to insult the individual or to criticize him or her in front of others. Westerners can offend Chinese unintentionally by making fun of them in the good-natured way that is common among friends in the West. Another way to cause someone to lose face is to treat him or her as a junior when his or her official status in an organization is high. People must always be treated with proper respect. Failure to do so makes them and the offender lose face for all others aware of the situation. But just as face can be lost, it can also be given by praising someone for good work in front of peers or superiors or by thanking someone for doing a good job. Giving someone face earns respect and loyalty, and it should be done whenever the situation warrants. However, it is not a good idea to praise others too much, as it can make you appear to be insincere. You can also save someone's face by helping him to avoid an embarrassing situation.
  • 22. THE SOCIAL VALUES IN JAPAN Greetings Upon meeting each other for the first, second or umpteenth time, men and women usually bow, although the more cosmopolitan may shake hands. Often, people will bow and shake hands simultaneously! Ask your advisor for advice about how to greet people who are older and younger than you, your peers, and other categories of people you will meet in Japan. When in doubt, always ask someone, preferably older than you, for suggestions. Use of Names First names are generally not used in Japan. Most Japanese use the family name followed by san (Mr./Miss/Mrs.), sensei (literally, “teacher,” but used in addressing not only professors but also physicians, dentists, politicians), or the title of the person being addressed (e.g., Tanaka Kyoju / Professor Tanaka, Tanaka Bucho / Director Tanaka, Tanaka Gakucho / President Tanaka). If you are in doubt and there is no one immediately available to ask for advice, use san. Since your name may be difficult for Japanese to pronounce, you may be asked to provide a nickname, e.g., “Mak-san” for Mr. McDonald. Japanese may use nicknames or first names among themselves but foreigners should refrain from doing so until they are asked! Entertaining Friends Invitations are extended either in person, by telephone or on printed invitations for formal receptions or dinners and all should be taken seriously. If invited to a meal, it is likely that it will be at a restaurant rather than at someone’s home. It is polite to arrive on time, to take a small token of your appreciation (a potted plant, flowers, sweets), especially if you are going to a private home, and to say thank you afterwards by telephone, postcard, or letter.
  • 23. The SOCIAL VALUES IN THE PHILIPPINES Bonds of ritual kinship, sealed on any of three ceremonial occasions-- baptism, confirmation, and marriage--intensify and extend personal alliances. This mutual kinship system, known as compadrazgo, meaning godparenthood or sponsorship, dates back at least to the introduction of Christianity and perhaps earlier. It is a primary method of extending the group from which one can expect help in the way of favors, such as jobs, loans, or just simple gifts on special occasions. But in asking a friend to become godparent to a child, a Filipino is also asking that person to become a closer friend. Thus it is common to ask acquaintances who are of higher economic or social status than oneself to be sponsors. Such ritual kinship cannot be depended on in moments of crisis to the same extent as real kinship, but it still functions for small and regular acts of support such as gift giving. A dyadic bond--between two individuals--may be formed based on the concept of utang na loob. Although it is expected that the debtor will attempt repayment, it is widely recognized that the debt (as in one's obligation to a parent) can never be fully repaid and the obligation can last for generations. Saving another's life, providing employment, or making it possible for another to become educated are "gifts" that incur utang na loob. Moreover, such gifts initiate a long-term reciprocal interdependency in which the grantor of the favor can expect help from the debtor whenever the need arises and the debtor can, in turn, ask other favors. Such reciprocal personal alliances have had obvious implications for the society in general and the political system in particular. In 1990 educated Filipinos were less likely to feel obligated to extend help (thereby not initiating an utang na loob relationship) than were rural dwellers among whom traditional values remained strong. Some observers believed that as Philippine society became more modernized and urban in orientation, utang na loob would become less important in the political and social systems. In the commercial context, suki relationships (market- exchange partnerships) may develop between two people who agree to become regular customer and supplier. In the marketplace, Filipinos will regularly buy from certain specific suppliers who will give them, in return, reduced prices, good quality, and, often, credit. Suki relationships often apply in other contexts as well. For example, regular patrons of restaurants and small neighborhood retail shops and tailoring shops often receive special treatment in return for their patronage. Suki does more than help develop economic exchange relationships. Because trust is such a vital aspect, it creates a platform for personal relationships that can blossom into genuine friendship between individuals
  • 24. THE POPULAR CULTURE IN CHINA Shanzhai Shanzhai (Chinese: 山寨; pinyin: shānzhài; Jyutping: saan1 zaai6; alternatively spelt shanzai or shan zhai) refers to Chinese imitation and pirated brands and goods, particularly electronics.[1] Literally "mountain village" or "mountain stronghold", the term refers to the mountain stockades of regional warlords or bandits, far away from official control. "Shanzhai" can also be stretched to refer to people who are lookalikes, low-quality or improved goods, as well as things done in parody.. Diaosi Diaosi (Chinese: 屌丝) is a Chinese slang term, referring to a young male of mediocre appearance. Born in a humble or ordinary family, he has no car, no house, and typically has poor socializing skills. He dreams of having a "goddess" as a girlfriend, but when interacting with said "goddess" he feels inferior and behaves awkwardly, knowing the "goddess" belongs with a gaofushuai, his polar opposite: tall, rich and handsome. Their major pastimes are computers, the internet and online games. Programmers and media industry workers have the highest percentage of self-identified diaosi. Yet as the term went viral on the Internet, Chinese youth from all backgrounds began to embrace it. It is slowly transforming into a descriptor of the ordinary Chinese citizen who faces everyday struggles and hardships Tuzki Tuzki (Chinese: 兔斯基; pinyin: Tùsījī) is a popular illustrated rabbit character, created in 2006 by Momo Wang of the Beijing Broadcasting Institute. Featured in a variety of emoticons, her character has become popular with QQ and MSN users.[citation needed] Nowadays Tuzki has extended his emoticon popularity to different major messaging app platforms including WeChat, KakaoTalk, Facebook and ChatOn. Tuzki is managed and owned by TurnOut Ventures, a joint venture between Turner Broadcasting and Outblaze established in Hong Kong in 2008. In 2007 Motorola used the Tuzki images to promote its Motorola Q9h smartphone in Asia, touting its Internet and instant messaging capabilities.[1] In January 2013 during the KFC#China premium campaign, over 9.5 million units of Tuzki premium figurines were distributed nationwide in China through more than 3,000 KFC restaurants.[2]
  • 25. THE POPULAR CULTURE IN JAPAN “Increasing Services!” - Japanese Vending Machines If you walk around a town in Japan, you will notice that there are vending machines packed with sense of enjoyment. The New Era of “SAKE” With its features that harmonize seamlessly with any dish, the use of Japanese sake is rapidly spreading among famous hotels and long-established restaurants overseas. Up-And-Coming Creators In Japanese Anime A half century after the start of TV animation, the focus will be on the up-and-coming young film creators who will drive the Japanese animation industry.
  • 26. THE POPULAR CULTURE IN THE PHILIPPINES The early music of the Philippines featured a mixture of indigenous, Islamic and a variety of Asian sounds. Spanish settlers and natives played a variety of musical instruments including, guitar, ukulele, violin, trumpets and drums. They performed songs and dances to celebrate festive occasions. Modern day Philippine music features several styles. Most music genres are contemporary such as Filipino rock, hip hop and other musical styles. Philippine folk dances include the Tinikling and Cariñosa. The Nipa Hut or Bahay Kubo is the typical form of housing of the early Filipinos and until now in remote areas. It is characterized by the use of simple materials such as bamboo and coconut as the main sources of wood. The Spaniards introduced stones as housing and building materials. Spanish architecture can be found in Intramuros, Vigan, Iloilo and other parts of the Philippines. The Philippines is considered as the melting pot of Asia. Eating out is a favorite Filipino pastime. A typical Pinoy diet consists at most of six meals a day. Rice is a staple in Filipino diet and it is usually eaten together with other dishes. Filipinos regularly use spoons together with forks and knives; some also eat with their hands. Popular dishes in the Philippines are adobo which is a meat stew made from either pork or chicken; lumpia, a meat or vegetable roll; pancit or noodle; and lechon or roasted pig. Some interesting delicacies are balut which is a boiled egg with a fertilized duckling inside; and dinuguan which is a soup made from pork blood.