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  1. 1. Japan <br />日本国Nihon-koku<br />CULTURE AND ITS IMPACT<br />
  2. 2. ALL ABOUT JAPAN’s name<br />The Japanese names for Japan are Nippon (にっぽん) and Nihon (にほん).<br />Written with the help of kanji 日本. <br />Word Nippon - used official purposes, Japanese money, postage stamps, and for many international sporting events. <br />Nihon - more casual term , frequently used in contemporary speech.<br />
  3. 3. HISTORY OF JAPAN<br />The Yayoi period - started in 3rd century <br />The ASUKA period - Mongol invasion<br />The NARA period - started in 8th century<br />The HEIAN period<br />The Nanban trade – started 16th century .<br />
  4. 4. Battle during the Warring States period (1467-1615).<br />Mongol invasions in 1274 and 1281 i.e. Asukaperiod<br />Red seal ships used for trade <br />
  5. 5. POLITICS OF JAPAN<br />
  6. 6. STATUS OF POLITICS <br />Japan is a constitutional monarchy, power of Emperor is very limited. Emperor is defined by the constitution as &quot;the symbol of the state and of the unity of the people&quot;. <br />Power is held chiefly by the Prime Minister and other members of the Diet.<br />Sovereignty lies in the Japanese people.The Emperor effectively acts as the head of state on diplomatic occasions<br />
  7. 7. Akihito is the current Emperor of Japan. Naruhito, Crown Prince of Japan, stands as next in line to the throne.<br />Emperor Akihito and Empress Michiko<br />
  8. 8. LEGAL SYSTEM<br />Influenced by Chinese law, the Japanese legal system developed independently during the Edo period through texts such as Kujikata Osadamegaki. <br />However, since the late nineteenth century, the judicial system has been largely based on the civil law of Europe, notably France and Germany. <br />For example, in 1896, the Japanese government established a civil code based on the German model. <br />
  9. 9. main symbols of Japan<br />
  10. 10. Hinomaru FLAG symbol<br />The most prominent of the national symbols of Japan is the large red disc on a white background that is featured on the national flag of the country. <br />The Hinomaru is also considered to be a controversial symbol due to the militaristic past of the country and was actually banned for a brief period of time. <br />
  11. 11. Privy seal<br />It is meant to be the official seal of the emperor of Japan. The seal is square in shape and has the text written in the archaic script. <br />The seal can be found printed on appointment documents. <br />is most commonly found on proclamation sentences of law, treaties, government ordinances, ambassador’s credentials, instruments of ratification and other official documents<br />
  12. 12. imperial seal<br />The Imperial Seal of Japan is a mon or crest used by members of the Japanese Imperial family.<br />The symbol is a yellow or orange chrysanthemum with black or red outlines and background. A central disc is surrounded by a front set of 16 petals. A rear set of 16 petals are half staggered in relation to the front set and are visible at the edges of the flower<br />
  14. 14. JAPAN’S LANGUAGE<br />The Japanese language has always played a significant role in Japanese culture. <br />The language is spoken mainly in Japan but also in some Japanese emigrant communities around the world,<br />
  15. 15. SAMPLE TEXT IN JAPANESE<br />TRANSLATION IN ENGLISH<br />All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood<br />
  16. 16. Japanese music<br />Japanese music is eclectic, having borrowed instruments, scales and styles from neighboring cultures<br />Western music, introduced in the late nineteenth century, now forms an integral part of the culture. <br />
  18. 18. PERFORMING ART<br />The four traditional theatres from Japan are noh, kyogen, kabuki and bunraku.<br />Among the characteristic aspects of it are the masks, costumes and the stylized gestures, sometimes accompanied by a fan that can represent other objects.<br />Another characteristic of kabuki is the use of makeup for the actors in historical plays (kumadori)<br />
  19. 19. ARCHITECTURE<br />Originally heavily influenced by Chinese architecture, it develops many differences and aspects which are indigenous to India. <br />Examples of traditional architecture are seen at Temples, Shinto shrines and castles in Kyoto and Nara. Some of these buildings are constructed with traditional gardens, which are influenced from Zen ideas.<br />Some modern architects, such as Yoshio Taniguchi and Tadao Ando are known for their amalgamation of Japanese traditional and Western architectural influences.<br />
  20. 20. CLOTHING<br />The Japanese word kimono means &quot;something one wears&quot; and they are the traditional garments of Japan.<br />The summer kimono which are lighter are called yukata.<br />Kimono comes in a variety of colors, styles, and sizes. Men mainly wear darker or more muted colours, while women tend to wear brighter colors and pastels, and often with complicated abstract or floral patterns<br />
  21. 21. GEISHA IN KIMONO<br />
  23. 23. LITERARY MEANING<br />The Japanese tea ceremony is called chanoyu (茶の湯, lit. &quot;tea hot-water&quot;) or also chadō or sadō (茶道, &quot;the way of tea&quot;) in Japanese. It is a multifaceted traditional activity strongly influenced by Zen Buddhism, in which powdered green tea, or matcha (抹茶), is ceremonially prepared and served to others<br />
  24. 24. ABOUT THE CEREMONY<br />The get-togethers for chanoyu are called chakai (literally &quot;tea meeting&quot;) or chaji (literally &quot;tea function&quot;). It means simple course of hospitality that includes the service of confections, usucha (thin tea), and perhaps tenshin (a light snack). A chaji may last up to four hours.<br />
  25. 25. FESTIVALS OFJAPAN<br />
  26. 26. MATSURI<br />Matsuri (祭, Matsuri) is the Japanese word for a festival or holiday. In Japan, festivals are usually sponsored by a local shrine or temple.<br />There is no specific matsuri days for all of Japan.<br />Notable matsuri often feature processions which may include elaborate floats. Preparation for these processions is usually organized at the level of neighborhoods, or machi<br />
  27. 27. BUNKASAI<br />The Japanese Cultural Festival (文化祭, bunkasai) is an annual event held by most schools in Japan, from junior high schools to universities at which their students display their everyday achievements.<br />Food is served, and often classrooms or gymnasiums are transformed into temporary restaurants or cafés. Dances, concerts and plays may be performed by individual volunteers or by various school. <br />
  28. 28. NEW YEAR (正月, Shōgatsu)<br />New Year observances are the most important and elaborate of Japan&apos;s annual events. Before the New Year, homes are cleaned, debts are paid off, and osechi (food in lacquered trays for the New Year) is prepared or bought.<br />Homes are decorated and the holidays are celebrated by family gatherings, visits to temples or shrines, and formal calls on relatives and friends. The first day of the year (ganjitsu) is usually spent with members of the family<br />
  29. 29. People try to stay awake and eat toshikoshisoba, which is soba noodles.People also visit Buddhist temples and Shinto shrines. Traditionally three shrines or temples are visited. This is called sansha-mairi.<br />On January 2 the public is allowed to enter the inner palace grounds; the only other day this is possible is the emperor&apos;s birthday (December 23).<br /> On the 2nd and 3rd days acquaintances visit one another to extend greetings (nenshi) and sipotoso (a spiced rice wine).<br />Exchanging New Year&apos;s greeting cards is another important Japanese custom. Also special allowances are given to children, which are called otoshidama.<br /> They also decorate there entrances with kagami-mochi (2 mochi rice balls placed one on top of the other, with a tangerine on top), and kadomatsu (pine tree decorations<br />
  30. 30. DOLL FESTIVAL<br />This is the day families pray for the happiness and prosperity of their girls and to help ensure that they grow up healthy and beautiful. The celebration takes place both inside the home and at the seashore.<br />Young girls put on their best kimonos and visit their friends&apos; homes.<br />The family celebrates with a special meal of hishimochi (diamond-shaped rice cakes) and shirozake (rice malt with sake).<br />
  31. 31. 7-5-3FESTIVAL (七五三, Shichigosan<br />Five-year-old boys and seven- or three-year-old girls are taken to the local shrine to pray for their safe and healthy future. <br /> Started because of the belief that children of certain ages were especially prone to bad luck and hence in need of divine protection. <br />Children are usually dressed in traditional clothing for the occasion and after visiting the shrine many people buy chitose-ame (&quot;thousand-year candy&quot;) sold at the shrine.<br />