INDIA
• Declining surface water sources
like canal and tank irrigation.
• Increased groundwater
exploitation.
• Increased deplet...
• Water is a prime natural
resource, a basic human
need and a precious
national asset.
• Planning, development and
managem...
• Water resource planning
• Conservation of water
• Water allocation priorities
• Project planning
• Groundwater developme...
• Private Sector Participation
• Water Quality
• Water Zoning
• Land erosion by sea or river
• Flood Control and managemen...
• The principle of equity and social justice must inform the
use and allocation of water.
• A common integrated perspectiv...
Enhancing water available for use
• Rainfall needs to be used directly .
• Aquifers need to be mapped to know the quantum ...
Demand management and water use efficiency
• Systems to benchmark water use, such as water footprints and
water auditing n...
Water Pricing
• Water Regulatory Authority should be established in each state.
• Water charges should be determined on a ...
Adaptation to climate change
• Increasing water storage in the forms of
soil moisture, ponds, ground water,
small and larg...
Management of flood and drought
• • Agricultural strategies must be
evolved to improve soil and water
productivity.
• Reve...
Water supply and sanitation
• Least water intensive sanitation
and sewerage systems with
decentralized sewage treatment
pl...
Conservation of river corridors, water bodies
and infrastructure
• Conservation of river corridors, water bodies and infra...
Project planning and implementation
• All clearances required for implementation should be made time
bound.
• Concurrent m...
• Originated from the intervention of Indira Gandhi .
• Central Ganga Authority (CGA) was formed
• The Ganga Project Direc...
• To abate pollution and improve
water quality.
• To conserve biodiversity and
develop an integrated river basin
managemen...
• Launched in the year 1985 to improve the water quality of
river Ganga.
• Envisaged to intercept, divert and treat 882 ml...
• Approved in stages from 1993 onwards which included
tributaries of the river Ganga namely, Yamuna, Gomati,
Damodar and M...
• Inappropriate Environmental Planning.
• Non availability of Environmental State-of-the-Art.
• Improper mass awareness an...
• Worshipped and defiled simultaneously.
• Unplanned urbanization and industrialization.
• Need to be taught that Ganga ha...
Water Policies in India
Water Policies in India
Water Policies in India
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Water Policies in India

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Water Policies in India

  1. 1. INDIA
  2. 2. • Declining surface water sources like canal and tank irrigation. • Increased groundwater exploitation. • Increased depletion of groundwater. • Replenishment becomes problem if non renewable groundwater is used. • Resource preservation would not be in the best interest of the region.
  3. 3. • Water is a prime natural resource, a basic human need and a precious national asset. • Planning, development and management of water resources need to be governed by national perspectives.
  4. 4. • Water resource planning • Conservation of water • Water allocation priorities • Project planning • Groundwater development • Drinking water • Irrigation • Resettlement and rehabilitation • Water sharing amongst the states
  5. 5. • Private Sector Participation • Water Quality • Water Zoning • Land erosion by sea or river • Flood Control and management • Drought prone Area Development • Performance Improvement • Maintenance and Modernization
  6. 6. • The principle of equity and social justice must inform the use and allocation of water. • A common integrated perspective should govern the planning and management of water resources. • Water needs to be managed as a common pool community resource. • Water may be treated as an economic good to promote its conservation and efficient use. • The river basin should be considered as the basic hydrological unit.
  7. 7. Enhancing water available for use • Rainfall needs to be used directly . • Aquifers need to be mapped to know the quantum and quality of ground water resources. • Declining ground water levels in over-exploited areas need to be arrested. • Inter-basin transfers of water from surplus basins to deficit basins/areas need to be encouraged. • Integrated watershed development activities with groundwater perspectives need to be undertaken .
  8. 8. Demand management and water use efficiency • Systems to benchmark water use, such as water footprints and water auditing need to be developed. • Project appraisals and environment impact assessment should include analyses of water footprints. • Water needs to be saved during irrigation. • Small local level irrigation through small bunds, field ponds etc. needs to be encouraged.
  9. 9. Water Pricing • Water Regulatory Authority should be established in each state. • Water charges should be determined on a volumetric basis. • Recycle and reuse of water should be incentivized through a properly planned tariff system.
  10. 10. Adaptation to climate change • Increasing water storage in the forms of soil moisture, ponds, ground water, small and large reservoirs. • Enhancing the efficiency of water use through the adoption of agricultural strategies. • Stakeholder participation in land-soil-water management. • Incorporating coping strategies for possible climate changes in the planning of water resource structures.
  11. 11. Management of flood and drought • • Agricultural strategies must be evolved to improve soil and water productivity. • Revetments (walls), spurs, embankments, etc. should be constructed to prevent soil erosion. • Flood forecasting needs to be expanded and modernized to the rest of the country . • Frequency based flood inundation maps should be prepared to evolve coping strategies.
  12. 12. Water supply and sanitation • Least water intensive sanitation and sewerage systems with decentralized sewage treatment plants should be incentivized. • In urban and industrial areas, rainwater harvesting and de-salinization should be encouraged. • Urban water supply and sewage treatment schemes should be integrated and executed simultaneously. • Subsidies and incentives should be implemented to encourage the recovery of industrial pollutants and recycling.
  13. 13. Conservation of river corridors, water bodies and infrastructure • Conservation of river corridors, water bodies and infrastructure needs to be undertaken. • Encroachments and diversion of water bodies and drainage channels must not be allowed. • Pollution of sources of water and water bodies should not be allowed. • Legally empowered dam safety services need to be ensured. ƒ
  14. 14. Project planning and implementation • All clearances required for implementation should be made time bound. • Concurrent monitoring should be undertaken for timely interventions. • Water resource projects should be executed closely after they are planned. • Local governing bodies such as panchayats should be involved in the planning of projects.
  15. 15. • Originated from the intervention of Indira Gandhi . • Central Ganga Authority (CGA) was formed • The Ganga Project Directorate (GPD) was established as a wing of the Department of Environment. • GAP was launched by Rajiv Gandhi at Varanasi.
  16. 16. • To abate pollution and improve water quality. • To conserve biodiversity and develop an integrated river basin management approach. • To conduct comprehensive research . • To gain experience for implementing similar river clean up programs in other polluted rivers in India.
  17. 17. • Launched in the year 1985 to improve the water quality of river Ganga. • Envisaged to intercept, divert and treat 882 mld (Million litres per day) out of 1340 mld of wastewater, generated in 25 class- I towns in 3 States of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal. • Completed in March 2000.
  18. 18. • Approved in stages from 1993 onwards which included tributaries of the river Ganga namely, Yamuna, Gomati, Damodar and Mahananda. • Renamed program as Nation River Conservation Program instead of Ganga Action Plan. • Spread in 165 towns of 17 different states. • Undertook pollution abatement works.
  19. 19. • Inappropriate Environmental Planning. • Non availability of Environmental State-of-the-Art. • Improper mass awareness and involvement of Ganga users. • Lack of local technical expert committees for monitoring work. • Establishment of non specific Sewage Treatment Plants on highly productive crop lands. • Insignificant cooperation between Central, State and Local Government bodies. • Least political dedication and vision to save the Ganga.
  20. 20. • Worshipped and defiled simultaneously. • Unplanned urbanization and industrialization. • Need to be taught that Ganga has lost its divine role. • People must be warned that Ganga waters are not worth bathing and drinking. • A massive campaign “Can we not clean Ganga?” should be launched. • Central leadership must take the issue seriously.

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