• Declining surface water sources
like canal and tank irrigation.
• Increased groundwater
• Increased depletion of
• Replenishment becomes problem
if non renewable groundwater is used.
• Resource preservation would not be in the best interest of the
• Water is a prime natural
resource, a basic human
need and a precious
• Planning, development and
management of water
resources need to be
governed by national
• Water resource planning
• Conservation of water
• Water allocation priorities
• Project planning
• Groundwater development
• Drinking water
• Resettlement and rehabilitation
• Water sharing amongst the states
• Private Sector Participation
• Water Quality
• Water Zoning
• Land erosion by sea or river
• Flood Control and management
• Drought prone Area Development
• Performance Improvement
• Maintenance and Modernization
• The principle of equity and social justice must inform the
use and allocation of water.
• A common integrated perspective should govern the
planning and management of water resources.
• Water needs to be managed as a common pool community
• Water may be treated as an economic good to promote its
conservation and efficient use.
• The river basin should be considered as the basic
Enhancing water available for use
• Rainfall needs to be used directly .
• Aquifers need to be mapped to know the quantum and quality of
ground water resources.
• Declining ground water levels in over-exploited areas need to be
• Inter-basin transfers of water
from surplus basins to deficit
basins/areas need to be
• Integrated watershed
development activities with
need to be undertaken .
Demand management and water use efficiency
• Systems to benchmark water use, such as water footprints and
water auditing need to be developed.
• Project appraisals and environment impact assessment should
include analyses of water footprints.
• Water needs to be saved during irrigation.
• Small local level irrigation through small bunds, field ponds
etc. needs to be encouraged.
• Water Regulatory Authority should be established in each state.
• Water charges should be determined on a volumetric basis.
• Recycle and reuse of water should be incentivized through a
properly planned tariff system.
Adaptation to climate change
• Increasing water storage in the forms of
soil moisture, ponds, ground water,
small and large reservoirs.
• Enhancing the efficiency of water use
through the adoption of agricultural
• Stakeholder participation in land-soil-water management.
• Incorporating coping strategies for possible climate changes
in the planning of water resource structures.
Management of flood and drought
• • Agricultural strategies must be
evolved to improve soil and water
• Revetments (walls), spurs,
embankments, etc. should be
constructed to prevent soil
• Flood forecasting needs to be expanded and modernized to the rest
of the country .
• Frequency based flood inundation maps should be prepared to
evolve coping strategies.
Water supply and sanitation
• Least water intensive sanitation
and sewerage systems with
decentralized sewage treatment
plants should be incentivized.
• In urban and industrial areas,
rainwater harvesting and
de-salinization should be
• Urban water supply and sewage treatment schemes should be
integrated and executed simultaneously.
• Subsidies and incentives should be implemented to encourage
the recovery of industrial pollutants and recycling.
Conservation of river corridors, water bodies
• Conservation of river corridors, water bodies and infrastructure
needs to be undertaken.
• Encroachments and diversion of water bodies and drainage
channels must not be allowed.
• Pollution of sources of water and water bodies should not be
• Legally empowered dam safety services need to be ensured.
Project planning and implementation
• All clearances required for implementation should be made time
• Concurrent monitoring should be undertaken for timely interventions.
• Water resource projects should be executed closely after they are
• Local governing bodies such as
panchayats should be involved in
the planning of projects.
• Originated from the intervention of Indira Gandhi .
• Central Ganga Authority (CGA) was formed
• The Ganga Project Directorate (GPD) was established as a wing
of the Department of Environment.
• GAP was launched by Rajiv Gandhi at Varanasi.
• To abate pollution and improve
• To conserve biodiversity and
develop an integrated river basin
• To conduct comprehensive
• To gain experience for implementing similar river clean
up programs in other polluted rivers in India.
• Launched in the year 1985 to improve the water quality of
• Envisaged to intercept, divert and treat 882 mld (Million litres
per day) out of 1340 mld of wastewater, generated in 25 class-
I towns in 3 States of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal.
• Completed in March 2000.
• Approved in stages from 1993 onwards which included
tributaries of the river Ganga namely, Yamuna, Gomati,
Damodar and Mahananda.
• Renamed program as Nation River Conservation Program
instead of Ganga Action Plan.
• Spread in 165 towns of 17
• Undertook pollution abatement
• Inappropriate Environmental Planning.
• Non availability of Environmental State-of-the-Art.
• Improper mass awareness and involvement of Ganga users.
• Lack of local technical expert committees for monitoring work.
• Establishment of non specific Sewage Treatment Plants on highly
productive crop lands.
• Insignificant cooperation between Central, State and Local
• Least political dedication and vision to save the Ganga.
• Worshipped and defiled simultaneously.
• Unplanned urbanization and industrialization.
• Need to be taught that Ganga has lost its divine role.
• People must be warned that Ganga waters are not worth
bathing and drinking.
• A massive campaign “Can we not clean Ganga?” should be
• Central leadership must take the issue seriously.