Private pilot study guide


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A study guide filled with the easiest acronyms and memory aids to help earn your private pilot license. It covers the topics of regulations, weather, and airspace. Perfect for a student pilot or a private pilot going for a Biannual flight review.

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Private pilot study guide

  1. 1. Private Pilot Study GuideAcronymsRequired pre-flight action (91.103) Required documents on board (91.203)Notams Airworthiness certificateWeather RegistrationKnown ATC delays Radio LicenseRunway lengths Operators handbookAlternate Weight and balanceFuelTake-off and landing distancesRegistration Expiration Required Inspections (91.409)30 days after owners death Airworthiness directives (primary/reoccurring)Foreign registration Vor (30 days)Transfer of ownership Inspections (100hr/annual)Death of the owner Altimeter (24 calender months)U.S. Citizenship Revoked Transponder ( 24 calender months)Cancelled ELT (12 calender months) Static system ( 24 calender months)Required equipment for VFR day Required equipment for VFR night(91.205) (91.205)Altimeter Fuses/Circuit breakers Landing light (if for hire)Tachometer Anti-collision lightsOil pressure gauge Position lightsMagnetic compass Source of electrical powerAirspeed indicatorTemperature gauge VOR testsOil temperature gauge All – Airborn (±6˚)ELT Very – VOT (±4˚) Good – Ground (±4˚)Fuel gauge Airmen – Airway (±4˚)Landing gear indicator Do – Dual (4˚)Anti-collision Lights Benchtests - (±4˚)Manifold pressure gaugeEmergency equipmentSeat belts This study guide was compiled by Matt Ayer.
  2. 2. Private Pilot Study GuideAcronymsTypes of AirspeedsIndicated – The speed read from the instrument panelCalibrated – Indicated corrected for position and installation error of pitotEquivalent – Calibrated corrected air flow error at greater than 180 ktsTrue – Equivalent corrected for pressure and temperature.Ground – True corrected for windsTypes of AltitudesIndicated – The altitude read from the instrument panelPressure – Indicated corrected for non standard pressureDensity – Pressure corrected for non standard temperatureAbsolute – Altitude above the ground levelTrue – Altitude above sea levelEngine System4 cylindersCarburetorHorizontally opposed cylindersAir cooledNormally aspirated (no turbo or super charger)Direct driveLycomingTypes of HypoxiaA - Altitude – Hypoxic – Not enough oxygenB - Blood – Stagnant – Blood not circulatingC – Cells – Hypemic – Cells aren’t carrying the oxygen moleculesD – Drugs – Histotoxic – Body tissue is poisoned by drugs and alcohol This study guide was compiled by Matt Ayer.
  3. 3. Private Pilot Study GuideAirspace Dimensions Required Equipment Required from ATC Depiction on sectional Surface to 10,000 MSL Mode C transponder, 2 way “Cleared into Bravo” Solid blue circleB radioC Inner ring – surface to 4000 AGL(5nm) / Outer Mode C transponder, 2 way Establish 2 way radio radio communications Solid magenta circle ring 1200 to 4000 (10nm)D Surface to 2,500 AGL (4nm) 2 way radio Establish 2 way radio communications Dashed blue circleTypes of Echo airspaceSurface – Surface to FL180 – Dashed magenta circleExtension – Surface to FL180 – Dashed magenta box attached to a Delta airspaceTransition – 700 to FL180 – Faded magenta circleAirway – 1200 to FL180 – Faded blue lineDomestic en route – 1200 (in Florida) to FL180 – everywhere not depicted as airspaceOffshore – 1200 to FL 180- beginning 12nm off the shore until the ADIZGod – Above FL 600Gulf airspace starts at the surface until any overlying airspace. It is not depicted.Special use airspaceWarning – International waters – No permission neededAlert – High concentration of flight activity – No permission neededRestricted – Unusual activity – Must have permissionMilitary Operating Area – Seperates IFR and military traffic – No permission neededProhibited – Area of national security (White house) – Never enterControlled firing area – Not depicted – No permission needed This study guide was compiled by Matt Ayer.
  4. 4. Private Pilot Study GuideThis study guide was compiled by Matt Ayer.
  5. 5. Private Pilot Study GuideWeather Theory3 factors to create thunderstorms 3 stages in a thunderstorm • Unstable air • Cumulus (Updrafts, formation of cloud) • Lifting action • Mature (Rain begins, anvil shape, updraft and • Moisture downdraft) • Dissipating (Downdrafts, microbursts)6 types of fog 4 types of clouds • Radiation (Calm clear nights, ground cools) • Cirrus (High altitude, made of ice crystals) • Advection (Warm air moves over cold • Stratus (Low, horizontal formation) surface, land moving from land to sea) • Cumulus (Small white puffy clouds) • Upslope (Air moves upward on a slope cooling to its dew point) • Cumulonimbus (Towering thunderstorm clouds) • Ice fog (Frozen crystals are suspended in air) • Freezing fog (Supercooled water droplets suspended in air until freezing on a surface) • Steam (Cool air mixing with warm, moist air causing saturation)Weather ServicesMetar Airmets – valid 6 hours • Issued hourly (+55) • Sierra (mountain obscurations and IFR) • valid until the next • Tango (Moderate turbulence and • 2 types surface winds greater that 30 knots) 1. Standard • Zulu (Light icing and freezing levels) 2. Speci (Unscheduled observation due to weather)Sigmets – Valid 4 hours Convective Sigmets • Severe or greater turbulence • Severe thunderstorms • Severe or greater icing • Surface hail ¾ inches or greater in • Volcanic ash diameter • Sand/ Dust Storms • Surface winds greater than or equal to 50 kts • Tornadoes • Embedded thunderstorms • Lines of thunderstorms • Precipitation affecting 40% or more of an are of 3000 sq. miles This study guide was compiled by Matt Ayer.
  6. 6. Private Pilot Study GuideWeather ServicesTerminal Area Forecast (TAF) Area Forecast (FA) • Issued 4 times a day • Issued 3 times a day • Valid 24 hours • Contains 4 parts • Covers an area of 5 miles around the 1. Product Header (Valid 18 hours) 2. Synopsis (Valid 18 hours) reporting airport 3. VFR clouds and weather (Valid 12 hours) 4. Outlook (Valid 6 hours) • Covers an area of several statesWinds Aloft • Issued 4 times a day • Validity ranging from 6 to 24 hours depending on the observationOther regulations to knowSupplemental oxygen (91.211)12,500 up to 14,000 – O2 needed after 30 mins for crew14,000 to 15,000 – O2 must be used by crew entire flight15,000 and above - Each occupant must be supplied with O2Transponder required (91.215) • Within lateral boundaries of class C airspace • Within 30 nm of class B airspace • When crossing the ADIZ • When flying above 10,000 ft MSL unless below 2,500 ft AGLELT not required50 nm from the training airportTurbo-jetExperimentalAgricultureResearchScheduled air carrier1 pilot planeDesign and testingAir racingNew aircraft deliveryCrew TrainingExhibition This study guide was compiled by Matt Ayer.