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MQ Security Overview

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An introduction to the security capabilities of IBM MQ.

Presented at the WebSphere Integration User Group UK, held on 14 July 2015 at IBM Hursley.

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MQ Security Overview

  1. 1. MQ Security
  2. 2. Introduction – Typical MQ  In a Typical MQ setup there are: ● A Queue Manager ● A number of Queues and Topics ● Applications that connect to the QMGR via: ● Local Bindings ● Client connections MQCONNX Application (User4) MQCONNX Application (User2) QMGR Inter process Communications Q1..Qn
  3. 3. Introduction – Security Checks (Client)  When a user Connects via Client: CHLAUTH BlockAddr SSL/TLS CHLAUTH Mapping Security Exit MQCSP UserID/Password CHLAUTH Block User Authorisation MQ v8 Only!
  4. 4. Authorisation Introduction - Security Checks (Local)  When a user Connects via Local: MQCSP UserID/Password MQ v8 Only!
  5. 5. Authentication
  6. 6. Connection Authentication – Use case  Authentication asks clients connecting to prove they are who they say they are  Usually used in combination with authorisation to limit user's abilities  A failure to authenticate results in an error being returned. RC=2035  More information usually given to the MQ administrator in error logs  Also Authorisation events written on Distributed platforms
  7. 7. QMGR Connection Authentication – Use Case Q1..Qn Only Let Good People Connect (Bob = Good, Tim = Bad) Bob Tim I'm Bob I'm Bob PROVE IT
  8. 8. QMGR Connection Authentication – Use Case Q1..Qn Bob Tim My Password is: XXXX Errrr....
  9. 9. Connection Authentication – Setting up CHCK… NONE OPTIONAL REQUIRED REQDADMMQCONNX Application (User4) MQCONNX Application (User2) QMGR Inter process Communications DEFINE AUTHINFO(USE.PW) AUTHTYPE(xxxxxx) CHCKLOCL(OPTIONAL) CHCKCLNT(REQUIRED) ALTER QMGR CONNAUTH(USE.PW) REFRESH SECURITY TYPE(CONNAUTH) MQRC_NOT_AUTHORIZED (2035) MQRC_NONE (0) User Repository
  10. 10. Connection Authentication – User repositories  User Repository?  Currently two options: –Machine OAM –LDAP server QMGR O/S User Repository (z/OS + Dist) LDAP Server (Dist only) DEFINE AUTHINFO(USE.OS) AUTHTYPE(IDPWOS) DEFINE AUTHINFO(USE.LDAP) AUTHTYPE(IDPWLDAP) CONNAME(‘ldap1(389),ldap2(389)’) LDAPUSER(‘CN=QMGR1’) LDAPPWD(‘passw0rd’) SECCOMM(YES) MQCONNX User1 + pwd1 Application (User2)
  11. 11. Assist applications that are unchanged to participate in authentication. Consists of: • Client channel security exit to insert uid/passwd • Command line tool to protect passwords in a config file Exit: mqccred Connection Authentication – Client-side security exit MQCONN Application QMgrQMA Network Communications AllQueueManagers: User=abc OPW=%^&aervrgtsr QueueManager: Name=QMA User=user1 OPW=H&^dbgfh AllQueueManagers: User=abc password=newpw QueueManager: Name=QMA User=user1 password=passw0rd Tool: runmqccred mqccred.ini mqccred.ini File permissions
  12. 12. MQ Security – Authentication via PAM  For Unix platforms  Configure authentication to go via PAM modules  Gives more flexibility in mechanisms for verification and account validation • For example, use in conjunction with nsswitch to store Unix account information in Active Directory  Requires queue manager command level to be updated • Similar to NEWFUNC on z/OS  AUTHENMD(OS|PAM) as attribute on AUTHINFO(IDPWOS) New in FP3 strmqm –e CMDLEVEL=802 QMgr
  13. 13. Authorisation
  14. 14. Authorisation – Use Case  Authorisation limits what connected users and inbound messages can do • Allowed to put messages, set context fields, subscribe to topics etc  Authority rules (ACLs) are assigned to a specific user or group.  If a user or group does not have authority to do what they are trying to do, they get blocked • Permissions apply to administrative actions and to MQI operations  Some authorisation checks are made based on the UserId in a message • The ability to set that field during MQPUT is itself controlled by a permission  On Distributed platforms, authorisations are controlled through an MQ component, OAM • On z/OS, queue manager calls external security managers such as RACF via a public interface
  15. 15. Controlling authorisations on Distributed platforms  Use the setmqaut command to make adjustments  Also have SET AUTHREC equivalent in MQSC • Client-mode runmqsc makes it easy to set ACLs on remote queue managers
  16. 16. MQ Security - Authorisation using LDAP  Fixpack 2 for Unix/Linux/i builds on LDAP authentication feature  User and group information can now be centrally located in LDAP • No need to define OS users/groups other than mqm • And "mqm" group loses a lot of its automatic power  Extended attributes on AUTHINFO/IDPWLDAP object show how to discover groups • Very similar to the authentication attributes for discovery of identities  Requires queue manager command level to be updated • Similar to NEWFUNC on z/OS  Authorities can be set for individual users • Does not use "primary groups" setmqaut –t qmgr –p "cn=User 1,ou=users,o=ibm,c=uk" +connect setmqaut –t qmgr –g "cn=Group 1,ou=groups,o=ibm,c=uk" +connect strmqm –e CMDLEVEL=801 QMgr New in FP2
  17. 17. Adding administrators  Users do not need to be in the 'mqm' group to do most MQ administration  Create ACLs for other groups instead  Explorer Wizard makes it easy • Shows commands so you can script  FP2 includes real script • amqauthg.sh
  18. 18. SSL/TLS
  19. 19. TLS – Introduction  TLS is the follow-on to SSL • These days, trying to just say TLS and not SSL!  Uses public-key techniques to protect data travelling across a network • Personal certificates, signing certificates, signing and encrypting data  SSL protocols are deprecated after all the vulnerabilities found  But many MQ attributes still include SSL in their name for historic reasons
  20. 20. TLS – Use Case QMGR Q1..Qn Bob Tim I don't know Bob's password so let's find it out by listening in! 0@;;7A//#ca £66!j:sdw) What the...?
  21. 21. CipherSpec currency  2014-2015: Security vulnerabilities with cool names • Heartbleed, POODLE, BEAST, FREAK, Bar Mitzvah, LogJam • Secure protocols as well as crypto algorithms found to have vulnerabilities  Before V8.0.0.3, 44 different CipherSpecs to choose from • SSLv3, TLSv1.0, TLSv1.2  With V8.0.0.3, subset of just 17 CipherSpecs • TLSv1.0, TLSv1.2 • Predominantly Ecliptic Curve, AES and SHA-2 based  It is possible, but not recommended, to re-enable the older CipherSpecs • Environment variable or qm.ini  Errors if you define or start a channel with a deprecated CipherSpec • Changes also made to older in-service versions of MQ More in FP3
  22. 22. Channel Authentication
  23. 23. Channel Authentication – Use Case  CHLAUTH rules are basically filters.  The rules tell the queue manager to will allow or block a connection that matches the filter  The filter can be either very specific or generic.  Types of filters: • SSL Distinguished Name (Issuer and Subject) • Client User ID • Remote Queue Manager name • IP address/Hostname (hostname was added in V8)
  24. 24. Channel Authentication – Use Case Tim Bob QMGR Q1..Qn Only Allow connections from 129.888.2.543 IP: 129.888.2.543 IP: 126.66.6.66 Hello I am Bob and my password is 1234 Hello Bob!
  25. 25. Channel Authentication – Use Case Tim Bob QMGR Q1..Qn IP: 129.888.2.543 IP: 126.666.6.666 Hello I am Bob and my password is 1234 DENIED! But I did everything right!
  26. 26. Channel Authentication – Side note  Channel Authentication rules have an order of checking: • ADDRESSMAP • BLOCKADDR • SSLPEERMAP • QMGRMAP • USERMAP • BLOCKUSER  In addition if a connection matches two CHLAUTH rules where one has a specific filter and one has a generic filter then the CHLAUTH that is SPECIFIC will be used to work out what to do. • For example two ADDRESSMAP: • 1, Block where address=* • 2, Allow where address=129.12.9.9 • Connection from 129.12.9.9 will be allowed through.
  27. 27. Channel Authentication  When you create a CHLAUTH rule you can specify what it should do when triggered.  The options are: • CHANNEL – Use the userid set in the channel MCAUSER for the future checks • MAP - Use the userid set in this CHLAUTH MCAUSER for the future checks • NOACCESS – Block the connection  In addition you can raise the security of the channel by setting a higher CHCKCLNT value on the channel • If a user connects to CHANNEL.1 they are required to pass valid credentials • If a user connects to CHANNEL.2 they don't have to pass valid credentials.
  28. 28. Channel Authentication – MQ Explorer  To create a new Channel Authentication rule right click on the channel authentication folder and select “New=>Channel Authentication Record...”
  29. 29. Channel Authentication – MQ Explorer  Next follow the steps to set up your channel authentication rule.  In the Channel profile screen you can put the name of a channel or a generic name • For example: “INCOMING.CHANNEL” or “System.*”  The next screens allow you to put the filter rules in for the CHLAUTH rule which will cause the rule to trigger • In ADDRESSMAP rule putting address=* will cause the rule to trigger for all addresses
  30. 30. Channel Authentication – Command Line  CHLAUTH rules are added and removed using the SET command in RUNMQSC – The difference between adding and removing is what ACTION(x) is set to
  31. 31. AMS
  32. 32. Advanced Message Security  AMS is an end-to-end security model, messages stay signed/encrypted through the whole lifetime of a message • Certain types of data fall under standards compliance that requires encryption whilst 'at rest' as well as in transit - e.g. credit card numbers (PCI), healthcare (HIPAA)  AMS allows messages to be selectively encrypted so that even MQ administrators cannot see the cleartext content without the right certificate  You create policies for a queue that describe how messages should be protected when applications put or get messages using that queue  The policies describe whether messages should be signed or signed + encrypted. • Signing and encryption uses digital certificates, such as those used by TLS
  33. 33. Recommended reading  Lots of MQ security articles on developerworks  MQ v8 information: https://www.ibm.com/developerworks/community/blogs/messaging/entry/where_can_i_fin d_mq_v8_information?lang=en  MQ v8 Security Demo: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0aKamUTS4rs&feature=youtu.be
  34. 34. Bob Tim Questions?

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