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Technological Alternatives to Qualitative Data Collection

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This presentation takes a look at five tech solutions to qualitative research data collection and evaluates data quality associated with each solution based on the Credibility component of the Total Quality Framework.

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Technological Alternatives to Qualitative Data Collection

  1. 1. Does the End Justify the Means? Exploring & Evaluating Technological Alternatives to Qualitative Data Collection Margaret R. Roller, MA May 17, 2018
  2. 2. Does the End Justify the Means? – May 17, 2018 1Margaret R. Roller  Qualitative research & typical methods/mode  Tech solutions:Advantages & drawbacks  Tech solutions: Method-mode alternatives Overview
  3. 3. 2Margaret R. RollerDoes the End Justify the Means? – May 17, 2018 Reference: Total Quality Framework
  4. 4. 3Margaret R. RollerDoes the End Justify the Means? – May 17, 2018 Scope Representation Cooperation Data Gathering Validity Researcher effects Participant effects Reference: TQF Credibility Component
  5. 5. 4Margaret R. RollerDoes the End Justify the Means? – May 17, 2018 Reference: Text Roller & Lavrakas, 2015. New York: Guilford Press. http://bit.ly/TQFbook
  6. 6. 5Margaret R. RollerDoes the End Justify the Means? – May 17, 2018 Reference: Blog http://www.researchdesignreview.com
  7. 7. 6Margaret R. RollerDoes the End Justify the Means? – May 17, 2018 What is Qualitative Research?Qualitative Research: Unique Attributes
  8. 8. 7Margaret R. RollerDoes the End Justify the Means? – May 17, 2018 Tech Solutions – Advantages  Representation & cooperation  Coverage & access (geography & population segment)  Convenience & flexibility for participants  Appropriate for sensitive topics  Relevant form of communication, esp., for certain demographics  Data accuracy & depth  Mitigates memory/recall error  Added dimension via blending approaches, use of visual elicitation, & multimedia – text, video, images  Efficient use of resources
  9. 9. 8Margaret R. RollerDoes the End Justify the Means? – May 17, 2018 Tech Solutions – Potential Drawbacks  Internet access & comfort with technology  Managing engagement (skills, time)  Important visual &/or verbal cues may be missing  Analysis – Lots of data (in volume & formats)  Fraud, misrepresentation “Identity is fluid and potentially multiple on the Internet.”  Security, confidentiality, anonymity
  10. 10. 9Margaret R. RollerDoes the End Justify the Means? – May 17, 2018 Tech Solutions: In-depth Interviews
  11. 11. 10 Tech Solutions: In-depth Interviews EMAIL WEBCAM MOBILE VIDEO SensitiveTopic Professionals Diary/Life Story Substitute For In-person Usability Concurrent Mixed Methods In-the-moment Research Location-specific, Geofencing Study a Process or Event
  12. 12. 11 Email SCOPE DATA GATHERING CooperationRepresentation Validity Researcher Effects Participant Effects Comfort level with mode Length & perceived burden may lead to drop outs Exclusion of some segments, e.g., 65+ & <HS Depth, complex data from follow-up & “homework” Participant’s words & how text is typed may bias Willingness to discuss sensitive topic due to privacy, safe environment Mitigates social desirability responding Mitigates bias due to ability to reflect Tech Solutions: In-depth Interviews Access to pop segment Flexibility of location Geographic coverage
  13. 13. 12 Webcam Cooperation Validity Participant Effects Flexibility of location Requires reminders & instructions Social desirability Depth, ability to showing stimuli, participant markup Researcher Effects Requires access & technical know-how Willingness to respond due to rapport & cues Consistency, ability to follow guide Bias due to visual cues Observers &/or recording(s) may stifle responses SCOPE DATA GATHERING Representation Tech Solutions: In-depth Interviews Access to pop segment Geographic coverage
  14. 14. 13 MobileVideo Tech Solutions: In-depth Interviews Cooperation Validity Participant Effects Engagement with video technology Requires reminders & instructions Selection bias, choosing what to share Mitigates recall error Researcher Effects Access & comfort with app – downloading & use Geographic coverage Mitigates on- site social interaction bias Depth from verbal, nonverbal, & contextual cues Inconsistency, difficulty following guide Altered behavior Absence of broader context & meaning SCOPE DATA GATHERING Representation Access to pop segment
  15. 15. 14Margaret R. RollerDoes the End Justify the Means? – May 17, 2018 Tech Solutions: Asynchronous Focus Groups
  16. 16. 15Margaret R. RollerDoes the End Justify the Means? – May 17, 2018 Tech Solutions: Asynchronous FGs Asynchronous Focus Groups SensitiveTopic Professionals Hard-to-reach, disabled
  17. 17. 16 Cooperation Validity Participant Effects Flexibility of location, time, & device Requires reminders & instructions Nonresponse – Unwillingness or inability to participate in a mostly text- based discussion Breadth & depth due to days of discussion Researcher Effects Access & comfort with platform technology Platform features help mitigate bias & maintain consistency Triangulation, multi-media responses – text, video, image Losing focus while managing engagement Mitigates bias, multiple ways to respond Representation Tech Solutions: Asynchronous FGs Access to pop segment Geographic coverage SCOPE DATA GATHERING
  18. 18. 17Margaret R. RollerDoes the End Justify the Means? – May 17, 2018 Platform Functionality – Discussion Guide Tech Solutions: Asynchronous FGs
  19. 19. 18Margaret R. RollerDoes the End Justify the Means? – May 17, 2018 Platform Functionality – Discussion Guide Tech Solutions: Asynchronous FGs
  20. 20. 19Margaret R. RollerDoes the End Justify the Means? – May 17, 2018 Platform Functionality – Discussion Guide Tech Solutions: Asynchronous FGs
  21. 21. 20Margaret R. RollerDoes the End Justify the Means? – May 17, 2018 Platform Functionality – Activities Tech Solutions: Asynchronous FGs
  22. 22. 21Margaret R. RollerDoes the End Justify the Means? – May 17, 2018 Platform Functionality – Managing Engagement Tech Solutions: Asynchronous FGs
  23. 23. 22Margaret R. RollerDoes the End Justify the Means? – May 17, 2018 Tech Solutions: Observation & Multimethod/mode
  24. 24. 23Margaret R. RollerDoes the End Justify the Means? – May 17, 2018 “Day in the Life” Journey Specific assignment/task Tech Solutions: Observation & Multimethod/mode
  25. 25. 24 Mobility Patterns Among Children IDIs Observation via GPS & SMS questions “Day in the Life” IDIs using GPS maps & guided tour as stimuli AcneTreatment 2-month multimedia diary IDIs via mobile video + Brazilian Migrants 6-month online observation of migrant communities IDIs via email & in-person + Tech Solutions: Observation & Multimethod/mode
  26. 26. 25 Influence of the Internet in the Classroom on Literacy Email IDIs Diaries Photos Journey + + Teachers’ published articles + Emotional Effects of Selecting a College Webcam IDIs Participants submit text, images, video during the course of the application-selection process Asynchronous focus group Tech Solutions: Observation & Multimethod/mode
  27. 27. 26 Shopping For & Using Body Wash Product Audio responses to questions on “wallet card” In-store photos & videos Specific Assignment/Task + In-shower audio responses to questions on laminated card In-the-moment Sensorial Experience with Meatless Burgers Photo + text regarding package 1’ video + text regarding interaction with package & cooking burger (look, smell, texture) Text regarding the eating experience Tech Solutions: Observation & Multimethod/mode
  28. 28. 27 Tech Solutions: Observation & Multimethod/mode SCOPE DATA GATHERING Cooperation Validity Participant Effects Comfort with technology (among some) Tasks/length may be burdensome Triangulation, methodological & researcher Researcher Effects Bias towards tech savvy individuals Broad geographic coverage Mitigate bias by reflecting on multi data Depth due to synergy of methods, multi- layered data Tasks bias normality & taint study environment Tasks/length help reflexive responding Tasks alters behavior & attitudes Selection bias Representation
  29. 29. Summary – Key Strengths
  30. 30. Summary – Key Limitations
  31. 31. Does the End Justify the Means? – May 17, 2018 Interested in Qualitative Research & Hard-to-reach Participants? Recruiting Hard-to-Reach Respondents with Complex Characteristics for Qualitative Interviews Daniela Glusberg, Dánae Corado, Casey Langer Tesfaye AAPOR Thursday May 17th Time: 4:15 p.m. – 5:45 p.m. Session 10 Location: Governor’s Square 17 Check Out
  32. 32. Does the End Justify the Means? – May 17, 2018 Questions & Comments Margaret R. Roller, MA Email: rmr@rollerresearch.com Website: rollerresearch.com Blog: researchdesignreview.com
  33. 33. Does the End Justify the Means? – May 17, 2018 Appendix References
  34. 34. 33Margaret R. RollerDoes the End Justify the Means? – May 17, 2018 EMAIL IDI Bowker, N., & Tuffin, K. (2004). Using the online medium for discursive research about people with disabilities. Social Science Computer Review, 22(2), 228–241. Egan, J., Chenoweth, L., & McAuliffe, D. (2006). Email-facilitated qualitative interviews with traumatic brain injury survivors: A new and accessible method. Brain Injury, 20(12), 1283–1294. Hawkins, J. E. (2018). The Practical Utility Suitability of Email Interviews in Qualitative Research The Practical Utility Suitability of Email Interviews in Qualitative Research, 23(2), 493–501. McCoyd, J. L. M., & Kerson, T. S. (2006). Conducting intensive interviews using email: A serendipitous comparative opportunity. Qualitative Social Work, 5(3), 389–406. Stacey, K., & Vincent, J. (2011). Evaluation of an electronic interview with multimedia stimulus materials for gaining in depth responses from professionals. Qualitative Research, 11(5), 605–624. ASYNCHRONOUS FOCUS GROUP Tates, K., Zwaanswijk, M., Otten, R., van Dulmen, S., Hoogerbrugge, P. M., Kamps, W. A., & Bensing, J. M. (2009). Online focus groups as a tool to collect data in hard-to-include populations: Examples from paediatric oncology. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 9(1), 15. Harmsen, I. A., Mollema, L., Ruiter, R. A., Paulussen, T. G., de Melker, H. E., & Kok, G. (2013). Why parents refuse childhood vaccination: a qualitative study using online focus groups. BMC Public Health, 13, 1183. References
  35. 35. 34Margaret R. RollerDoes the End Justify the Means? – May 17, 2018 OBSERVATION & MULTIMETHOD/MODE Christensen, P., Mikkelsen, M. R., Nielsen, T. A. S., & Harder, H. (2011). Children, mobility, and space: Using GPS and mobile phone technologies in ethnographic research. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 5(3), 227–246. Hancock, K. (2012). Online qual studies health care foundation to shift its focus. Quirk’s Marketing Research Review, October, Article ID 20121006. Karchmer, R. A. (2001). The journey ahead: Thirteen teachers report how the Internet influences literacy and literacy instruction in their K-12 classrooms. Reading Research Quarterly, 36(4), 442–466. Schrooten, M. (2012). Moving ethnography online: Researching Brazilian migrants’ online togetherness. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 35(10), 1794–1809. OTHER James, N., & Busher, H. (2009). Online interviewing. London: Sage Publications. “Minute Maid Debuts New Campaign That Celebrates the Good in Everyday Family Moments,” https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20180409006050/en/Minute-Maid-Debuts-New-Campaign-Celebrates-Good (Accessed April 10, 2018) http://www.pewinternet.org/fact-sheet/mobile/ (Accessed April 17, 2018) References

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