2011 06 20 Smi Conference Mda Full Version (Final)
Small coastline – Major Rivers – Great Lakes Major ‘Comprehensive’ Effort Linking MDA to Security Sector Reform in the Democratic Republic of the Congo Colonel Marco Hekkens RNLMCSMi Conference Maritime Domain Awareness London 20-21 June 2011
Agenda• Introduction & Scene Setting• Friction between Ambition and Reality• Internal and External Actors – Common Vision?• Avoiding Seams – Possible (EU) future work strands in the DR Congo?• „Request for Assistance‟
Introduction & Scene Setting• EUSEC DR Congo• Orientation DRC• Risks or Threats?• Project FUEL-L• „African Maritime Strategy‟
Introduction – Background• Colonel RNLMC• Last: Deputy COM NLMARFOR / CLF• Current: „Chief Logistics‟ – Adviser to the Congolese Armed Forces at CHOD and Service level• Retirement ≈ late Spring 2012• Study and research: “Project Future Urban Extreme Littoral – Land”
Introduction – EUSEC RD Congo• Support mission in the field of Security Sector Reform• Provide advice and assistance for the reform of the Congolese Armed Forces (FARDC).• Focus on restructuring and reconstructing• HQ in Kinshasa; 3 detachments in Eastern DRC (total approx. 50pax)
Introduction – Project FUEL-L1950 2015 (Artwork by permission FT)
Bangladesh – Port of DhakaRivier Buriganga with skyline of Dhaka; >500.000fortune seekers per year, fastest growing city in the world
Vision: Special Economic ZonePrecursor…. Littoral Engagement, Influence,Assistance (and Development) Zone Concept? No lack of „green energy‟ Cabinda Enclave (Angola) Matadi Boma Angola But…….Will the people in the „Bas Congo‟ province accept Congolese people from the other regions? What about border incursions from the Cabinda Enclave?
Introduction – Orientation DRC Inga Falls, hydro electric projects
Impressions – 1 Angola DRC (Cabinda Enclave)“Livingstone Falls”Waterfalls and rapids betweenPort of Matadi and Kinshasa Angola
Introduction – Risks (2)• Armed Factions operating inside DRC using lakes and waterways (cross-border operations) – Lord‟s Resistance Army? – FLDR?; FPLC?; other?• AQIM – Dormant threat? (when/will they „turn up‟?)• „Regional developments‟ after separation Southern Sudan?Cargo Manifest?
Risk – Weapon smuggling floating Current tree branch In recent past, floating brushwood was checked for contraband, especially in areas of (heightened) tension
Risk – Ammunition Dumping• Probable?• Likely?• No records available at UN (MONUSCO)• No records available at CICOS*• Little information from DRC‟s Force Navale – Deliberate and accidental dumping in Mbandaka• Ammo barge on sandbank Obangui river – During shallow water levels, dumped ordnance visible* Commission Internationale du Bassin Congo – Obangui – Sangha
MINES ADVISORY GROUP South Equateur Province Mbandaka
Introduction – Other ‘Risks’• Lack of and/or defunct infrastructures: – Port facilities, connecting rail and road hubs• Environmental degradationDonor dependency - Brain Drain - „The Elite‟ Kisangani Hydrographic Vessel - „Quiet Leadership‟ - Small private – „middle class‟ – sector - Few incentives
Introduction – Other ‘Risks’ Centre régional d’études nucléaires de Kinshasa (CREN-K) „Il n‟est pas possible sans autorisation ministérielle d‟approcher ou de photographier le réacteur. On peut cependant, en collant son nez à la vitre fumée, l‟apercevoir, depuis le hall d‟entrée, juste derrière une seconde porte vitrée. Ici, pas de reconnaissance digitale ou biométrique. Pour ouvrir, il suffit d‟une clé‟ Source: www.jeuneafrique.com
Introduction – Other ‘Threat’When will Nyiragongo erupt again? Evacuation, Aid and Assistance via Lake Kivu – what capability? ….empty Naval Base in Goma…..
Future Security Effects by Regional ‘Water stress’?• DRC role, located on the fringe of Nile-Basin? DRC does not pose a threat to „down stream‟ users• Lake Edward, Lake Albert are part of the Nile system – Semliki river feeds both lakes – Major „projects‟ unlikely to affect supply of water „down stream‟ towards the Nile• DRC export: provider of water!
Friction between Ambition and Reality• Engagement in Africa• Initiatives and programmes in the DRC• “Challenges” Baleinière (typical wooden barge)
Friction between Ambition and RealityEngagement in Africa:• UN – MONUSCO Riverine Force – Uruguayan Riverine Patrol Company (URPAC) – ± 50% Force Reduction of „Riverine Capability‟ MONUSCO : 17120 URPAC: 180 URPAC after 2011 100 1‰
Friction between Ambition and RealityMaritime, Riverine and Lake Domain AwarenessInitiatives and programmes and the DRC• ECCAS Maritime Safety and Security Strategy• Cooperation between IMO – MOWCA – MoU (July 2008); DRC is Signatory• AFRICOM – African Partnership Station – USCG Port Security Workshop (Sep/Oct 2009)• African Maritime Safety and Security Agency (AMSSA) project• CICOS Commission Internationale du Bassin Congo-Obangui-Sangha• How concrete and „persistent‟? Or disconnected?
African Union Efforts• African Union Maritime Transport Charter• Maritime Transport Plan of Action – Institutional and legal measures – Capacity building – Strengthening of maritime safety and security – Enhancement of port performance – Strengthening of inter-African and international cooperation – Facilitation and financing of maritime transport and ports – Promotion of the development of maritime transport equipmentSource: CDR M.L. Baker - RWC Review Spring 2011, Vol 64, No.2
Friction between Ambition and Reality“Challenges”• Current operational status, capability and prospect of DRC‟s Force Navale• Real value of “excess defence material” procurement or gifts ?
Internal and External Actors Common Vision?• Natural Resources and Disputes• Aid and Assistance Schemes – Who does what, for what purpose? – Shared sense of urgency, timeline? – Matching Needs and Resources
Natural Resources and Disputes – 1Lake Albert – Prohibition of use of dense fishing nets DRC Closed Fishing Area (Reproduction area) See next slide Uganda
Natural Resources and Disputes – 2Closed Fishing Area Area which has become anTribal disagreement over ownership of land important new frontier in the search for oil increasing tensions between DRC and Uganda. Explorers found light crude on the border and they estimates reserves of up to a billion barrels.
“Two more GameWardens have been killed…..”“Well, that‟s enough now!Find me the phone numbers ofthe rebel leaders!”“Hallo? Why did you attack theGame Wardens and soldiers?!”“……because there are nomore animals left……..”
Natural Resources and Disputes – 3 Along Lake Albert and Lake Edward Source: Economist Intelligence Unit Country Report Democratic Republic of Congo March 2011
DRC Force Navale Bases along Lake Tanganyika….…and their capabilities….
Natural Resources and Disputes – 4 Graphic from STRATFOR article 9 Feb 2011 (Risk of Recentralisation in DRC)
‘Aid and Assistance’• ≈≈ “US – African Contingency Operations Training and Assistance (ACOTA)” programme – Not quite „applicable‟?• ≈≈ “Regional Maritime Capacity Building - Focused options for possible CSDP* activities” – Expand „the intent‟ also into the Riverine and Great Lakes domain of – for instance – the DRC?CSDP - Common Security and Defence Policy
Avoiding Seams – Possible (EU) future work strands in the DRC?• EUSEC as “Assistance Broker” for EU Capabilities – Catalogue of (national) capabilities “24/7”• Enhanced exchange of information with other non-EU actors – AFRICOM?• Specific Economic (Development) Zones
‘Request for Assistance’• „Bright and Good Ideas‟• Last minute „Good Ideas‟ to include in EUSEC Action Plan Mandate 6-2 – Nurture Riverine Domain Awareness – Revitalize, re-equipment programme Force Navale – Linkage to or Special Economic Development Zones centered on (riverine) nodal points
Recommendation• Comprehensive Civil - Military approach to enhance awareness – Use „trusted partners‟ to influence decision makers – Engage (Maritime) industry - “business push”
Hopefully not for …….River and LakeCruises in the DRC…