Global Literature ReviewOn Sanitation Tariffs inDeveloping CountriesBy Mansoor Ali
Approach to LiteratureReview General web search Literature within Institutions; WSP, The World Bank, PPIAF, GFOBA, BPD, IRC and WaterAid
Key Questions to theLiteratureDo they cover urban sanitationtariffs from a water utility and localgovernment perspective?
Other questions to theliteratureWho are the target groups?Who wrote this literature?Does the literature covers differentperspectives?Why this literature is written?What assumptions the literature make?Does it build an overall picture, within whichtariffs sit?Does it specify good and bad practices of tariffsettings?
Literature Division Core literature Water and sanitation utilities Sector financing, including subsidies Sector institutions and their relationships Equity and inclusion Partnerships Output/ Result Based Approaches (new)
Literature Trend Most of it Partnership focused Assumes PPP contracts in place Combines water and sanitation But ignores sanitation Sometimes assumes sewerage Makes a case for the utility But also makes a case for the poorest Non-conclusive on the larger picture
Literature Gaps Which component of sanitation service needs tariffs? Where is the balance between cost recovery and tariff setting? How tariffs relates to investments? How politics influenced tariffs? How the tariffs figure is achieved? What a good tariff could change? Tariffs within water utility or solid waste?
Three major gaps Tariffs from a users perspective or understanding the users? Especially the low income users Tariff with local governments Tariffs on pit/ septic tank emptying
OverallThere is less understanding of thesanitation market, financing, includingall its components and users and it seemsthat tariffs are picked up as a themewithin the literature on partnerships,subsidies and now on output basedapproaches.
Gaps by this researchTherefore this research is wellplaced to fill some of the gaps;especially at a time when there isnew hope for multiple deliverysystems