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Sanitation in Developing Countries


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Sanitation in Developing Countries

  1. 1. Key Issues in Sanitation and Pit-emptyingCommunity Led Total Sanitation (CLTS)and Orangi Pilot Project (OPP)University of Bristol – Feb, 2013Mansoor Ali20 January 2013
  2. 2. What is Community-Led TotalSanitation (CLTS)? – Is it a hope?
  3. 3. Why 2.5 billion people do nothave access to improvedsanitation?
  4. 4. Discussion on Two MajorApproaches on ImprovingSanitationRural; Community Led TotalSanitation (CLTS)Urban; Orangi Pilot Project on LaneSewers
  5. 5. What do we mean by sanitationimprovement?
  6. 6. CLTS and OPP Framing of theproblem Lack of demand Do not have money Do not like toilets Expensive technologies Lack of organisation Waiting for government and donors Do not understand health impact
  7. 7. CLTS – Key Features Key - triggering through shame – talk shit Focus on natural local leaders No upfront subsidy for material etc. Villagers take the collective responsibility Entire village becomes “Open Defecation Free (ODF)” People decide technologies and standards Possible reward after ODF declaration Village to village replication
  8. 8. How CLTS is different fromconventional approaches?Conventional Approach; CLTS Approach•Starts with data, planning and •Starts with the addressing thedesign change in attitude with• Technical designs and costing triggeringset the pathway for the action • Community takes the• Government role and responsibility and designregulation are important themselves• Operation and maintenance is • Community processes areplanned more important• Up-front subsidies are part of • Community will do thisinvestment themselves• Large investments needed • Subsidies are discouraged • Small investments needed
  9. 9. OPP – Key Features Motivational meeting in the community Lane organisation and lane manager Technical support; plan, designs, cost estimate, supervision, tools and shuttering No subsidy and no reward Lane group collect and manage money Lobby for government support Health, education and loans available A demonstration area/ physical model
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  12. 12. Technology Differences OPP low cost lane sewers with a septic tank CLTS – mainly on-site with community deciding the standards
  13. 13. People behind CLTS and OPPKamal KarRobert ChamberLyla MehtaAkhtar Hameed KhanArif HasanPerveen Rahman
  14. 14. Sources of Further InformationIDS, University of SussexOrangi Pilot ProjectAkhtar Hameed Khan TrustWater and Sanitation Programme(WSPUNICEFBook; Shit MattterBooks; Various by Arif Hasan
  15. 15. Choose your debateDebate 1; CLTS allows people tochoose technologies andstandards, although thisempowers them, but end-up withvery poor quality toilets – so nohealth impact?Agree, disagree, continue,change
  16. 16. Choose your debateDebate 2; OPP only transferswastewater (the problem)from lanes to large drains,although this systemsempowers people but createsproblems for others?Agree, disagree, continue,change
  17. 17. Thank | 20 January 2013