ANALYZING (AQUACULTURE) LIVELIHOODS FROM A VALUE CHAIN PERSPECTIVE Froukje Kruijssen Science Week 18-22 July 2011
WorldFish Strategy update
But so far…. <ul><li>few value chain studies have quantitatively assessed the impact of value chain activities on poverty ...
<ul><li>Need for inclusion of ‘vertical dimension’ to livelihood analyses from the start:  </li></ul><ul><li>better unders...
<ul><li>Impacts on </li></ul><ul><li>Poverty: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Income and resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liveli...
Value chain development <ul><li>Important for impact and in the CRP’s </li></ul><ul><li>Involves processes of change </li>...
Key processes to understand (1) <ul><li>(beneficial/adverse) incorporation of new actors in an existing or newly created v...
Key processes to understand (2) <ul><li>changes in an existing aquaculture value chain that alter the terms and conditions...
Key processes to understand (3) <ul><li>As the result of value chain restructuring; - e.g. when importers of aquaculture p...
Key processes to understand (4) <ul><li>Implications of value chain activities on local people who are not part of an aqua...
In conclusion <ul><li>Important to understand: </li></ul><ul><li>the  conditions  of inclusion or exclusion </li></ul><ul>...
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Science Forum Day 3 - Froukje Kruijssen - Analyzing aquaculture livelihoods from a value chain perspective

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  • exception are some studies documenting household income and / or assets little attention paid to how participation in value chains exposes poor people to risks
  • Science Forum Day 3 - Froukje Kruijssen - Analyzing aquaculture livelihoods from a value chain perspective

    1. 1. ANALYZING (AQUACULTURE) LIVELIHOODS FROM A VALUE CHAIN PERSPECTIVE Froukje Kruijssen Science Week 18-22 July 2011
    2. 2. WorldFish Strategy update
    3. 3. But so far…. <ul><li>few value chain studies have quantitatively assessed the impact of value chain activities on poverty </li></ul><ul><li>and how participation exposes poor people to risks and affects vulnerability </li></ul><ul><li>AND </li></ul><ul><li>few livelihoods studies have gone across national boundaries, and most have focussed on ‘internal’ processes rather than external influences </li></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>Need for inclusion of ‘vertical dimension’ to livelihood analyses from the start: </li></ul><ul><li>better understanding of the nature of changes resulting from value chains impacting the local community and sub-groups within it (e.g. women, youth, minorities) </li></ul><ul><li>Expanding conceptual tools to analyse exclusion, voluntary non-participation, expulsion and/or partial inclusion </li></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><li>Impacts on </li></ul><ul><li>Poverty: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Income and resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Livelihoods and employment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vulnerability and risk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inequality (intra and inter-community) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Environment: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Local impacts and management issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Global impacts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul><ul><li>Labour conditions </li></ul><ul><li>(Source: Ponte, 2010) </li></ul>Include horizontal elements into value chain analysis
    6. 6. Value chain development <ul><li>Important for impact and in the CRP’s </li></ul><ul><li>Involves processes of change </li></ul><ul><li>For livelihoods key to understand to impact of change processes on value chain participants and non-participants </li></ul><ul><li>Some research questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is incorporation in aquaculture value chains a viable option for pathways out of poverty? In what ways, when, and under what conditions? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is incorporation in aquaculture value chains improving conditions for some while worsening it for others? How stable are the gains of becoming more closely integrated in global markets for aquaculture products? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is exclusion from these value chains always a ‘bad deal’? What other alternatives does it open? Is expulsion any different from exclusion? </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Key processes to understand (1) <ul><li>(beneficial/adverse) incorporation of new actors in an existing or newly created value chain </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. when a small-scale aquaculture producer of species for the local market takes up the production of pangasius for exports </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Beneficial inclusion’: e.g. inequality arising from some cooperatives in a cooperative participating in fair trade networks while others are not </li></ul>Inclusion of new participants
    8. 8. Key processes to understand (2) <ul><li>changes in an existing aquaculture value chain that alter the terms and conditions of participation for chain actors already in the chain </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. when governments impose stricter food safety standards on shrimp imports </li></ul>Restructuring of value chains with continued participation
    9. 9. Key processes to understand (3) <ul><li>As the result of value chain restructuring; - e.g. when importers of aquaculture products change their sourcing strategies to include fewer and larger processors/exporters, smaller processors may be squeezed out </li></ul><ul><li>How and why actors have been expelled or only partially included in value chains </li></ul><ul><li>Processes of ‘expulsion’: can be more detrimental than exclusion, because of possible investments or loss of social status </li></ul>Expulsion of participants
    10. 10. Key processes to understand (4) <ul><li>Implications of value chain activities on local people who are not part of an aquaculture chain </li></ul><ul><li>Local, regional and global processes that result in exclusion from and adverse incorporation in value chains </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons for voluntary non-participation in a value chain </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. lack of knowledge of possible participation, perceptions risks and / or increased vulnerability  Different from exclusion resulting from lack of resources, capacity, access to assets, or political/social connections </li></ul>Exclusion / non-participation
    11. 11. In conclusion <ul><li>Important to understand: </li></ul><ul><li>the conditions of inclusion or exclusion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. are domestic or international chains the best pathway out of poverty </li></ul></ul><ul><li>both short-term and long-term dynamics of participation </li></ul><ul><li> There may be a need to challenge basic factors underpinning the ‘normal’ functioning of a value chain if the poor are to benefit in the long run </li></ul>
    12. 12. Thank you!

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