ISSN: 2277 – 9043                                                         International Journal of Advanced Research in Co...
ISSN: 2277 – 9043                                                  International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer ...
ISSN: 2277 – 9043                                                              International Journal of Advanced Research ...
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  1. 1. ISSN: 2277 – 9043 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering Volume 1, Issue 2, April 2012 Design and Development Model of Solar Grid Tied Photovoltaic Power Inverter for Nagpur Mr. Chandrasen S Janjal, Dr. K. B. Khanchandani The PV maximum output power is dependent on the Abstract— Looking at the present scenario which conveys to operating conditions and varies from moment to moment duethe fact of severe crises in conventional energy sources thus to temperature, shading, cloud cover, and time of day sokeeping in mind the golden rule of ‘ENERGY SAVED IS tracking and adjusting for this maximum power point is aENERGY GENERATED’, The main goal in Design anddevelopment of solar grid tied photovoltaic (PV) power inverter continuous process. For systems with battery energy storage,tries to solve the above said problem. Our aim is to use the controller can control the charging as well as switch overrenewable electrical energy sources like solar energy which help to battery power once the sun sets or cloud cover reduces theus to save energy of electricity board but will also help to save PV output power.the countries conventional resources which are required for the The controller contains advanced peripherals like highgeneration of electrical energy coals, etc. This model is based on precision PWM outputs and ADCs for implementing controlenergy conditions instead of power conditions. There are shownthe two main trends that are typically used in the design process loops. The ADC measures variables, such as the PV outputand the calculation of the two main components of the system voltage and current, and then adjusts the DC/DC or DC/AC(generator and inverter). An example of the design for a system converter by changing the PWM duty cycle. The ARM microlocated in Nagpur-India is studied controllers/processors in particular is designed to read the ADC and adjust the PWM within a single clock cycle, so real time control is possible. Communications on a simple system Index Terms— Energy conditions, design- dimensioning, grid can be handled by a single processor, more elaborate systemsconnected PV system. with complex displays and reporting on consumption and feed-in-tariff pay back may require a secondary processor. I. INTRODUCTION For safety reasons, isolation between the processor and the In a solar grid tied photovoltaic power inverter station current and voltage is also required, as well as on theschematized as is shown in figure 1 can be distinguish communications bus to the outside world. By using thisdifferenced functional blocks. The solar inverter is a critical inverter the consumer can generate revenue which in turncomponent in a solar energy system. It performs the recovery of the capital cost of the system.conversion of the variable DC output of the Photovoltaic(PV) module(s) into a clean sinusoidal 50- Hz AC currentthat is then applied directly to the commercial electrical gridor to a local, off-grid electrical network. Typically,communications capability is included so users can monitorthe inverter and report on power and operating conditions,provide firmware updates and control the inverter gridconnection. Depending on the grid infrastructure wired orwireless networking options can be used. At the heart of the inverter is a real-time microcontroller.The controller executes the very precise algorithms requiredto invert the DC voltage generated by the solar module intoAC. This controller is programmed to perform the controlloops necessary for all the power management functionsnecessary including DC/DC and DC/AC. The controller alsomaximizes the power output from the PV through complexalgorithms called maximum power point tracking (MPPT). Figure1. Block diagram of solar grid tied photovoltaic power inverter Manuscript received April 25, 2012. Chandrasen S Janjal, Department of Electronics andTelecommunication Engineering, S. S. G. M. College of Engineering.,Shegaon, India, 9970093081. Dr. K. B. Khanchandani, Professor & Head Department of Electronics II. SOLAR ENERGYand Telecommunication Engineering, S. S. G. M. College of Engineering.,Shegaon, India, 7385300296. Solar power is a way of converting sunlight into useful . energy sources. There are two way of using solar energy as All Rights Reserved © 2012 IJARCSEE 146
  2. 2. ISSN: 2277 – 9043 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering Volume 1, Issue 2, April 2012heat and as electricity. Solar energy is available in abundance detect the fault most parts of the world. The amount of solar energy  Driver stages: driving stage consist of necessaryincident on the earth’s surface is approximately1.5 x 1018 circuit for driving the MOSFET.kWh/year, which is about 10,000 times the current annual  I/V sensing: current n voltage sensing is used forenergy consumption of the entire world. The density of MPPT charger n for providing protection. this stagepower radiated from the sun (referred to as solar energy consist of potential divider arrangement forconstant) is 1.373 kW/m2. Into figure 2 the represents the attenuating the signal and Operational amplifierenergy due to a solar radiation at a typical day. The energy stage to increase the gain of weak signalsdue to an irradiance of 1000W=m2.  Signal conditioning and isolation: the output I/V consist of noise which is required to be filtered out, so signal conditioning stage is implemented. Since the Microcontroller is operated on low voltage (3.3 volts) proper isolation is required to protect the Microcontroller from higher voltage levels. IV. SURFACE METEOROLOGY & SOLAR ENERGY Nagpur in Maharashtra will be developed as India’s first solar city. Nagpur will become a solar city by 2012. Up to 10 percent of energy consumption of this city has been targeted to be met through renewable energy and energy efficiency measures. Solar energy systems, including street lights, Figure2. Irradiance garden lights, traffic lights, hoardings and solar water heaters will be installed in the city. III. DIMENSIONING FOR PV INVERTER COMPONENTS The figure 4 shows that the Monthly Averaged Into figure 3 the represents complete overview of grid tied Insulation Incident on a Horizontal Surface (kWh/m2/day)photovoltaic power inverter particular to that location is 5.05 KWh/m2/day. Figure4. Monthly Averaged Insulation in NagpurFigure3. Overview of grid tied photovoltaic power inverter  M.P.P.T charger: Maximum power point tracking method is used to increase the efficiency of solar panel during delivering the power to load / battery. V. CONCLUSION In this method the product of voltage and current is This paper proposed a PV generation system, using a continuously observed. Single-phase solar grid tied photovoltaic power inverter work  DC – AC Inverter (Boost): In this stage the voltage is will give a clear idea about the factors influencing the stepped up, by converting DC input to AC output. Interconnected solar inverter system to increase the Single phase bridge inverter (also known as efficiency of the system and decrease the capital cost H-Bridge). the output frequency is kept equal to requirement of the system. frequency of the supply grid If we talk about its scope for the future, the solar energy  Filter: Filter circuit is required to remove the traces is never ending source of energy. By applying the scheme of of carrier waveform n to deliver pure grid tied solar inverter the localities, villages can be sinusoidal waveform to the grid. generating the power & satisfying there power requirements.  Protection: Protection like over load, short circuit is By implementing this scheme, it will reduce the burden implemented to protect the system from fault over existing fossil fuel energy generation which in reduce conditions. For this Shunt resistances are used to the emission of green house gases. 147 All Rights Reserved © 2012 IJARCSEE
  3. 3. ISSN: 2277 – 9043 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering Volume 1, Issue 2, April 2012 ACKNOWLEDGMENT Mr. Chandrasen S Janjal is ME student in Dept. Chandrasen S Janjal is thankful to Dr. K. B. Khanchandani of Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering,Professor & Head of Dept. Electronics & S. S. G. M. Collage of Engineering Shegaon. HeTelecommunication Engineering S.S.G.M.C.E, Shegaon. For Ob obtained his BE in P.R.M.I.T & R Bandera fromhis help and support for completion of this project Amravati University. . REFERENCES[1] Johann Hernandez, Nelson L. Diaz, Design-Dimensioning Model For Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems2009 IEEE Electrical Power & Dr. K. B. Khanchandani is professor and Head of Energy Conference 978-1-4244-4509-7 Department Electronics & Telecommunication[2] Residential solar systems: Technology, net-metering, and financial Engineering, Shegaon. He has over 18 Years of payback Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/EPEC.2009.5420778 teaching and research experience in power electronics. Sedghisigarchi, K. Electr. & Comput. Eng. Dept., West Virginia Univ. He has published number of research paper in journals, Inst. of Technol., Montgomery, WV, USA both national and international. He obtained his BE and[3] A new solar energy conversion scheme implemented using grid-tied ME in Amravati University and Ph.D. from National single phase inverter Digital Object Identifier: Institute of Technology, Bhopal. He has been innovated 10.1109/TENCON.2000.892322 Mekhilef, S. Rahim, N.A. Omar, in teaching and research in area of power electronics, A.M. Dept. of Electr. Eng., Malaya Univ., Kuala Lumpur signal processing, analog and digital system design[4] Digital repetitive control of a three-phase flat-top-modulated grid tie and VLSI solar inverter INSPEC Accession Number: 10939542 Engel, S. Rigbers, K. De Doncker, R.W. Inst. for Power Electron. & Electr. Drives, RWTH Aachen Univ., Aachen, Germany[5] Multilevel converter topology for solar PV based grid-tie invertersDigital Object Identifier10.1109/ENERGYCON.2010.5771733 Sarwar, A. Asghar, M.S.J. Electr. Eng. Dept., Aligarh Muslim Univ., Aligarh, India[6] Design, development and performance of a 50 kW grid connected PV system with three phase current-controlled inverter Digital ObjectIdentifier:10.1109/PVSC.2000.916221 Hwang, I.H. Ahn, K.S. Lim, H.C. Kim, S.S. Chungbuk Provincial Coll. Of Sci. & Technol.[7] Grid-Tied PV system energy smoothing Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/PVSC.2010.5616799 Hund, T.D. Gonzalez, S. Barrett, K. Sandia Nat. Labs., Albuquerque, NM, USA All Rights Reserved © 2012 IJARCSEE 148