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  1. 1. Barbiturates Rachel Cameron Ben Foss
  2. 2. Schedule <ul><li>Various types of barbiturates fall into schedules II, III, and IV </li></ul><ul><li>Schedule II barbiturate drugs are dangerous substances with genuine medical uses, but have a high potential for abuse and addiction. </li></ul><ul><li>Schedule III barbiturate drugs have less of a potential for abuse than drugs placed in Schedules I and II. These drugs have real medical uses. </li></ul><ul><li>Schedule IV barbiturates have a low abuse potential when compared to Schedule III drugs. These substances have an accepted medical use. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Psychological & Physical Dependence <ul><li>As barbiturates fall into different schedules their psychological and physical dependence varies. </li></ul><ul><li>Barbiturates in Schedule II may lead to severe psychological or physical dependence </li></ul><ul><li>The abuse of barbiturates in Schedule III can to a lesser degree lead to psychological addiction or dependence </li></ul><ul><li>Only some people develop a psychological addiction to barbiturates in Schedule IV </li></ul>
  4. 4. Derivation <ul><li>Barbiturates are made from barbituric acid first synthesized on by German researcher Adolf van Baeyer, by condensing urea with diethyl malonate and ester derived from the acid of apples </li></ul>
  5. 5. Methods of Use <ul><li>Usually taken in pill form </li></ul><ul><li>Can be injected into veins of muscles </li></ul>
  6. 6. Color Test <ul><li>Dille-Koppanyi test is used to detect the presence of barbiturates </li></ul><ul><li>Turns lavender if positive </li></ul>
  7. 7. Medical Uses <ul><li>Barbiturates were first used in medicine in the early 1900s and became popular in the 1960s and 1970s as treatment for anxiety, insomnia, and seizure disorders. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Federal Trafficking Penalties <ul><li>Class A - Maximum penalty For possession: 7 years and/or an unlimited fine. For dealing: Life and/or unlimited fine. </li></ul><ul><li>Class B - Maximum penalty For possession: 5 years and/or unlimited fine. For dealing: 14 years and/or unlimited fine. </li></ul><ul><li>Penalties for drug abusers. The federal penalty for the first-time offense of illegally possessing a controlled substance is up to one year in prison and a fine of from $1,000 to $100,000. Penalties are generally doubled for a second offense. </li></ul><ul><li>In some cases, a person may not receive a prison sentence. The Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1988 imposes a civil penalty on the minor drug offender, the person possessing a small quantity of an illegal controlled substance. Possession of this quantity known as a &quot;personal use amount&quot; carries a fine of up to $10,000. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Common Effects <ul><li>Acts as a Depressant to the Central Nervous System </li></ul><ul><li>Can cause anything from a mild sedation to total amnesia on victims/patients. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Common Names <ul><li>Downers </li></ul><ul><li>Nembutal </li></ul><ul><li>Phenobarbital </li></ul><ul><li>Reds </li></ul><ul><li>Red birds </li></ul><ul><li>Red devils </li></ul><ul><li>Seconal </li></ul><ul><li>Tuninal </li></ul><ul><li>Yellowjackets </li></ul><ul><li>Amytal </li></ul>
  11. 11. Withdrawal Symptoms <ul><li>Tremors, sweating, loss of appetite, nausea, high blood pressure, possible hallucinations, convulsions and death. </li></ul><ul><li>Withdrawal is life-threatening. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Barbiturate Facts <ul><li>Barbituric acid was first synthesized in 1864, but at the time had no realized medical use </li></ul><ul><li>They are very easy to overdose on </li></ul><ul><li>Marilyn Monroe died of a barbiturate overdose </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>