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From Quantified Self to Quality of Life
1,2 Assoc. Prof. Katarzyna Wac
1 Human-Centric Computing, University of Copenhagen, Denmark
2 Quality of Life Technologies lab, University of Geneva, Switzerland
www.qol.unige.ch
@katewac
DIKU
KU Seminar, Tracking Experience – Enhancing Lives?, April 2017
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Tracking Experience –
Enhancing Lives?
Yes, but…
DIKU
Sted og dato
Dias 2
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Machines That Sent Man To The Moon (’60s)
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Smartwatch Vision (’80s)
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Today…
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Wearable, anybody?
DIKU
Sted og dato
Dias 6
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Causes of Premature Deaths: Behavioral
Cost of ‘behavioural’ diseases: 47 trillion USD for the
next 20 years (US)
[McGinnis JM, Williams-Russo P, Knickman JR. The case for more active policy attention to health promotion. Health Aff 2002;21:78-93]
[Mokdad AH, Marks JS, Stroup JS, Gerberding JL. Actual causes of death in the United States, 2000. JAMA 2004;291:1238-1245]
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QS: “Self-knowledge through numbers”
A movement to leverage ICT to accumulate data
on the individual's behavior, health status, medical conditions and overall well-
being
By the individuals themselves
•  Personal insights
•  N-in-1 experimentation
Large number of devices (SMEs)
•  ‘Colonization phase’
•  Immature market
[Gary Wolf and Kevin Kelly, Wired, 2007]
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QS: Design Principles & Trends
Design Principles
•  Miniaturized energy-efficient sensors
•  Mobile apps
•  Big data
•  Data visualization
•  Gamification
Trends
•  50% of US population tracks something,
21% via ICT
•  7 bill mobile subscriptions (2014), 10 bill in 2017
•  17 mill wearable bands shipped in 2014,
23 mill by 2015, 45 mill by 2017
•  Internet of Things (IoT) economic impact of 2.7-6.2 trill USD in 2025
[Pew Research Center, McKinsey Global Institute, Cisco, Canalys, 2016 - 2017]
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QS Practice Types
•  Private
Voluntary, intrinsically motivated
•  Pushed
Voluntary, extrinsically motivated (by a person in power)
•  Communal
Voluntary competition, social comparison
•  Imposed
Consented, e.g., for workplace compliance, law compliance
•  Exploited
Involuntary, non-consented tracking of data
DIKU
[Lupton, 2016]
ß our research
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Enhancing Lives: Quality of Life
DIKU
Sted og dato
Dias 11
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159 instruments
[Gill and Feinstein, 1994 ]
[WHOQOL group, 1995]
Quality of Life:
“individuals’ perception of their
position in life in the context of the
culture and value systems
in which they live and in relation to
their goals, expectations, standards
and concerns”
Quality of Life by
?%error
DIKU
Dias 14
Homero Rivas, Katarzyna Wac, (Eds)
Digital Health - Scaling Healthcare to
the World (Book),
Health Informatics, Springer Nature,
Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2017
(forthcoming).
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Research Approach
•  Quantified Self
•  What do people track: 609 Videos
•  What can people track: 438 mobile/wearable devices/apps (/! weight scales)
•  Coded behaviors
•  into category
•  “nutrition”, “sleep”, etc.
•  192 unique behaviors
•  Into QoL domains/facets
DIKU
QoL Domain Facets incorporated within QoL domains CODE
Physical Health Activities of daily living
Dependence on medicinal substances, medical aids
Energy and fatigue
Mobility
Pain and discomfort
Sleep and rest
Work capacity
phy-adl
phy-meds
phy-energy
phy-mobility
phy-pain
phy-sleep
phy-work
Psychological
Health
Bodily image and appearance
Negative feelings
Positive feelings
Self-esteem
Spirituality/religion/personal beliefs
Thinking, learning, memory and concentration
psy-bodyimage
psy-negativefeel
psy-positivefeel
psy-selfesteem
psy-beliefs
psy-thinking
Social relation. Personal relationships
Social support
Sexual activity
soc-relationships
soc-support
soc-sex
Environment Financial resources
Freedom, physical safety and security
Health and social care: accessibility and quality
Home environment
Opportunities for acquiring new information and skills
Participation in/opportunities for recreation/leisure
Physical environ. (pollution / noise / traffic / climate)
Transport
env-finances
env-freedom
env-healthcare
env-home
env-info
env-leisure
env-environ
env-transport
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What do people track?
From QuantifiedSelf community Vinemo channel
From 1006 available videos:
609 videos coded –
had some meaningful title/
Description and presented
Individual self-tracking
Experience
(other videos: commercial
Product presentation, ethics,
Visionary, summarizing trends,
Intro to some meetup etc.)
Years:
2008-2016
[http://quantifiedself.com/topics/videos/]
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What can people track?
Wearable list from Vandrico.com website
From 438 available wearables
438 wearables coded –
All have meaningful
Description
Years:
2001-2017 (forthcoming)
90% after 2008
[http://vandrico.com/wearables/]
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QS Talks: What do people track?
Behavior Self-tracking Projects Focus
physical activity (97 talks) and nutrition (72), weight (47), sleep (47), productivity (31), emotions (28)
…flossing teeth, exposure to light, odd events, lying or flying (1)
DIKU
Sted og dato
Dias 18
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QS Talks: What do people track?
Behavior Self-tracking Projects Focus Change in Time
DIKU
Sted og dato
Dias 19
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QS Technologies: What can people track?
Embedded Sensors/Interaction Elements
accelerometer (209), gyroscope (83), some type of button-based interface (116), touch
interface (73), kinesthetic interface (vibrator, 71) or LCD-based display (70), digital clock
(100), heart rate monitor (82), GPS (78), including microphone (64) and audio speaker (78)
DIKU
Sted og dato
Dias 20
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QS Technologies: What can people track?
Behaviors Tracked/Enabled
physical activity (207), sleep (47), geo-localization (20), phone notifications (57) and phone
controls (44), as well as enable behaviors or novel form of interactions (e.g., gesture) with
connected objects (29) and/or communications (17)
… eating, foot pressure, urinary infections and dreaming
DIKU
Sted og dato
Dias 21
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QS Technologies: What can people track?
Positioning on the Body
DIKU
Sted og dato
Dias 22
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QS Technologies: What can people track?
Timeline for the Diversity of Sensors & Behaviors & Positioning on
the Body
DIKU
Sted og dato
Dias 23
≤2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2017
2016
positioning on a bodyraw sensors tracked/enabled behavior
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QS Technologies: What can people track?
Positioning on the Body & Behaviors
DIKU
Sted og dato
Dias 24
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QoL Coding
DIKU
Sted og dato
Dias 25
QoL Domain Facets incorporated within QoL domains CODE
Physical Health Activities of daily living
Dependence on medicinal substances, medical aids
Energy and fatigue
Mobility
Pain and discomfort
Sleep and rest
Work capacity
phy-adl
phy-meds
phy-energy
phy-mobility
phy-pain
phy-sleep
phy-work
Psychological
Health
Bodily image and appearance
Negative feelings
Positive feelings
Self-esteem
Spirituality/religion/personal beliefs
Thinking, learning, memory and concentration
psy-bodyimage
psy-negativefeel
psy-positivefeel
psy-selfesteem
psy-beliefs
psy-thinking
Social relation. Personal relationships
Social support
Sexual activity
soc-relationships
soc-support
soc-sex
Environment Financial resources
Freedom, physical safety and security
Health and social care: accessibility and quality
Home environment
Opportunities for acquiring new information and skills
Participation in/opportunities for recreation/leisure
Physical environ. (pollution / noise / traffic / climate)
Transport
env-finances
env-freedom
env-healthcare
env-home
env-info
env-leisure
env-environ
env-transport
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QS Talks and Technologies vs. QoL
QS Talks: What do people track?
QS Technologies: What can people track?
DIKU
Sted og dato
Dias 26
DIKU
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QS à QoL improvements ?
DIKU
Sted og dato
Dias 28
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Causes of Premature Deaths: Behavioral
Cost of ‘behavioural’ diseases: 47 trillion USD for the
next 20 years (US)
[McGinnis JM, Williams-Russo P, Knickman JR. The case for more active policy attention to health promotion. Health Aff 2002;21:78-93]
[Mokdad AH, Marks JS, Stroup JS, Gerberding JL. Actual causes of death in the United States, 2000. JAMA 2004;291:1238-1245]
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evidence
?
[G. Wolf and K. Kelly, Wired, 2007; Wac, IMIA 2012; Wac, SAA 2013; Wac, AAAI, 2014]
%error
[Wac, QuantifiedSelf for Quality of Life, “Digital Health” book 2017]

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From Quantified Self to Quality of Life

  • 1. r r enhed vn” og ”: jen, ” > g dato” o og vn” i From Quantified Self to Quality of Life 1,2 Assoc. Prof. Katarzyna Wac 1 Human-Centric Computing, University of Copenhagen, Denmark 2 Quality of Life Technologies lab, University of Geneva, Switzerland www.qol.unige.ch @katewac DIKU KU Seminar, Tracking Experience – Enhancing Lives?, April 2017
  • 2. uden g t- forøg tre- den g, k vn” og ”: jen, ” > g dato” o og vn” i Tracking Experience – Enhancing Lives? Yes, but… DIKU Sted og dato Dias 2
  • 3. uden g t- forøg tre- den g, k vn” og ”: jen, ” > g dato” o og vn” i Machines That Sent Man To The Moon (’60s)
  • 4. uden g t- forøg tre- den g, k vn” og ”: jen, ” > g dato” o og vn” i Smartwatch Vision (’80s)
  • 6. uden g t- forøg tre- den g, k vn” og ”: jen, ” > g dato” o og vn” i Wearable, anybody? DIKU Sted og dato Dias 6
  • 7. uden g t- forøg tre- den g, k vn” og ”: jen, ” > g dato” o og vn” i Causes of Premature Deaths: Behavioral Cost of ‘behavioural’ diseases: 47 trillion USD for the next 20 years (US) [McGinnis JM, Williams-Russo P, Knickman JR. The case for more active policy attention to health promotion. Health Aff 2002;21:78-93] [Mokdad AH, Marks JS, Stroup JS, Gerberding JL. Actual causes of death in the United States, 2000. JAMA 2004;291:1238-1245]
  • 8. uden g t- forøg tre- den g, k vn” og ”: jen, ” > g dato” o og vn” i QS: “Self-knowledge through numbers” A movement to leverage ICT to accumulate data on the individual's behavior, health status, medical conditions and overall well- being By the individuals themselves •  Personal insights •  N-in-1 experimentation Large number of devices (SMEs) •  ‘Colonization phase’ •  Immature market [Gary Wolf and Kevin Kelly, Wired, 2007]
  • 9. uden g t- forøg tre- den g, k vn” og ”: jen, ” > g dato” o og vn” i QS: Design Principles & Trends Design Principles •  Miniaturized energy-efficient sensors •  Mobile apps •  Big data •  Data visualization •  Gamification Trends •  50% of US population tracks something, 21% via ICT •  7 bill mobile subscriptions (2014), 10 bill in 2017 •  17 mill wearable bands shipped in 2014, 23 mill by 2015, 45 mill by 2017 •  Internet of Things (IoT) economic impact of 2.7-6.2 trill USD in 2025 [Pew Research Center, McKinsey Global Institute, Cisco, Canalys, 2016 - 2017]
  • 10. uden g t- forøg tre- den g, k vn” og ”: jen, ” > g dato” o og vn” i QS Practice Types •  Private Voluntary, intrinsically motivated •  Pushed Voluntary, extrinsically motivated (by a person in power) •  Communal Voluntary competition, social comparison •  Imposed Consented, e.g., for workplace compliance, law compliance •  Exploited Involuntary, non-consented tracking of data DIKU [Lupton, 2016] ß our research
  • 11. uden g t- forøg tre- den g, k vn” og ”: jen, ” > g dato” o og vn” i Enhancing Lives: Quality of Life DIKU Sted og dato Dias 11
  • 12. uden g t- forøg tre- den g, k vn” og ”: jen, ” > g dato” o og vn” i 159 instruments [Gill and Feinstein, 1994 ]
  • 13. [WHOQOL group, 1995] Quality of Life: “individuals’ perception of their position in life in the context of the culture and value systems in which they live and in relation to their goals, expectations, standards and concerns” Quality of Life by ?%error
  • 14. DIKU Dias 14 Homero Rivas, Katarzyna Wac, (Eds) Digital Health - Scaling Healthcare to the World (Book), Health Informatics, Springer Nature, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2017 (forthcoming).
  • 15. uden g t- forøg tre- den g, k vn” og ”: jen, ” > g dato” o og vn” i Research Approach •  Quantified Self •  What do people track: 609 Videos •  What can people track: 438 mobile/wearable devices/apps (/! weight scales) •  Coded behaviors •  into category •  “nutrition”, “sleep”, etc. •  192 unique behaviors •  Into QoL domains/facets DIKU QoL Domain Facets incorporated within QoL domains CODE Physical Health Activities of daily living Dependence on medicinal substances, medical aids Energy and fatigue Mobility Pain and discomfort Sleep and rest Work capacity phy-adl phy-meds phy-energy phy-mobility phy-pain phy-sleep phy-work Psychological Health Bodily image and appearance Negative feelings Positive feelings Self-esteem Spirituality/religion/personal beliefs Thinking, learning, memory and concentration psy-bodyimage psy-negativefeel psy-positivefeel psy-selfesteem psy-beliefs psy-thinking Social relation. Personal relationships Social support Sexual activity soc-relationships soc-support soc-sex Environment Financial resources Freedom, physical safety and security Health and social care: accessibility and quality Home environment Opportunities for acquiring new information and skills Participation in/opportunities for recreation/leisure Physical environ. (pollution / noise / traffic / climate) Transport env-finances env-freedom env-healthcare env-home env-info env-leisure env-environ env-transport
  • 16. uden g t- forøg tre- den g, k vn” og ”: jen, ” > g dato” o og vn” i What do people track? From QuantifiedSelf community Vinemo channel From 1006 available videos: 609 videos coded – had some meaningful title/ Description and presented Individual self-tracking Experience (other videos: commercial Product presentation, ethics, Visionary, summarizing trends, Intro to some meetup etc.) Years: 2008-2016 [http://quantifiedself.com/topics/videos/]
  • 17. uden g t- forøg tre- den g, k vn” og ”: jen, ” > g dato” o og vn” i What can people track? Wearable list from Vandrico.com website From 438 available wearables 438 wearables coded – All have meaningful Description Years: 2001-2017 (forthcoming) 90% after 2008 [http://vandrico.com/wearables/]
  • 18. uden g t- forøg tre- den g, k vn” og ”: jen, ” > g dato” o og vn” i QS Talks: What do people track? Behavior Self-tracking Projects Focus physical activity (97 talks) and nutrition (72), weight (47), sleep (47), productivity (31), emotions (28) …flossing teeth, exposure to light, odd events, lying or flying (1) DIKU Sted og dato Dias 18
  • 19. uden g t- forøg tre- den g, k vn” og ”: jen, ” > g dato” o og vn” i QS Talks: What do people track? Behavior Self-tracking Projects Focus Change in Time DIKU Sted og dato Dias 19
  • 20. uden g t- forøg tre- den g, k vn” og ”: jen, ” > g dato” o og vn” i QS Technologies: What can people track? Embedded Sensors/Interaction Elements accelerometer (209), gyroscope (83), some type of button-based interface (116), touch interface (73), kinesthetic interface (vibrator, 71) or LCD-based display (70), digital clock (100), heart rate monitor (82), GPS (78), including microphone (64) and audio speaker (78) DIKU Sted og dato Dias 20
  • 21. uden g t- forøg tre- den g, k vn” og ”: jen, ” > g dato” o og vn” i QS Technologies: What can people track? Behaviors Tracked/Enabled physical activity (207), sleep (47), geo-localization (20), phone notifications (57) and phone controls (44), as well as enable behaviors or novel form of interactions (e.g., gesture) with connected objects (29) and/or communications (17) … eating, foot pressure, urinary infections and dreaming DIKU Sted og dato Dias 21
  • 22. uden g t- forøg tre- den g, k vn” og ”: jen, ” > g dato” o og vn” i QS Technologies: What can people track? Positioning on the Body DIKU Sted og dato Dias 22
  • 23. uden g t- forøg tre- den g, k vn” og ”: jen, ” > g dato” o og vn” i QS Technologies: What can people track? Timeline for the Diversity of Sensors & Behaviors & Positioning on the Body DIKU Sted og dato Dias 23 ≤2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2017 2016 positioning on a bodyraw sensors tracked/enabled behavior
  • 24. uden g t- forøg tre- den g, k vn” og ”: jen, ” > g dato” o og vn” i QS Technologies: What can people track? Positioning on the Body & Behaviors DIKU Sted og dato Dias 24
  • 25. uden g t- forøg tre- den g, k vn” og ”: jen, ” > g dato” o og vn” i QoL Coding DIKU Sted og dato Dias 25 QoL Domain Facets incorporated within QoL domains CODE Physical Health Activities of daily living Dependence on medicinal substances, medical aids Energy and fatigue Mobility Pain and discomfort Sleep and rest Work capacity phy-adl phy-meds phy-energy phy-mobility phy-pain phy-sleep phy-work Psychological Health Bodily image and appearance Negative feelings Positive feelings Self-esteem Spirituality/religion/personal beliefs Thinking, learning, memory and concentration psy-bodyimage psy-negativefeel psy-positivefeel psy-selfesteem psy-beliefs psy-thinking Social relation. Personal relationships Social support Sexual activity soc-relationships soc-support soc-sex Environment Financial resources Freedom, physical safety and security Health and social care: accessibility and quality Home environment Opportunities for acquiring new information and skills Participation in/opportunities for recreation/leisure Physical environ. (pollution / noise / traffic / climate) Transport env-finances env-freedom env-healthcare env-home env-info env-leisure env-environ env-transport
  • 26. uden g t- forøg tre- den g, k vn” og ”: jen, ” > g dato” o og vn” i QS Talks and Technologies vs. QoL QS Talks: What do people track? QS Technologies: What can people track? DIKU Sted og dato Dias 26
  • 27. DIKU
  • 28. uden g t- forøg tre- den g, k vn” og ”: jen, ” > g dato” o og vn” i QS à QoL improvements ? DIKU Sted og dato Dias 28
  • 29. uden g t- forøg tre- den g, k vn” og ”: jen, ” > g dato” o og vn” i Causes of Premature Deaths: Behavioral Cost of ‘behavioural’ diseases: 47 trillion USD for the next 20 years (US) [McGinnis JM, Williams-Russo P, Knickman JR. The case for more active policy attention to health promotion. Health Aff 2002;21:78-93] [Mokdad AH, Marks JS, Stroup JS, Gerberding JL. Actual causes of death in the United States, 2000. JAMA 2004;291:1238-1245]
  • 30. uden g t- forøg tre- den g, k vn” og ”: jen, ” > g dato” o og vn” i evidence ? [G. Wolf and K. Kelly, Wired, 2007; Wac, IMIA 2012; Wac, SAA 2013; Wac, AAAI, 2014] %error [Wac, QuantifiedSelf for Quality of Life, “Digital Health” book 2017]