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Positive Computing: Technology for Psychological Wellbeing. Includes design for empathy, and affiliative design. Presented at Stanford's Center for Compassion and Altruism Research and Education (CCARE). Presented with Rafael Calvo (

Positive Computing: Technology for Psychological Wellbeing. Includes design for empathy, and affiliative design. Presented at Stanford's Center for Compassion and Altruism Research and Education (CCARE). Presented with Rafael Calvo (


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  1. 1. 1   POSITIVE COMPUTING Technology for psychological wellbeing Prof.Rafael A.Calvo ARC Future Fellow, Engineering The University of Sydney Presented at: The Center for Compassion and Altruism Research and Education (CCARE) Stanford University January 22,2015 Dorian Peters Creative Leader, Education and Social Work The University of Sydney
  2. 2. About the University of Sydney •  50,200  students;  7,500  Staff   •  First  University  in  Australia  (1850)  
  3. 3. Digital Experience timeline. 1970                        1980                1990              1995          2000        2005                  2010      2014  
  4. 4. Are we any happier?
  5. 5. Wealth,technology,happiness Diener,  E.,  &  Seligman,  M.  E.  P.  (2004).  Beyond  money.  Psychological  Science  in  the  Public  Interest,  5(1),  1–31.  
  6. 6. We design for… •  ProducOvity     •  Efficiency     •  Accuracy     •  Speed     •  Performance   •  SaOsfacOon     •  Pleasure     •  Desire   The Tyranny of Productivity
  7. 7. We design for proxies Why design for proxies when we can design for the real thing?
  8. 8. Technology should be designed to support psychological wellbeing. POSITIVE COMPUTING “The research and development of technology to support wellbeing and human potential”
  9. 9. Outline Technologies that change us Multidisciplinary foundations Wellbeing measures and factors Current Projects
  10. 10. Technology already changes us... 1.  Facebook  Use  Predicts  Declines  in  Subjec8ve  Well-­‐Being  in  Young  Adults.  Kross  E,   Verduyn  P,  Demiralp  E,  Park  J,  Lee  DS,  et  al.  (2013)    PLoS  ONE  8(8):  e69841.   2.  Experimental  evidence  of  massive-­‐scale  emo8onal  contagion  through  social  networks   Kramer,  A,  J.E.  Guillory,  and  J.T.  Hancock.  PNAS  2014   3.  Detec8ng  Emo8onal  Contagion  in  Massive  Social  Networks.  Coviello,  Lorenzo,  et  al.     PloS  one  9.3  (2014):  e90315.   4.  Growing  Closer  on  Facebook:  Changes  in  Tie  Strength  Through  Social  Network  Site  Use     Moira  Burke  et.  al  CHI  2014   5.   A  wandering  mind  is  an  unhappy  mind.  Killingsworth,  M.A.  and  Gilbert,  D.T.     Science  330,  6006  (2010),  932.  (Experience  sampling  using  smartphones)   6.  A  61-­‐million-­‐person  experiment  in  social  influence  and  poliOcal  mobilizaOon.  Bond,  R.M.,   Fariss,  C.J.,  Jones,  J.J.,  et  al.     Nature  489,  7415  (2012),  295–298.  
  11. 11. Cognitive Computing Understanding  what  people  think  via  wriOng   J.  Villalón,  P.  Kearney,  R.A.  Calvo,  P.  Reimann.  (2008)    “Glosser:  Enhanced  Feedback  for  Student  WriOng  Tasks”.   •  essays,     •  journals     •  CBT  
  12. 12. Behavioural Analytics Understanding  what  people  do   and  the  impacts  of  interven8ons   Example:   R.A.  Calvo,  A.  Aditomo,  V.   Southavilay  and  K.  Yacef.  (2012)   "The  use  of  text  and  process   mining  techniques  to  study  the   impact  of  feedback  on  students’   wriOng  processes".  InternaOonal   Conference  on  the  Learning   Sciences.     Faculty Research Award
  13. 13. Behavioural Analytics Understanding  what  people  do   and  the  impacts  of  interven8ons   Example:   R.A.  Calvo,  A.  Aditomo,  V.   Southavilay  and  K.  Yacef.  (2012)   "The  use  of  text  and  process   mining  techniques  to  study  the   impact  of  feedback  on  students’   wriOng  processes".  InternaOonal   Conference  on  the  Learning   Sciences.     Faculty Research Award
  14. 14. Affective Computing Understanding what people feel Facial Expressions Physiology
  15. 15. TeleHealth  Training   applica/on   Affective Computing Understanding what people feel
  16. 16. Affective Computing Understanding  what  people  feel   Physiology   The Oxford Handbook of AFFECTIVE COMPUTING O X F O R D L I B R A R Y O F P S Y C H O L O G Y EDITED BY RAFAEL A. CALVO SIDNEY D’MELLO JONATHAN GRATCH ARVID KAPPAS
  17. 17. Cognition,Behavior & Affect in Computing Technology for Wellbeing
  18. 18. Research Foundations for a Field of Positive Computing
  19. 19. •  HCI & UX •  Human-Centered Design •  Values-Sensitive Design •  Emotional design •  Architecture •  HCI •  Affective computing •  Personal informatics •  Persuasive tehnologies •  Attentive technologies COMPUTINGPSYCHOLOGY & BRAIN SCIENCE DESIGN •  Positive psychology •  Subjective Wellbeing •  Psychiatry •  Neuroscience •  Behavioral Economics •  Personal development •  Learning technologies •  Media Studies •  Social Work EDUCATION & SOCIAL SCIENCES Research Foundations Many areas can contribute to our understanding of wellbeing and how to apply it to technology.
  20. 20. Foundations in Psychology MODELS OF POSITIVE MENTAL HEALTH 1.  Clinical   DSM  Global  Assessment  of  FuncOoning  (e.g.  CES-­‐D  <  16)     2.  Posi8ve  Psychology  (e.g.  Seligman,  Lyubimorski,  Huppert  )   3.  Socio-­‐emo8onal  intelligence  (e.g.  Salovey,  Mayer  &  Caruso)   4.  Self-­‐determina8on  Theory  (Ryan  &  Deci)   5.  Subjec8ve  well-­‐being  (e.g.  Diener,  Kahneman)     6.  Neuroscience  and  Physiology  (e.g.,  Panksepp,  Davidson)       COMPONENTS   Autonomy,  connectedness,  competence  (Deci),     Meaning,  Posi8ve  Emo8ons,  Engagement,  (Seligman)   Mindfulness  (Davidson)  ...    
  21. 21. Population-wide measures UN’s  first  World  Happiness  Report  (Helliwell,  Layard,  &   Sachs,  2012)       Happy  Planet  Index  which  combines  data  on  experienced   wellbeing,  life  expectancy  and  economic  footprint       First  UK  happiness  report  released    in  2012  with  staOsOcs   on  QoL  and  SBW     Gallup-­‐Healthways  Well-­‐being  Index  undertakes  and  an   impressive  live  daily  assessment  of  health  and  wellbeing   measures  across  the  U.S.  (see  well-­‐    
  22. 22.   Experienced  U8lity  -­‐  Average  of     posiOve  &  negaOve  emoOons.  sampled  over   Ome    (Kahneman  &  Krueger,  2006)       Experience  Sampling  (Csikszentmihalyi  &   Larson,  1987)  or  Day  ReconstrucOon  Method     Affec8ve  Compu8ng  techniques    The  model  contemplates  accounOng  for    engagement.             Measures of Subjective Wellbeing Kahneman,  D.,  Diener,  E.,  &  Schwarz,  N.  (Eds.).  (1999).  Well-­‐Being:  The  Founda/ons  of  Hedonic  Psychology.   New  York:  Rusell  Sage  FoundaOon.   Kahneman,  D.,  &  Krueger,  A.  B.  (2006).  Developments  in  the  measurement  of  subjecOve  well-­‐being.  The   journal  of  economic  perspec/ves,  20(1),  3–24.   Layard,  R.  (2006).  Happiness:  Lessons  from  a  new  science.  Penguin.    
  23. 23. Moving the population towards flourishingPercentage  of  Popula8on   Common  Mental   Disorder   Languishing   Moderate   Mental  Health     Flourishing   Psychological  Resources   Source:  Felicia  Huppert,  Cambridge  Wellbeing  InsOtute  
  24. 24. Designing to support Determinants of Wellbeing •  PosiOve  emoOons   •  Autonomy   •  Connectedness   •  Self-­‐awareness   •  Resilience   •  Engagement  &  flow     •  Meaning   •  Mindfulness   •  Empathy   •  Compassion  &   altruism    
  25. 25.   Emotional Design   Aesthetics   Fun, “Delighters”   Casual Games reduce stress & depression (eg. Rusoniello Positive Emotions                         Jane  McGonigal   Game  designer  and  author   Institute  for  the  Future                     Don  Norman   One  of  World’s  most  in7luential   designers  (Newsweek)
  26. 26. Positive Emotions not Created Equal
  27. 27. Seeking-­‐focused   Affilia8ve-­‐focused   Drive,  excitement   Contentment,  connectedness     Gilbert,  P.  (2014),  The  origins  and  nature  of  compassion  focused  therapy.  BriOsh  Journal  of  Clinical   Psychology,  53:  6–41.     Depue,  R.A.,  &  Morrone-­‐Strupinsky,  J.V.  (2005).  A  neurobehavioral  model  of  affiliaOve  bonding.   Behavioral  and  Brain  Sciences,  28,  313–395.  
  28. 28. Positive Emotions in Technology   Catching  up  with  email     Organizing  your  week's  events  on   a  calendar     Preparing  a  talk  in  powerpoint     “Meforming”  on  twiser     Combat  simulaOon     A  round  of  candy  crush     Online  shopping     Searching  for  informaOon     Tracking  exercise     Anything  gamified   Striving-achievement (dopaminergic) •  TexOng  playfully  with  spouse   •  GraOtude  journal  app   •  Praising  someone  on  facebook     Affiliative-contentment (opiate system,oxytocin)
  29. 29. Empathy   FronOers-­‐   InteracOve     Guide  to  EmoOons   Understanding and experiencing other’s emotions.
  30. 30. “I like”vs.“I appreciate this”
  31. 31. New Design tradeoffs example: speed vs.gratitude Praise  is  valuable  to  both  sides   LinkedIn  &  Yammer:  speed  vs.  psychological  benefits?    
  32. 32. Payroll as a celebration
  33. 33. Reviving,donating & helping in games
  34. 34. Opportunities for awe & inspiration
  35. 35. Compassion vs.Empathy 1.  Addressing  appraisals  of  deservedness   2.  SupporOng  feelings  of  agency   3.  Providing  opportuniOes  for  the  pracOce  of   altruism   4.  Providing  opportuniOes  for  elevaOon   5.  SupporOng  compassion  training  pracOces.   Peters,  D,  &  R  Calvo.  "Compassion  vs.  empathy:  designing  for  resilience.”    Interac/ons  21.5  (2014):  48-­‐53.a   Goetz,  J.  L.,  Keltner,  D.,  &  Simon-­‐Thomas,  E.  (2010).  Compassion:  An  evoluOonary   analysis  and  empirical  review.  Psychological  BulleOn,  136(3),  351.  
  36. 36. Altruism Developing  helping  behaviors  with  VR   Rosenberg,  R.  S.,  Baughman,  S.  L.,  &  Bailenson,  J.  N.  (2013).  Virtual  Superheroes:  Using  Superpowers  in   Virtual  Reality  to  Encourage  Prosocial  Behavior.  PloS  one,  8(1).   Superhero  experiment,  Stanford  (images  from  Catalyst,  ABC)  
  37. 37. Envisioning Positive Computing Current work and future visions
  38. 38. Types of integration Types&of&positive&computing&technologies& A&4&Not&positive& computing& & Wellbeing(&(human(potential(were( not(considered(in(the(design(of(the( technology(( B&–&Preventative& integration&& & Obstacles(or(compromises(to( wellbeing(are(treated(as(errors.( C&4&Active& integration& & Technology(is(designed(to(actively( support(components(of(wellbeing( or(human(potential(in(an( application(that(has(a(different( overall(goal(( ( D&4&Dedicated& integration&& A(technology(that(is(purpose=built( and(dedicated(to(fostering( wellbeing(and/or(human(potential( in(some(way.(( •  Word  redesigned  to  support  flow   •  Social  media  redesigned  to  support   social  intelligence     •  Posi/ve  psychology  interven/ons     •  Game  for  developing  empathy     Examples     •  Redesign  to  prevent  trolling  or   cyberbullying  
  39. 39. Framework for Research and Practice Operationalizing wellbeing research for technology design ! Factor! Literature!&!Theory! Strategies! Methods!&! Measures! Self! (Intrapersonal)! Positive! Emotions! • Hedonic!Psychology! (Kahneman)! • Subjective!Wellbeing!(Deiner)! • Building!&!Broadening!Effect! (Fredrickson)! • Savouring! • Positive!ruminating! • Reframing! • Compassion! meditation! PANAS!scales;!General! wellbeing!measures!such! as!SWB,!SWLS!and!QoL! scales.! Motivation!&! Engagement!! • SelfOdetermination!Theory! (Ryan!&!Deci)!! • Flow!Theory!Csikszentmihalyi)! • Intrinsic!and!extrinsic! rewards! The!Motivation!and! Engagement!Scale;!SelfO Regulation! Questionnaires! Self< awareness! • Cognitive!Behavioral!Therapy! (Aaron!Beck)! • Emotional!Intelligence!(Mayer! &!Salovey)! • Life!summary! • Online!CBT!study! • TechnologyO Mediated!Reflection! Emotional!Intelligence! measures!(eg.!MSCEIT);! wellbeing!measures!such! as!Life!Satisfaction! Mindfulness! MindfulnessObased!Stress! Reduction!!(KabatOZinn)! MinfulnessObased!Cognitive! Therapy!(Segal,!Williams!&! Teasdale)! • Mindfulness! meditation! • MBSR!strategies! • MBCT!strategies! MAAS;!Freiburg! Mindfulness!Inventory! Resilience! psychology!of!resilience! (Seligman,!Keyes)!! Building!&!Broadening!Effect! (Fredrickson)!! • Positive!psychology! interventions! • SuperBetter! Resilience!Scale;!! Social! (Interpersonal)! Gratitude! Emmons!&!McCullough! Psychology2of2Gratitude! • Gratitude!visit! • Gratitude!journal! Gratitude!Questionnaire! Empathy! Emotional!Intelligence!(Salovey!&! Mayer;!Goleman),!Affective!and! Cognitive!empathy!(Gerdes!etal;! Singer)! • RoleOplaying! • PerspectiveOtaking! • Emotion!recognition! training! EQ;!Interpersonal! Reactivity!Index;! Children's!Empathic! Attitudes!Questionnaire! Transcendent! (Extra:personal)! Compassion! CompassionOFocused!Therapy! (Paul!Gilbert)! • Compassion! Meditation! SelfOcompassion!Scale;! Prosocial!Orientation! Scale;!Hostile!Attribution! Bias!Questionnaire!Altruism! ! Batson!(empathyOAltruism! ! • Prosocial!games! • RoleOplaying!helping! behavior! From: Positive Computing
  40. 40. Expert Perspectives Multidisciplinary views of wellbeing technology (in the book) Don Norman One of World’s most influential designers (Newsweek) Prof.Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi Founder of the Quality of Life Research Center. Prof.Mark Williams Director,Oxford Mindfulness Centre, University of Oxford Mary-Helen Immordino- Yang Brain and Creativity Institute USC Jeremy Bailenson Augmented Virtual Reality Stanford University danah boyd Social Media researcher at Harvard & Microsoft Prof.Felicia Huppert Director of Cambridge Well-being Institute Prof.David Caruso Yale Jonathan Nicholas CEO Reachout Foundation Prof.Jane Burns CEO,Young and Well CRC .
  41. 41. Moderator Assistant -Helping those who help others [Resilience, meaning] In  Partnership  with:  
  42. 42. Moderator Assistant Ming  Liu,  Rafael  A.  Calvo,  Tracey  Davenport,  Ian  Hickie  "Moderator  Assistant:  helping  those  who  help  via  online  mental  health   support  groups".  Social  Technologies  for  Health  and  Wellbeing'  workshop  at  OzChi  2013.  Nov  25  &  26.  Adelaide,  South  Australia  
  43. 43. Self-management in health In  Partnership:   In  Partnership  with:   Charles  Perkins  Centre    |    Children’s  Hospital  at  Westmead  |    Asthma  Australia   [Autonomy]
  44. 44. MH promotion in emergency services workplace Men @ Work –workplace wellbeing [Resilience, Compassion]
  45. 45. ARC Future Fellowship (2015-2019) Identifying software design strategies that can foster various determinant factors of wellbeing   Understanding  expert/disciplinary  concep8ons.       Iden8fying  design  strategies       Measurement  –  Evalua8ng  proposed  design  strategies  in   specific  projects   In  collaboraOon  with:  
  46. 46. Positive Computing workshops Competence:  Feeling  that  one  has  sufficient  ability/ experOse  relevant  to  an  experience.   Autonomy:  Feeling  that  one  has  the  power  to  influence   or  endorse  the  outcome  of  an  experience.  “Internal  perceived   locus  of  causality”.   Meaning:  Find  a  deep  sense  of  fulfilment  by  employing   our  unique  strengths  for  a  purpose  greater  than  ourselves.   Posi8ve  emo8ons:  eg.  joy,  graOtude,  serenity,   interest,  hope,  pride,  amusement,  inspiraOon,  awe,  love.   Engagement:  taking  part  in  acOviOes  that  absorb  one   completely,  state  of  flow  (loss  of  self-­‐consciousness,  no  mind-­‐ wandering)   Relatedness:  Belongingness  and  connectedness  with   others,  ”secure  relaOonal  base”   With  support  from  the  Charles  Perkins  Centre   RA  Calvo,  D.  Peters,  D.  Johnson,  Y.  Rogers   “Autonomy  in  Technology  Design”  CHI  ’14  
  47. 47. Conclusions 1.  Technology  changes  us.   2.  There  are  psychological  factors  known  to  increase   wellbeing  (described  in  psychological  theories)   3.  These  factors  can  be  used  to  inform  the  design  of   technologies  that  beser  support  wellbeing   4.  PosiOve  compuOng  provides  a  framework  to  support   effort  by:   •  Drawing  on  mulO-­‐disciplinary  work  and  theoreOcal   frameworks  that  can  serve  as  an  evidence  base  for   pracOce   •  Helping  pracOoners  manage  design  for  wellbeing  by   addressing  determinants   •  TargeOng  the  promoOon  of  flourishing  in  all  technology  
  48. 48. Thank you.   Journal CHI 2015 Positive Computing Course in Seoul 27 April 2015.   Special Issue Psychology of Well-Being (Springer) CFP Deadline July 1st, 2015