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In the Game: Interactive Digital Media, Physical Activity, Health and Wellbeing


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In the Game: Interactive Digital Media, Physical Activity, Health and Wellbeing

  1. 1. “In the Game”: InteractiveDigital Media, PhysicalActivity, Health and WellbeingSouthern California Clinical & Translational Science Institute, May 16th 2011 Dr Alasdair G Thin BSc, PhD Heriot-Watt University, Scotland
  2. 2. Translational Research• concern about lack of • need practical impact of traditional application of research research • require novel solutionsSTRATEGY 8: Expand the definition of media for mediated interventions to include new and emergingtechnologies such as global positioning systems, video gaming, and other technologies. Identify funding forresearch to develop evidence that supports or opposes the use of existing and emerging technologies forincreasing physical activity.TACTICS• Encourage technology companies, such as cellular phone manufacturers and service providers, globalpositioning systems manufacturers, and health-e games manufacturers, to research and develop productsand applications that promote and track physical activity.
  3. 3. Nature of the Problem... “Our public health problems are not, strictly speaking, public health questions at all. They are questions of individual lifestyle... They are the result of millions of individual decisions, at millions of points in time.” Tony Blair: Speech on Healthy Living, 2006.
  4. 4. Part of the
  5. 5. 21st Century Reality “Technologically Textured” Physical Digital
  6. 6. Historical Trends in Energy BalanceExciting EE < EI F ? O O D EE > EI EE > EI Bland Bland EXERCISE Exciting
  7. 7. Principles of Systems Biology • biological functionality is multilevel • transmission of information is not one way • DNA is not the sole transmitter of inheritance • the theory of biological relativity; there is no privileged level of causality(Noble, 2008) • gene ontology will fail without higher- level insight • there is no genetic program • there are no programs at any other level • there are no programs in the brain • the self is not an object • list is incomplete - a genuine ‘theory of biology’ does not yet exist(Noble, 2003)
  8. 8. Physical Activity ModulatesPattern of Gene Expression (Booth, 2002)
  9. 9. The Problem Hours per Week30 %50 %20 % Type of Activity
  10. 10. The Silent Majority?Group Proportion (%)Joyous Jocks ~ 30Dandering Dudes ~ 50Sedentary Sceptics ~ 20
  11. 11. Exercise is a Hard Sell !!! Quality Frog
  12. 12. Rewarding with Snacks? sean dreilinger djwhelan Wallabee + ↓ = Andrew_B blythe_d Martin LaBar Snack Extrinsic Reward Intrinsic Reward
  13. 13. Health Action Model DecisionCognitive Behavioral Affective Intention Normative System (Tones, 1987)
  14. 14. Science Fiction?
  15. 15. 21st Century Reality
  16. 16. Health Agencies Getting Interested?
  17. 17. Who is Setting the Agenda?? personalized health program fun incentive physical challenges also features trivia games, hints and tips learn everything you need to know about proper nutrition and working out
  18. 18. Can we learn from Games?
  19. 19. Resource Optimisation Game ≤ 24 chotda
  20. 20. Health Games - Treatment
  21. 21. Health Games - Prevention
  22. 22. Games as:“Cognitive-Emotional Integration Engines”? Storytelling a significant feature of human culture Meaning making is important in Health and Wellbeing (Narrative Medicine) Games could help in health and wellbeing “Meaning Making” process
  23. 23. The Magic Circle of Games“...the consequences of the activity are negotiable” (Juul, 2005)
  24. 24. A Definition of Exergaming Exergaming is a beneficial exertion experience gained through the interfacing of physical activity and multimedia gaming.
  25. 25. Persuasive Technology Persuader Companion (mobile phone) Persistent Anonymous ? Data store and resources Context-aware Timely messages Scaleable to population level (IJsselsteijn, 2006)
  26. 26. Human Health Smart Meter?
  27. 27. Leveraging Social NetworksPercolation Threshold 2D 4D 10D Connectivity (Galam, 2003)
  28. 28. People Like Playing Games... Collecting - (Friends, Followers etc.) Scoring Points - (Games, Views, Ratings, Sales) Receiving Feedback - (Ranking, Comments) Exchanging - (Game play, Physical or Virtual Items) Customising - (Avatar and Page Appearance, Interface)
  29. 29. Diet Web 2.0 Style
  30. 30. Exercise Web 2.0 Style
  31. 31. Digital Lifestyle Aggregation
  32. 32. Social Media and BehavioralChangePositives NegativesAffiliation PrivacyAccess Opinions & Experiences SecurityParticipationKhaled et al, (2006). Lect Notes Comput Sc, 3962, 104-107.Peer SupportGoal SettingSense of Responsibility
  33. 33. Energy Expenditure- (Calorie burn)
  34. 34. Exergames are Not All Equal in EEEnergy Expenditure y enc 6+ METs equ Fr 3-6 METs 2-3 METs Muscle Mass
  35. 35. Potential Persuasive Features of Exergames Degree of authority Positive experience Develops skills Positive feedback Exercise more Praises the player accessible Progress chart General exercise tips Reflects the player Helpful suggestions Rewards progress Monitors usage Tailors exercise Negative feedback Visually attractive
  36. 36. Gateway Effects of Exergaming• Negotiable • Challenge-Skill Balance Consequences • Motor Skill Development• Social Inclusion • Exercise Self-Efficacy• Loss of Self- • Energy Expenditure Conciousness• Enjoyment
  37. 37. Promoting PositiveHealth Behaviour Change Persuasive Message (“Exercise is Good for You!”) Perceived Future Reward Persuasive Interactive Experience Immediate Real Reward
  38. 38. Which had most impact on Guitar sales?Gibson Digital Guitar Guitar Hero $50M $1M
  39. 39. Which will have most impact on Sports/Exercise?2012 London Olympics Exergaming $860M <<<$860M
  40. 40. Ottawa Charter & EU White Paper• Building Healthy Public Policy• Create Supportive Environments• Strengthen Community Action• Develop Personal Skills• Re-orientating Health Services
  41. 41. Changing Approaches toPublic Health
  42. 42. Supportive “Virtual” Environments? Compared to Physical Environments: Readily developed Lower cost Scaleable to population level
  43. 43. Drivers Consumer Technology Expectations New Non-traditional forms of gaming New body movement sensors and controllers Increasing Mobile Functionality US Physical Activity Strategy - “ e-games manufacturers...” Commercial Interest in Wellness
  44. 44. Maximising Opportunities Experience Creation Integrated Design Approach Informed Wellness Behaviour Perspective Seamless Data Capture (EMA) Social Media Linkage Cross-generational Game Play Scaleability, Perceived Value, Pricing & Affordability
  45. 45.