Telecom ppt

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Telecom ppt

  1. 2. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>1 History </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1.1 Early telecommunications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1.2 The telegraph and the telephone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1.3 Radio and television </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1.4 Computer networks and the Internet </li></ul>
  2. 3. <ul><li>2 Key concepts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2.1 Basic elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2.2 Analog versus digital communications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2.3 Telecommunication networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2.4 Communication channels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2.5 Modulation </li></ul></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>3 Society and telecommunication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3.1 Economic impact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3.1.1 Microeconomics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3.1.2 Macroeconomics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3.2 Social impact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>f3.3 Other impacts </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>4 Telecommunication and government </li></ul><ul><li>5 Modern telecommunication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5.1 Telephone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5.2 Radio and television </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5.3 The Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5.4 Local Area Networks and Wide Area Networks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>6 Telecommunication by region </li></ul>
  5. 6. MODERN TELECOM <ul><li>TELEPHONE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5.1 Mobile telephone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5.2 Landlines </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. Telephone <ul><li>On landlines, intra-circle calls are considered local calls while inter-circle are considered long distance calls. Currently Government is working to integrate the whole country in one telecom circle. For long distance calls, the area code prefixed with a zero is dialed first which is then followed by the number (i.e. To call Delhi , 011 would be dialed first followed by the phone number). For international calls, &quot;00&quot; must be dialed first followed by the country code , area code and local phone number . The country code for India is 91. </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>Telephone Subscribers (Wireless and Landline): 787.28 million (Oct 2010) </li></ul><ul><li>Land Lines: 35.09 million (Oct 2010) </li></ul><ul><li>Cell phones: 752.19 million (Oct 2010) </li></ul><ul><li>Monthly Cell phone Addition: 22.62 million (Dec 2010) </li></ul><ul><li>Teledensity: 66.16% (Dec 2010) </li></ul><ul><li>Projected Teledensity: 1 billion, 84% of population by 2012. </li></ul>
  8. 9. Mobile telephones <ul><li>India is divided into 23 telecom circles. They are listed below: </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>Assam </li></ul><ul><li>Andhra Pradesh </li></ul><ul><li>Bihar & Jharkhand </li></ul><ul><li>Chennai </li></ul><ul><li>Delhi & NCR </li></ul><ul><li>Gujarat & Daman & Diu </li></ul><ul><li>Haryana </li></ul><ul><li>Himachal Pradesh </li></ul><ul><li>Jammu and Kashmir </li></ul><ul><li>Karnataka </li></ul><ul><li>Kerala & Lakshadweep </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>Kolkata </li></ul><ul><li>Madhya Pradesh & Chhattisgarh </li></ul><ul><li>Maharashtra (excluding Mumbai) & Goa </li></ul><ul><li>Mumbai </li></ul><ul><li>North Eastern States ( Arunachal Pradesh , Manipur , Meghalaya , Mizoram , Nagaland , & Tripura ) </li></ul><ul><li>Orissa </li></ul><ul><li>Punjab </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>Rajasthan </li></ul><ul><li>Tamil Nadu excluding Chennai & Puducherry </li></ul><ul><li>Eastern Uttar Pradesh </li></ul><ul><li>Western Uttar Pradesh & Uttarakhand </li></ul><ul><li>West Bengal (excluding Kolkata), Andaman & Nicobar Islands & Sikkim </li></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>The following table gives details regarding the subscriber base of each Mobile Service Provider in India as of 31 December 2010 </li></ul>
  13. 15. <ul><li>A list of ten states (including the metros Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai in their respective states) with the largest subscriber base as of Oct 31st 2010 is given below </li></ul>
  14. 17. Landlines
  15. 18. <ul><li>The list of eight states (including the metros Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai in their respective states) with largest subscriber base as of September 2009 is given below </li></ul>
  16. 20. Internet <ul><li>Low Speed Broadband (256 kbit/s - 2 mbit/s) </li></ul><ul><li>The current definition of Broadband in India is speeds of 256 kbit/s. TRAI on July 2009 has recommended raising this limit to 2 Mbit/s. [43] </li></ul>
  17. 21. <ul><li>High Speed Broadband (over 2 Mbit/s) </li></ul><ul><li>Airtel has launched plans up to 16 Mbit/s on ADSL2+ enabled lines and is piloting new 30 Mbit/s and 50 Mbit/s plans in limited areas. [44] </li></ul><ul><li>Beam Telecom offers plans up to 6 Mbit/s for home users and has 20 Mbit/s plans available for power users in only Hyderabad city. [45] </li></ul><ul><li>BSNL offers ADSL up to 8 Mbit/s in many cities.It also started offering FTTH speeds ranging from 256Kbps to 100Mbps. [46] </li></ul><ul><li>Hayai Broadband will offer FTTH services up to 100 Mbit/s, with an Internal network speed of 1 Gbit/s. </li></ul><ul><li>Honesty Net Solutions offers Broadband over Cable at up to 4 Mbit/s. </li></ul><ul><li>MTNL offers VDSL at speeds up to 20 Mbit/s in selected areas [47] </li></ul>
  18. 22. Statistics <ul><li>Internet Service Providers (ISPs) & Hosts: 86,571 </li></ul><ul><li>Country code (Top-level domain): .in </li></ul><ul><li>Broadcasting </li></ul>
  19. 23. AIR Radio Tower
  20. 24. <ul><li>Radio broadcast stations: AM 153, FM 91, shortwave 68 (1998), Domestica Radio , Broadcasting </li></ul><ul><li>Radios: 116 million (1997) </li></ul><ul><li>Television terrestrial broadcast stations: 562 (of which 82 stations have 1 kW or greater power and 480 stations have less than 1 kW of power) (1997) </li></ul>
  21. 25. <ul><li>Next generation networks </li></ul><ul><li>Indian telecom networks are not so intensive as developed country’s telecom networks and India's teledensity is low only in rural areas. 670,000 route kilometers (419,000 miles) of optical fibres has been laid in India by the major operators, even in remote areas and the process continues. BSNL alone, has laid optical fibre to 30,000 Telephone Exchanges out of their 36 Exchanges </li></ul>
  22. 26. <ul><li>International </li></ul><ul><li>Nine satellite earth stations - 8 Intelsat ( Indian Ocean ) and 1 Inmarsat (Indian Ocean region). Microwave </li></ul><ul><li>Nine gateway exchanges operating from Mumbai , New Delhi , Kolkata , Chennai , Jalandhar , Kanpur , Gandhinagar , Hyderabad and Ernakulam . </li></ul>
  23. 27. <ul><li>Submarine cables </li></ul><ul><li>LOCOM linking Chennai to Penang , Malaysia </li></ul><ul><li>India-UAEcable linking Mumbai to Al Fujayrah , UAE. </li></ul><ul><li>SEA-ME-WE 2 (South East Asia-Middle East-Western Europe 2) </li></ul><ul><li>SEA-ME-WE 3 (South East Asia-Middle East-Western Europe 3) - Landing sites at Cochin and Mumbai . Capacity of 960 Gbit/s. </li></ul>
  24. 28. Telecom Training in India <ul><li>The incumbent telecom operators (BSNL & MTNL) have maintained several telecom training centres at regional, circle and district level. BSNL has three national level institutions, namely Advanced Level Telecom Training Centre (ALTTC) at Ghaziabad, UP; Bharat Ratna Bhim Rao Ambedkar Institute Of Telecom Training at Jabalpur, MP; and National Academy of Telecom Finance and Management. </li></ul>
  25. 29. Communication Industry in India <ul><li>The Communication Industry in India is one of the rapidly emerging sectors in India and is estimated to surface as the second biggest international telecom market </li></ul>
  26. 30. Future of Communication Industry in India <ul><li>Indian Communication Industry has a flourishing future in its value-added services market. The pre-set target of the 11th plan from FY 2007 - 12 is to provide 600 million cellular phone connectivity aided by an investment of USD 74 billion. </li></ul>
  27. 31. <ul><li>Moreover, it is estimated that by the FY 2012 the profits generated by Indian Communication Industry will touch USD 55 billion against the current USD 31 billion. </li></ul>
  28. 32. Indian Telecom Industry Facts <ul><li>One of the fastest growing cellular markets in the world in terms of number of subscriber additions – 19.35 million in 3 months (April to June 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>Expected to reach total subscriber base of about 500 million by 2010 (i.e., more than one phone for every household) </li></ul><ul><li>Annual growth rate of the telecom subscribers – 47 percent (2006–07) </li></ul><ul><li>More GSM subscribers than fixed-line subscribers </li></ul><ul><li>Total telecom subscribers – 225.21 million (June 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>Tele density – 19.86 percent (June 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>Number of new mobile subscribers added every month – 7.34 million (June 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>ARPU for GSM – USD 6.6 per month </li></ul><ul><li>Telecom equipment market – USD 17,100 million (2006–07) </li></ul><ul><li>Handset market – USD 4,750 million (2006–07) </li></ul>
  29. 33. Major Players in different segments of Indian telecom industry Basic Services Operators BSNL MTNL Reliance TTSL MOBILE SERVICES Airtel Vodafone Idea Reliance BSNL GSM Services Operators Internet Services Operators BSNL MTNL Reliance TTSL Airtel CDMA Services Operators Reliance TTSL BSNL
  30. 34. Type State-owned enterprise Industry Telecommunication Founded 19th century, incorporated 2000 Headquarters New Delhi , India Key people Gopal Das ( CMD) Products Wireless Telephone Internet Television Revenue 32,045 crore ( US$  7.27 billion) (2009-10) [1] Net income 575 crore ( US$  130.53 million) (2009-10) Employees 299,840 (March 31, 2009) [2] Website Bsnl.co.in
  31. 35. Type Public   Industry Telecommunications Founded 7 July 1995 (1995-07-07) Founder(s) Sunil Bharti Mittal Headquarters New Delhi , India Area served South Asian & African countries and the Channel Islands Key people Sunil Mittal ( Chairman ) and ( MD ) Sanjay Kapoor ( CEO ) Products Wireless Telephone Internet Satellite television Revenue 35,699.27 crore ( US$  8.1 billion) (2009) [1] Net income 9,426.16 crore ( US$  2.14 billion) (2009) [1] Employees 25,543 (2009) [2] Parent Bharti Enterprises (63.56%) SingTel (32.04%) Vodafone (4.4%) Website Airtel.in
  32. 36. Type Joint Venture Industry Mobile telecommunications Founded 1999 Headquarters Gurgaon Key people Sandip Das , CEO Gurdeep Singh, COO Products Mobile Telecommunication operator Parent Maxis Communications (74%) Apollo Hospital (26%) Website Aircel.com
  33. 37. Type Public Founder(s) Dhirubhai Ambani (2004) Industry Telecommunications Headquarters ,serving area Navi Mumbai , Maharashtra, Key people Anil Ambani (Chair man) Satish Seth (MD) Products Wireless Telephone Internet Data Cards Recharge Vouchers Television Revenue 22,948 crore Net income 6,045 crore Employees 31,884 Parent Reliance Anil Dhirubhai Ambani
  34. 38. Type Limited Industry Mobile telecommunications Founder(s) Predecessor Hutchison Essar (1994) Headquarters Mumbai, Maharashtra Products Mobile , networks, . Owner(s) Vodafone Group (67%) Essar Group (33%) On September 20, 2007 Hutch became Vodafone in one of the biggest brand transition exercises in recent times. The marketing brand was officially changed to Vodafone on 20 September 2007. 2001: A 'You and I' print advertisement of Hutch featuring Cheeka (dog)
  35. 39. Type Public Industry Telecommunications Founded 1995 Headquarters Santacruz East, Mumbai, India Key people Kumar Mangalam Birla(Chairman) Sanjeev Aga(MD) Rajat Mukharjee (VP Corporate Affairs) Products Mobile Revenue 12,447.08 crore Net income 953.94 crore(2010) Parent Aditya Birla Group (49.05%) Axiata Group Berhad (15%) Providence Equity (10.6%) WEBSITE www.ideacellular.com
  36. 40. Type Public Industry Telecommunications Founded 1996 Headquarters Navi Mumbai , India Key people Mr. Ratan N. Tata ( Chairman ) Anil Kumar Sardana(MD) Products Wireless Telephone Internet Television Employees 350,000 Parent Tata Group Divisions Tata Indicom (CDMA) Tata DoCoMo (GSM) Virgin Mobile India (CDMA/GSM) Website Tatateleservices.com
  37. 41. Urban Rural Teledensity in India
  38. 42. 4G Fourth-Generation Cellular Communication System
  39. 43. Agenda <ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolution of Data Standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WiMAX </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Road Ahead </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Closing Thoughts </li></ul></ul>
  40. 44. 4G Definition 4G is not one defined technology or standard, but rather a collection of technologies and protocols aimed at creating fully packet-switched networks optimized for data. 4G networks are projected to provide speeds of 100 Mbps while moving and 1 Gbps while stationary. Fourth Generation Cellular Communication (4G)
  41. 45. Evolution of Data Standards <ul><li>The radio telephone system preceded modern cellular mobile telephony technology (1G). </li></ul><ul><li>The radio telephone system contained one central antenna tower per region. The central antenna required radio phones to have a powerful transmitter, capable of transmitting up to 50 miles. The number of radio telephones per region was limited by the number of available channels. </li></ul><ul><li>Unlike closed radio systems, radio telephones were connected to the public telephone network and were typically mounted in cars, trucks, and briefcases. </li></ul>Zero Generation Mobile Systems (0G)
  42. 46. Evolution of Data Standards <ul><li>The 1G cellular telephone system divided cities into small cells. This division allowed extensive frequency reuse across a city, allowing millions to use cell phones simultaneously. </li></ul><ul><li>1G cell phone technology encompassed analog standards introduced in the 1980s and continued until replaced by 2G digital cell phones. </li></ul>First Generation Cellular Communication (1G)
  43. 47. Evolution of Data Standards <ul><li>Second Generation Cellular Communication (2G) 2G digital technologies can be divided into two standards: TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) - GSM: Originally from Europe but used worldwide - iDEN: Proprietary network used by Nextel in the US - PDC: Used exclusively in Japan CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) - IS-95: Commonly referred to as CDMA and used in the Americas and parts of Asia </li></ul>
  44. 48. Evolution of Data Standards <ul><li>Third Generation Cellular Communication (3G) 3G networks provide the ability to transfer voice data and non-voice data (music downloads, emails and instant messaging) over the same network simultaneously. </li></ul><ul><li>3G networks deliver broadband capacity and support greater numbers of voice and data customers at lower incremental costs than 2G. </li></ul><ul><li>Standards: - W-CDMA : Wideband Code Division Multiple Access </li></ul><ul><li> - EVDO : Evolution-Data Optimized </li></ul>
  45. 49. 3G vs. 4G <ul><li>Less Complexity, Faster Transmission </li></ul><ul><li>Unlike the 3G networks which are a combination of circuit switched and packet switched networks, 4G will be based on packet switching only. This will allow low-latency data transmission. </li></ul>3G Leading U.S. Carrier 3G EVDO network currently averages 400 to 700 Kbps with peak rates up to 2 Mbps. 4G International Carrier is testing 4G communication at 100 Mbps while moving, and 1 Gbps while stationary.
  46. 50. 3G vs. 4G
  47. 51. 4G Possibilities <ul><li>Enhanced Mobile Gaming </li></ul>Experience enhanced wireless capabilities that deliver mobile gaming interaction with latency less than five milliseconds. Play online multiplayer games while traveling at high speeds or sitting outside.
  48. 52. 4G Possibilities Personal Media Repository Create a personal media repository that can be accessed from home and on the road to view photos, watch movies and listen to your personal music collection. 4G 3G 2G 1G 0G
  49. 53. 4G Possibilities <ul><li>Virtual Presence Use hologram-generating virtual reality programs that provide an artificial presence just about anywhere. For example, decide if you want to personally respond when someone rings your front door while you are away from home. </li></ul>4G 3G 2G 1G 0G
  50. 54. 4G Possibilities <ul><li>Broadband Access in Remote Locations 4G networks will provide a wireless alternative for broadband access to residential and business customers. In addition, 4G will provide the first opportunity for broadband access in remote locations without an infrastructure to support cable or DSL access. </li></ul>4G 3G 2G 1G 0G
  51. 55. WiMAX <ul><li>World Interoperability for Microwave Access </li></ul><ul><li>There are two main applications of WiMAX: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fixed WiMAX (IEEE 802.16-2004) - Fixed WiMAX applications are point-to-multipoint enabling the delivery of last mile wireless broadband access as an alternative to cable and DSL for homes and businesses. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile WiMAX (IEEE 802.16e-2005) - Mobile WiMAX offers the full mobility of cellular networks at true broadband speeds. </li></ul></ul>
  52. 56. WiMAX Adoption Fixed WiMAX Adoption Fixed WiMAX is currently available however the adoption rate is impacted by the high cost of equipment in comparison to cable or DSL. Fixed WiMAX provides greater benefits for developing countries that do not already have physical infrastructure to support wired broadband access. Mobile WiMAX Adoption Mobile WiMAX equipment will arrive to carriers toward the end of 2007. However, mobile equipment testing typically takes between 12 to 18 months before the equipment is introduced to the consumer market.
  53. 57. WiMAX Fixed WiMAX Architecture
  54. 58. WiMAX Mobile WiMAX Architecture
  55. 59. 4G Access Options <ul><ul><li>Embed 4G technology into all end-user devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop mobile personal gateways </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop external interfaces with 4G peripherals </li></ul></ul>
  56. 60. Embedded Laptop Partnerships
  57. 61. Potential 4G Peripherals Smaller footprint peripherals have a greater potential to support multiple devices . PCMCIA Express Card USB Compact Flash Secure Digital
  58. 62. Closing Thoughts The lack of clarity and overuse of the term 4G could prove its biggest opportunity, or could spell its premature demise. As carriers begin to rollout 3G the term 4G may be rendered meaningless by lack of definition. However, the rollout of mobile broadband will have a profound impact on the way we work and live. Closing Thoughts

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