Linked USDL

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The use of the Linked USDL vocabulary

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Linked USDL

  1. 1. www.genssiz.org Linked-USDL 13 November 2012 Jorge Cardoso Dept. Engenharia Informatica/CISUC University of Coimbra Coimbra, Portugal jcardoso@dei.uc.pt 2012 Information Systems Management 1
  2. 2. Research on services • Software and IT perspective – WSDL, SOA, ITIL, … • Sales, communications and business models perspective – Marketing, pricing, channels, … • Design perspective [CM2012] – Blueprinting, personas, customer journey, …[CM2012] Cardoso, J. and Miller, J. A Internet-Based Self-Services: from Analysis and Design to Deployment. In 2012 Information Systems ManagementThe 2012 IEEE International Conference on Services Economics (SE 2012), IEEE Computer Society, Hawaii, 2USA, 2012.
  3. 3. Software and IT perspective• Service architectures – SOA and SoaML• Service description languages – WSDL , OWL-S, and WSMO• Business-oriented descriptions – e3value, e3service, business models• Best practices – ITIL and CMMI for Services2012 Information Systems Management 3
  4. 4. SoaML OWL-S WSDLServices as _functions_Services as _business_ ITIL 2012 Information Systems Management 4 e3value
  5. 5. _Business services_ Consulting IT Services Cloud services Manual Semi-automatic Fully Automated2012 Information Systems Management 5
  6. 6. Driving forces2012 Information Systems Management 6
  7. 7. Open Services • Service versus Web service – Aggregates, structures and configures people, resources, and information to create new value for consumers. • Social process – Firms, groups and individuals (i.e. the community) are equal participants which freely cooperate to provide information on services. • Self-governance – Service are common good which the community tries to create by using forms of decision-making and autonomy that are widely distributed. • Openness and free-access – The services created, being the elements of value created by the community, are freely accessible on a universal basis. • Autonomy and distribution – The participants of the community have the autonomy to advertise their know-how, capabilities and skills in the form of services to the world. • Semantic services – Services are said to be semantic since they explicitly describe their services using a conceptual or domain model, shared vocabularies. 2012 Information Systems Management[CPL+2012] Cardoso, J.; Pedrinaci, C.; Leidig, T.; Rupino, P. and Leenheer, P. D Open semantic service networks. In The 7International Symposium on Services Science (ISSS 2012), pages 1-15, Leipzig, Germany, 2012.
  8. 8. USDL• Unified Service Description Language• Master data model for services• Describe various types of services – professional to electronic services• Holistic – business aspects such as ownership and provisioning, pricing and legal aspects, in addition to technical aspects.2012 Information Systems Management 8
  9. 9. USDL History • a-USDL/2009 – Initial version of USDL [CBM+2010] ready in 2009. – Later renamed to a-USDL (pronounced alpha-USDL). – http://www.genssiz.org/research/service-modeling/alpha-usdl/ • USDL/2011 – A W3C Incubator group was created USDL was adapted and extended based on industry feedback at the end of 2011. – http://www.w3.org/2005/Incubator/usdl/ • Linked-USDL/-- – In order to make the specification gain a wider acceptance, a version called Linked-USDL emerged using Semantic Web principles Iits development is still in progress. – http://linked-usdl.org/[CBM+2010] Cardoso, J.; Barros, A.; May, N. and Kylau, U. Towards aSystems Service Description Language for the Internet of Services: 9 2012 Information Unified ManagementRequirements and First Developments. In IEEE International Conference on Services Computing, IEEE Computer Society Press, Florida, USA, 2010.
  10. 10. http://www.linked-usdl.org/ www.internet-of-services.com2012 Information Systems Management 10
  11. 11. 2012 Information Systems Management 11
  12. 12. 2012 Information Systems Management 12
  13. 13. Linked-USDL modules• USDL-core• USDL-Pricing• USDL-SLA• USDL-legal• Domain specific – USDL-Edu – USDL-Logistics2012 Information Systems Management 13
  14. 14. USDL @ github2012 Information Systems Management 14
  15. 15. Turtle• Provides ana textual syntax for writing RDF graphs.• Based on the triple notation2012 Information Systems Management 15
  16. 16. Turtle Syntax• The @prefix keyword declares namespaces@prefix rdf: <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#>.@prefix exterms: <http://www.example.org/terms/>.<http://www.example.org/index.html> exterms:creation-date "August 16, 1999“ .2012 Information Systems Management 16
  17. 17. Example2012 Information Systems Management 17
  18. 18. Triples<http://www.example.org/index.html> <http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/creator> <http://www.example.org/staffid/85740> .<http://www.example.org/index.html> <http://www.example.org/terms/creation-date> "August 16, 1999" .<http://www.example.org/index.html> <http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/language> "en" .2012 Information Systems Management 18
  19. 19. Notation• Turtle allows the semi-colon to separate predicate- object pairs for the same subject.• A list of such pairs is terminated with a period.@prefix rdf: <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#>.@prefix dc: <http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/#>.@prefix exterms: <hhttp://www.example.org/terms/>.<http://www.example.org/index.html> exterms:creation-date "August 16, 1999"; dc:language "en"; dc:creator <http://www.example.org/staffid/85740>.2012 Information Systems Management 19
  20. 20. namespaces@prefix rdf: <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#> .@prefix owl: <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .@prefix dc: <http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/> .@prefix xsd: <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .@prefix vann: <http://purl.org/vocab/vann/> .@prefix foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> .@prefix usdl: <http://www.linked-usdl.org/ns/usdl#> .@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .@prefix gr: <http://purl.org/goodrelations/v1#> .@prefix skos: <http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#> .@prefix org: <http://www.w3.org/ns/org#> .2012 Information Systems Management 20
  21. 21. USDL is an ontology<http://linked-usdl.org/ns/usdl> a owl:Ontology; dc:title "Linked-USDL Core"; dc:description """<p>This vocabulary provides …most of the originalUSDL specification with some useful simplifications. """; dc:modified "2012-09-20"^^xsd:date; vann:preferredNamespaceUri "http://www.linked-usdl.org/ns/usdl#"; vann:preferredNamespacePrefix "usdl"; foaf:page <http://linked-usdl.org/ns/usdl.html>; dc:creator <http://linked-usdl.org/ns/usdl#cpedrinaci>, <http://linked-usdl.org/ns/usdl#jcardoso>, <http://linked-usdl.org/ns/usdl#tleidig> .2012 Information Systems Management 21
  22. 22. usdl:Serviceusdl:Service a rdfs:Class, owl:Class; rdfs:isDefinedBy <http://linked-usdl.org/ns/usdl>; rdfs:label "service"; rdfs:comment "A usdl:Service is a black box description of a service forthe purpose of describing the service in a way that it can serve as aninterface between the provider and the consumer. The description containsfunctional properties of the service, described by the interaction protocol aswell as non-functional properties described by qualitative or quantitativevalues. Any composite implementation of a service that is internal isinvisible, however arbitrarily complex an actual service composition may be,it can be described using supplemental service network vocabularies,which are beyond the USDL Core vocabulary."; rdfs:subClassOf gr:ProductOrService ..2012 Information Systems Management 22
  23. 23. usdl:ServiceOfferingusdl:ServiceOffering a rdfs:Class, owl:Class; rdfs:isDefinedBy <http://linked-usdl.org/ns/usdl>; rdfs:label "service offering"; rdfs:comment "A service offering is an offering made by agr:BusinessEntity of one or more services to the public or specificcustomers. It usually gives defines a price and terms and conditionsincluding service level agreements"; rdfs:subClassOf gr:Offering .2012 Information Systems Management 23
  24. 24. usdl:ServiceModelusdl:ServiceModel a rdfs:Class, owl:Class; rdfs:isDefinedBy <http://linked-usdl.org/ns/usdl>; rdfs:label "service model"; rdfs:comment "A ServiceModel is used to represent classes ofservices, i.e. services that share a number of characteristics.ServiceModel enables the capturing of these characteristics."; rdfs:subClassOf usdl:Service, gr:ProductOrServiceModel .2012 Information Systems Management 24
  25. 25. usdl:hasServiceModelusdl:hasServiceModel a rdf:Property; rdfs:isDefinedBy <http://linked-usdl.org/ns/usdl>; rdfs:label "has service model"; rdfs:comment "Refers to the service model that specifiesproperties valid for all services of this model"; rdfs:domain usdl:Service; rdfs:range usdl:ServiceModel; rdfs:subPropertyOf gr:hasMakeAndModel .2012 Information Systems Management 25
  26. 26. usdl:Conditionusdl:Condition a rdfs:Class, owl:Class; rdfs:isDefinedBy <http://linked-usdl.org/ns/usdl>; rdfs:label "Condition"; rdfs:comment """<p>The class of conditions for a milstone.Preconditions or postcondition</p>""".2012 Information Systems Management 26
  27. 27. usdl:hasClassificationusdl:hasClassification a rdf:Property; rdfs:subPropertyOf dc:subject; rdfs:isDefinedBy <http://linked-usdl.org/ns/usdl>; rdfs:label "classification"; rdfs:comment "Indicates a classification of a service."; rdfs:domain usdl:Service; rdfs:range skos:Concept.2012 Information Systems Management 27
  28. 28. Includes• ServiceOffering bundles a number of services2012 Information Systems Management 28
  29. 29. usdl:includesusdl:includes a rdf:Property; rdfs:isDefinedBy <http://linked-usdl.org/ns/usdl>; rdfs:label "includes"; rdfs:comment """A ServiceOffering bundles a number of servicesand associates concrete service levels and pricing for for thepurpose of selling to customers. The ServiceOffering is the clientsview on services on a service marketplace. Services are usuallypurchased via a specific ServiceOffering."""; rdfs:subPropertyOf gr:includes; rdfs:domain usdl:ServiceOffering; rdfs:range usdl:Service .2012 Information Systems Management 29
  30. 30. usdl:receives• Physical• Human beings• Information• Knowledge• Constraints• Money2012 Information Systems Management 30
  31. 31. usdl:receivesusdl:receives a rdf:Property; rdfs:isDefinedBy <http://linked-usdl.org/ns/usdl>; rdfs:label "receives"; rdfs:comment """<p>Input required for the interaction</p>"""; rdfs:domain usdl:InteractionPoint; rdfs:range rdfs:Resource.2012 Information Systems Management 31
  32. 32. usdl:yields• Physical resources• Information• Knowledge• Waste• Money2012 Information Systems Management 32
  33. 33. usdl:yieldsusdl:yields a rdf:Property; rdfs:isDefinedBy <http://linked-usdl.org/ns/usdl>; rdfs:label "yields"; rdfs:comment """<p>Outcome yield by an interaction</p>"""; rdfs:domain usdl:InteractionPoint; rdfs:range rdfs:Resource.2012 Information Systems Management 33
  34. 34. InteractionPoints• Blueprint – line of interaction• E.g. face-to-face actions between employees and customers2012 Information Systems Management 34
  35. 35. usdl:InteractionPointusdl:InteractionPoint a rdfs:Class, owl:Class; rdfs:isDefinedBy <http://linked-usdl.org/ns/usdl>; rdfs:label "Represents an interaction point"; rdfs:comment "An InteractionPoint represents an actual step inaccessing and performing operations of the service. On a technicallevel this could translate into calling a Web Service operation. On aprofessional level, it could mean that consumer and provider meet inperson to exchange service parameters or resources involved in theservice delivery (e.g. documents that are processed by theprovider). An interaction can be initiated by the consumer or theprovider." .2012 Information Systems Management 35
  36. 36. usdl:hasInteractionPointusdl:hasInteractionPoint a rdf:Property; rdfs:isDefinedBy <http://linked-usdl.org/ns/usdl>; rdfs:label "has interaction"; rdfs:comment """<p>Interactions that are part of the interactionprotocol</p>"""; rdfs:domain usdl:Service; rdfs:range usdl:InteractionPoint .2012 Information Systems Management 36
  37. 37. usdl:hasPreconditionusdl:hasPrecondition a rdf:Property; rdfs:isDefinedBy <http://linked-usdl.org/ns/usdl>; rdfs:label "has precondition"; rdfs:comment """<p>Preconditions to be fulfilled to perform theInteraction or InteractionProtocol.</p>"""; rdfs:domain usdl:InteractionPoint; rdfs:range usdl:Condition .2012 Information Systems Management 37
  38. 38. usdl:hasPostconditionusdl:hasPostcondition a rdf:Property; rdfs:isDefinedBy <http://linked-usdl.org/ns/usdl>; rdfs:label "has postcondition"; rdfs:comment """<p>Postcondition that holds if the phase wasperformed successfully</p>"""; rdfs:domain usdl:InteractionPoint; rdfs:range usdl:Condition .2012 Information Systems Management 38
  39. 39. Interaction Type• Type – Human-Machine – Machine-Human – Machine-Machine – Human-Human2012 Information Systems Management 39
  40. 40. usdl:hasInteractionTypeusdl:hasInteractionType a rdf:Property; rdfs:isDefinedBy <http://linked-usdl.org/ns/usdl>; rdfs:label "has interaction type"; rdfs:comment "How can a customer participate in an interaction. Possible values are: Human-Machine, Human-Human,Machine-Human, Machine-Machine"; rdfs:domain usdl:InteractionPoint; rdfs:range <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#Literal>.2012 Information Systems Management 40
  41. 41. Interaction Space• Space – Presential – Remote2012 Information Systems Management 41
  42. 42. usdl:hasInteractionSpaceusdl:hasInteractionSpace a rdf:Property; rdfs:isDefinedBy <http://linked-usdl.org/ns/usdl>; rdfs:label "has interaction space"; rdfs:comment "Does the interaction between customer andprovider occurs at the same physical place? Or the interaction is mediated by technology? Possible values are: Presential, Remote"; rdfs:domain usdl:InteractionPoint; rdfs:range <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#Literal>.2012 Information Systems Management 42
  43. 43. Interface• Specifies – Inputs – Outputs• Has a technical realization or implementation – Will be added in the future2012 Information Systems Management 43
  44. 44. usdl:hasInterfaceusdl:hasInterface a rdf:Property; rdfs:isDefinedBy <http://linked-usdl.org/ns/usdl>; rdfs:label "has interface"; rdfs:comment """<p>Interactions can have an interface such asphone, fax, emaill, Web form, Web service, etc. </p>"""; rdfs:domain usdl:InteractionPoint; rdfs:range usdl:Interface .2012 Information Systems Management 44
  45. 45. Participants, role, agents• Participant – Agent – Role • Customer • Provider • Partners InteractionPoint2012 Information Systems Management 45
  46. 46. usdl:hasParticipantusdl:hasParticipant a rdf:Property; rdfs:isDefinedBy <http://linked-usdl.org/ns/usdl>; rdfs:label "has participant"; rdfs:comment "Captures the participants involved in aconcrete Interaction."; rdfs:domain usdl:InteractionPoint; rdfs:range usdl:Participant.2012 Information Systems Management 46
  47. 47. usdl:Participantusdl:Participant a rdfs:Class, owl:Class; rdfs:isDefinedBy <http://linked-usdl.org/ns/usdl>; rdfs:label "Participant"; rdfs:comment "Participant is a class to capture theparticipation of Entities in a certain Interaction".2012 Information Systems Management 47
  48. 48. usdl:hasAgentusdl:hasAgent a rdf:Property; rdfs:isDefinedBy <http://linked-usdl.org/ns/usdl>; rdfs:label "has agent"; rdfs:comment "Captures the participants involved in aconcrete Interaction."; rdfs:domain usdl:Participant; rdfs:range gr:BusinessEntity.2012 Information Systems Management 48
  49. 49. usdl:hasRoleusdl:hasRole a rdf:Property; rdfs:isDefinedBy <http://linked-usdl.org/ns/usdl>; rdfs:label "has role"; rdfs:comment "Role played in a particular Interaction."; rdfs:domain usdl:Participant; rdfs:range usdl:Role.2012 Information Systems Management 49
  50. 50. usdl:Roleusdl:Role a skos:Concept; rdfs:isDefinedBy <http://linked-usdl.org/ns/usdl>; rdfs:label "Types of Roles"; rdfs:comment "The kinds of Role that an entity mayplay within a certain Interaction".2012 Information Systems Management 50
  51. 51. Some important rolesusdl:Provider a usdl:Role; rdfs:label "Provider"; skos:prefLabel "Provider"; skos:altLabel "Supplier"; skos:definition "A Provider is the entity responsible for providing the Service".usdl:Consumer a usdl:Role; rdfs:label "Consumer"; skos:prefLabel "Consumer"; skos:definition "A Consumer is the entity actually using the Service".usdl:Partner a usdl:Role; rdfs:label " Partner"; skos:prefLabel "Partner"; skos:definition "An business partner is any other participant that acts on behalf of theprovider as a third party".2012 Information Systems Management 51
  52. 52. Example http://aws.amazon.com/ec2/2012 Information Systems Management 52
  53. 53. :pricing_EC2_Small_EU_Windows_ReservedInstance_Light_1yr a price:PricePlan ; dcterms:description "Price plan for a Small EC2 Reserved Instance in Europe with Windows, light utilization and a one yearcontract duration."@en ; price:hasContractDuration @prefix price: <http://www.linked-usdl.org/ns/usdl-pricing#> [ a gr:QuantitativeValue ; gr:hasValueInteger "1" ; gr:hasUnitOfMeasurement "ANN" ] ; price:hasBillingCycle [ a gr:QuantitativeValue ; gr:hasValueInteger "1" ; gr:hasUnitOfMeasurement "MON" ] ; price:hasPriceComponent :priceComponent_Small_EU_Windows_ReservedInstance_Light_1yr_General_Upfront , :priceComponent_Small_EU_Windows_ReservedInstance_Light_1yr_General_Hourly ,:priceComponent_Small_EU_Windows_ReservedInstance_Light_1yr_General_Upfront a price:PriceComponent ; dcterms:title "General costs upfront"@en ; dcterms:description "One-time fee for general usage of the instance."@en ; price:isLinkedTo… price:hasPrice [ a gr:UnitPriceSpecification ; Outdated gr:hasCurrency "USD" ; gr:hasCurrencyValue "69" ; gr:hasUnitOfMeasurement "C62" ] .:priceComponent_Small_EU_Windows_ReservedInstance_Light_1yr_General_Hourly a price:PriceComponent ; dcterms:description "Hourly fee for general usage of the instance."@en ; price:isLinkedTo :resource_EC2_DataCentre_EU , :resource_EC2_Windows ; price:hasPrice [ a gr:UnitPriceSpecification ; gr:hasCurrency "USD" ; gr:hasCurrencyValue "0.069" ; 2012 Information Systems Management gr:hasUnitOfMeasurement "HUR" ] . 53
  54. 54. Core Outdated 2012 Information Systems Management 54
  55. 55. Core Outdated 2012 Information Systems Management 55
  56. 56. <#service_EC2_Small> a usdl:Service ; dcterms:created "2012-05-18"^^xsd:date ; dcterms:modified "2012-05-22"^^xsd:date ; dcterms:title "EC2 instance small"@en ; usdl:hasNature usdl:Automated ; usdl:hasProvider :provider_Amazon ; usdl:hasLegalCondition :legal_Amazon ; usdl:hasPartMandatory <#service_Support_Basic> ; usdl:hasPartOptional <#service_Support_Bronze> , <#service_Support_Silver> , <#service_Support_Gold> , <#service_Support_Premium> ; gr:quantitativeProductOrServiceProperty :resource_EC2_Small_MainMemory , :resource_EC2_Small_ComputeUnit , :resource_EC2_Small_Storage ; gr:qualitativeProductOrServiceProperty :resource_EC2_Small_IO , Outdated :resource_EC2_PrivateIP , :resource_EC2_PublicIP .:resource_EC2_Small_MainMemory a cloud:MainMemory ; gr:hasUnitOfMeasurement "4L" ; gr:hasValue "1700" .:resource_EC2_Small_ComputeUnit a cloud:CPU ; gr:hasUnitOfMeasurement "A86" ; gr:hasMinValue "1.0" ; gr:hasMaxValue "1.2" ; gr:valueReference [ a cloud:NumberOfCores ; gr:hasValue "1" ] .2012 Information Systems Management 56
  57. 57. SLA Outdated 2012 Information Systems Management 57
  58. 58. SLA Outdated 2012 Information Systems Management 58
  59. 59. :slp_Support_Silver a usdl:ServiceLevelProfile ; dcterms:title "Bronze support service level profile" ; sla:hasServiceLevel :slo_Support_Silver_ResponseTime .:slo_Support_Silver_ResponseTime a sla:GuaranteedState ; dcterms:title "Response time" ; sla:serviceLevelExpression [ a sla:ServiceLevelExpression ; dcterms:description "Maximum period in which responseis sent."@en ; sla:hasVariable :var_Support_Silver_ResponseTime ] . Outdated:var_Support_Silver_ResponseTime a sla:Variable ; rdfs:label "Fastest guaranteed response" ; sla:hasDefault [ a support:ResponseTime ; gr:hasValue "4" ; gr:hasUnitOfMeasurement "HUR" ] .2012 Information Systems Management 59
  60. 60. Legal @prefix legal: <http://www.linked-usdl.org/ns/usdl-legal#> :legal_Amazon a legal:TermsAndConditions ; dcterms:title "Amazon Web Services LLCs legal statements"@en ; dcterms:description "Amazon Web Services LLCs legal statements are accessible at http://aws.amazon.com/legal/. Please consult this website for further information"@en ; legal:hasClause [ a legal:Clause ; legal:name "AWS Customer Agreement" ; legal:text "http://aws.amazon.com/agreement"@en ] , [ a legal:Clause ; legal:name "AWS Services" ; legal:text "http://aws.amazon.com/serviceterms"@en ] , [ a legal:Clause ; legal:name "AWS Acceptable Use Policy" ; legal:text "http://aws.amazon.com/aup"@en ] , [ a legal:Clause ; legal:name "AWS Trademark Guidelines" ; Outdated legal:text "http://aws.amazon.com/trademark-guidelines"@en ] , [ a legal:Clause ; legal:name "AWS Sites" ; legal:text "http://aws.amazon.com/terms"@en ] , [ a legal:Clause ; legal:name "Privacy Policy" ; legal:text "http://aws.amazon.com/privacy"@en ] , [ a legal:Clause ; legal:name "AWS Tax Help" ; legal:text "http://aws.amazon.com/tax-help"@en ] . 2012 Information Systems Management 60
  61. 61. Programming Java• Goto http://jena.apache.org/• Download Java Core (apache-jena-2.7.3)• Use Eclipse, for example.• Add Jena JARS• Write some code• Compile and run!• RDF Validator and Converter – http://www.rdfabout.com/demo/validator/2012 Information Systems Management 61
  62. 62. References• [CM2012] Cardoso, J. and Miller, J. A Internet-Based Self-Services: from Analysis and Design to Deployment. In The 2012 IEEE International Conference on Services Economics (SE 2012), IEEE Computer Society, Hawaii, USA, 2012.• [CPL+2012] Cardoso, J.; Pedrinaci, C.; Leidig, T.; Rupino, P. and Leenheer, P. D Open semantic service networks. In The International Symposium on Services Science (ISSS 2012), pages 1-15, Leipzig, Germany, 2012.• [CBM+2010] Cardoso, J.; Barros, A.; May, N. and Kylau, U. Towards a Unified Service Description Language for the Internet of Services: Requirements and First Developments. In IEEE International Conference on Services Computing, IEEE Computer Society Press, Florida, USA, 2010.2012 Information Systems Management 62
  63. 63. End2012 Information Systems Management 63

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