Dynamic Open Semantic Service Networks

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To address the emerging importance of services and the relevance of relationships, we have developed and introduced the concept of Open Semantic Service Network (OSSN). OSSN are networks which relate services with the assumption that firms make the information of their services openly available using suitable models. Services, relationships and networks are said to be open (similar to LOD), when their models are transparently available and accessible by external entities and follow an open world assumption. Networks are said to be semantic when they explicitly describe their capabilities and usage, typically using a conceptual or domain model, and ideally using Semantic Web standards and techniques. One limitation of OSSNs is that they were conceived without accounting for the dynamic behavior of service networks. In other words, they can only capture static snapshots of service-based economies but do not include any mechanism to model reactions and effects that services have on other services and the notion of time

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Dynamic Open Semantic Service Networks

  1. 1. Dynamic Open Semantic Service Networks Jorge Cardoso Dept. Engenharia Informatica/CISUC University of Coimbra Coimbra, Portugal jcardoso@dei.uc.pt // 28 August 2012 // Institute of Services Science (ISS) University of Geneve, Switzerland2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 1
  2. 2. Open Semantic Service Networks
  3. 3. The importance of networks World Wide Web Linked Open Data (LOD) Social networks …energy distribution grids, food web, water systems, wireless mobile networks...2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 3
  4. 4. A new type of networks Academic citations Patent citations Internet Word classes Software classes Preference Airline routes Railway routes Technological Information WWW P2P Roadways Networks Networks Telephone Delivery Metabolic pathways Electric power grids Protein interactions Electronic circuit Genetic regulatory Neural Social Biological Blood vessels Food web Networks Networks Friendship Sexual contact Intermarriages Business RelationshipsCommunication Records Service Collaboration Networks 2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 4
  5. 5. Networked economy Global service networksFrom processes to services2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 5
  6. 6. The mobile ecosystem is characterized by a large and complex network of companies interacting with each other, directly and indirectly, to provide a broad array of mobile products and services to end-customers. Structure and patterns not explicitly represented at the level of the services. They appear at the service network level_Thomson’s Financial SDC Platinum DB(alliances and joint ventures)_The Connexiti database(supplier, customer, and competitors) Firms and their relation in the converging mobile ecosystem.Rahul C. Basole, Visualization of Interfirm Relations in a Converging Mobile Ecosystem, 7th International 6Conference on Mobile Business, 2008.
  7. 7. SoaML OWL-S WSDLServices as _functions_Services as _business_ ITIL 2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 9 e3value
  8. 8. _Business services_Consulting IT Services Cloud services Manual Semi-automatic Fully Automated
  9. 9. Service networks Atomic Dyad service systems service networks 1 2 Self-organization, emergent patterns, dynamic, complex, etc., Ego service networks Service networks 3 42012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 11
  10. 10. SN characteristics• Distributed• Decentralized control• Autonomous• Heterogeneity• Large scale• Pervasiveness• Emergent patterns2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 12
  11. 11. SN and self-organization -- Strong self-organisation -- Service networks are self-organized from a process in which patterns at the global level of a system emerge from interactions among the lower-level services of the network. The models specifying interactions among the services’ networks are executed using only local information without reference to the global network structure (?).Adapted from Camazine et al (2001) Self-Organisationin Biological Systems. Princeton University Press, 2001. 2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 13
  12. 12. Examples of questions to ask• We assumes that – Do monopolies or services are all oligopolies exist in the energy sector in the US? interdependent – Service are provided and services consume – Is the financial service other services network stronger or weaker than it was 5 years ago?• SNA can ask and answer questions such – What service sector has as: the stronger competition in Georgia?2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 15
  13. 13. SN and Preferential Attachment Self-organizing system• Hypothesis – Highly connected services increase their connectivity faster than less connected ones – Preferential attachment phenomenon – Only local information• Other preferential attributes can be used – e.g. price, quality, or availability2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 18
  14. 14. OSSN and Preferential Attachment• Use USDL value proposition* as a preferential attachment. – usdl:valueproposition – Service value is judged from the perspective of consumers as they compare services among the alternatives.• Let us assume – price is the value proposition2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 19
  15. 15. OSSN and Preferential Attachment• Objective – Forecast the evolution of a service network – The market share of each service is: Our scenario: price is the value proposition (local rule)2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 20
  16. 16. OSSN and Preferential Attachment• The service market share is represented in the figure at t = 3.• What will happen to the market if the conditions are not changed*?• According to Bass model, the leading service will reaches a fixedpoint market share according to:*the value propositions of remain the same2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 21
  17. 17. OSSN and Preferential Attachment• The service market share is represented in the figure at t = 3.• What will happen to the market if the conditions are not changed*?• According to Bass model, the leading service will reaches a fixedpoint market share according to:*the value propositions of remain the same2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 22
  18. 18. SN and System Dynamics Self-organizing system• Explore the applicability of system dynamics – Using mathematical expressions to model the relationships of SN – Instead of looking at causes and their effects in isolation (e.g. PA)• The next figure – Service systems S , S , S ,i j k – Links illustrating internal and external relationships2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 23
  19. 19. SN and System Dynamics USDL Service system Si + USDL Si KPI = Sk KPI = + Si KPI = Net gains Resource Limit # services + + -OSSR + + OSSR - KPI Gain per Service Total Services Individual system Sk + ServiceOSSR • Positive Feedback (+) - Reinforcement and amplification + + • Negative Feedback (-) Counteracts perturbations and Sj KPI = + Sj KPI = Net gains stabilizes # services + OSSR Causal links connect KPIs USDL Service system Sj from different services’ and within services. a) (’Tragedy of the Commons’ archetype )
  20. 20. OSSN and System Dynamics• If the two services Si and Sj overuse the shared service Sk, – It will become depleted and all the providers will experience diminishing benefits• Services Si and Sj – To increase net gains, both providers increase the availability of service instances – As the number of instances increases, the margin decreases and there is the need to increase even more the number of instances available – As the number of instances increases, the stress on the availability of service Sk is so strong that the service collapses or cannot respond anymore as needed – At that point, service Si and Sj can no longer fully operate and the net gain is dramatically reduced for all the parties involved as shown in the following figure Si2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 25 Time
  21. 21. _Business services_ _Business services_ _Business services_ _Business services_ _Business services_ _Business services_ _Business services_ _Business services_ _Business services_ _Business services_ _Business services_ _Business services__Business services_ _Business services_ Service networks – How to make it happen? _Business services_ _Business services_ _Business services_ _Business services_ _Business services_ _Business services_ _Business services_ _Business services_ _Business services_ _Business services_ _Business services_ _Business services_ _Business services_
  22. 22. Open Semantic Service Networks• Accessing, retrieving and combining information from service and relationship models.• Openly and transparently available and accessible• Explicitly describe their capabilities using a domain model, and optionally using semantic Web standards2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 27
  23. 23. /Building blocks/ _1. Modeling services _2. Services relationships _3. Populating models _4. Service networks _5. Analysis and reasoning
  24. 24. Seeing services as products? _Paradigm shift _Models, _Laws and _Specs1. Business perspective adopts a service-dominant logic2. ICT perspective adopts service-oriented modeling toenable automate2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 29
  25. 25. Modeling services • Common vocabulary • Structure for vocabulary • Multidisciplinary • Complex • People, information and technology • Service system • Internal and external • USDL – Unified Service Description Language2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 30
  26. 26. *-USDL family• a-USDL/2009 – Initial version of USDL ready in 2009. – Later renamed to a-USDL (pronounced alpha-USDL). – http://www.genssiz.org/research/service-modeling/alpha-usdl/• USDL/2011 – A W3C Incubator group was created USDL was adapted and extended based on industry feedback at the end of 2011. – http://www.w3.org/2005/Incubator/usdl/• Linked-USDL/-- – In order to make the specification gain a wider acceptance, a version called Linked-USDL emerged using Semantic Web principles Iits development is still in progress. – http://linked-usdl.org/2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 31
  27. 27. http://www.genssiz.org2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 32 http://www.genssiz.org/research/service-modeling/alpha-usdl/
  28. 28. http://www.linked-usdl.org/ www.internet-of-services.com2012 Unified Service Description Language 33
  29. 29. 2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 34
  30. 30. 2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 35
  31. 31. Example http://aws.amazon.com/ec2/2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 36
  32. 32. :pricing_EC2_Small_EU_Windows_ReservedInstance_Light_1yr a price:PricePlan ; dcterms:description "Price plan for a Small EC2 Reserved Instance in Europe with Windows, light utilization and a one yearcontract duration."@en ; price:hasContractDuration @prefix price: <http://www.linked-usdl.org/ns/usdl-pricing#> [ a gr:QuantitativeValue ; gr:hasValueInteger "1" ; gr:hasUnitOfMeasurement "ANN" ] ; price:hasBillingCycle [ a gr:QuantitativeValue ; gr:hasValueInteger "1" ; gr:hasUnitOfMeasurement "MON" ] ; price:hasPriceComponent :priceComponent_Small_EU_Windows_ReservedInstance_Light_1yr_General_Upfront , :priceComponent_Small_EU_Windows_ReservedInstance_Light_1yr_General_Hourly ,:priceComponent_Small_EU_Windows_ReservedInstance_Light_1yr_General_Upfront a price:PriceComponent ; dcterms:title "General costs upfront"@en ; dcterms:description "One-time fee for general usage of the instance."@en ; price:isLinkedTo… price:hasPrice [ a gr:UnitPriceSpecification ; gr:hasCurrency "USD" ; gr:hasCurrencyValue "69" ; gr:hasUnitOfMeasurement "C62" ] .:priceComponent_Small_EU_Windows_ReservedInstance_Light_1yr_General_Hourly a price:PriceComponent ; dcterms:description "Hourly fee for general usage of the instance."@en ; price:isLinkedTo :resource_EC2_DataCentre_EU , :resource_EC2_Windows ; price:hasPrice [ a gr:UnitPriceSpecification ; gr:hasCurrency "USD" ; gr:hasCurrencyValue "0.069" ; gr:hasUnitOfMeasurement "HUR" ] .
  33. 33. Core 2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 38
  34. 34. Core 2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 39
  35. 35. <#service_EC2_Small> a usdl:Service ; dcterms:created "2012-05-18"^^xsd:date ; dcterms:modified "2012-05-22"^^xsd:date ; dcterms:title "EC2 instance small"@en ; usdl:hasNature usdl:Automated ; usdl:hasProvider :provider_Amazon ; usdl:hasLegalCondition :legal_Amazon ; usdl:hasPartMandatory <#service_Support_Basic> ; usdl:hasPartOptional <#service_Support_Bronze> , <#service_Support_Silver> , <#service_Support_Gold> , <#service_Support_Premium> ; gr:quantitativeProductOrServiceProperty :resource_EC2_Small_MainMemory , :resource_EC2_Small_ComputeUnit , :resource_EC2_Small_Storage ; gr:qualitativeProductOrServiceProperty :resource_EC2_Small_IO , :resource_EC2_PrivateIP , :resource_EC2_PublicIP .:resource_EC2_Small_MainMemory a cloud:MainMemory ; gr:hasUnitOfMeasurement "4L" ; gr:hasValue "1700" .:resource_EC2_Small_ComputeUnit a cloud:CPU ; gr:hasUnitOfMeasurement "A86" ; gr:hasMinValue "1.0" ; gr:hasMaxValue "1.2" ; gr:valueReference [ a cloud:NumberOfCores ; gr:hasValue "1" ] .2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 40
  36. 36. SLA 2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 41
  37. 37. SLA 2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 42
  38. 38. :slp_Support_Silver a usdl:ServiceLevelProfile ; dcterms:title "Bronze support service level profile" ; sla:hasServiceLevel :slo_Support_Silver_ResponseTime .:slo_Support_Silver_ResponseTime a sla:GuaranteedState ; dcterms:title "Response time" ; sla:serviceLevelExpression [ a sla:ServiceLevelExpression ; dcterms:description "Maximum period in which responseis sent."@en ; sla:hasVariable :var_Support_Silver_ResponseTime ] .:var_Support_Silver_ResponseTime a sla:Variable ; rdfs:label "Fastest guaranteed response" ; sla:hasDefault [ a support:ResponseTime ; gr:hasValue "4" ; gr:hasUnitOfMeasurement "HUR" ] .2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 43
  39. 39. Legal @prefix legal: <http://www.linked-usdl.org/ns/usdl-legal#> :legal_Amazon a legal:TermsAndConditions ; dcterms:title "Amazon Web Services LLCs legal statements"@en ; dcterms:description "Amazon Web Services LLCs legal statements are accessible at http://aws.amazon.com/legal/. Please consult this website for further information"@en ; legal:hasClause [ a legal:Clause ; legal:name "AWS Customer Agreement" ; legal:text "http://aws.amazon.com/agreement"@en ] , [ a legal:Clause ; legal:name "AWS Services" ; legal:text "http://aws.amazon.com/serviceterms"@en ] , [ a legal:Clause ; legal:name "AWS Acceptable Use Policy" ; legal:text "http://aws.amazon.com/aup"@en ] , [ a legal:Clause ; legal:name "AWS Trademark Guidelines" ; legal:text "http://aws.amazon.com/trademark-guidelines"@en ] , [ a legal:Clause ; legal:name "AWS Sites" ; legal:text "http://aws.amazon.com/terms"@en ] , [ a legal:Clause ; legal:name "Privacy Policy" ; legal:text "http://aws.amazon.com/privacy"@en ] , [ a legal:Clause ; legal:name "AWS Tax Help" ; legal:text "http://aws.amazon.com/tax-help"@en ] . 2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 44
  40. 40. Standardization• W3C Standards – HTML, Ajax, HTTP, XML, WSDL, … – + USDL (?) – http://www.w3.org/• OASIS Standards – TOSCA, USSI, WS-*, ebXML, … – + USDL (?) – http://www.oasis-open.org/• OMG Standards – BPMN, UML, CORBA, XMI , … – + USDL (?) – http://www.omg.org/2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 45
  41. 41. Expressing rich service relationships • Model connections between services • Requirements – rich, – include business information, – computer-understandable, – allow automatic extraction and construction of service networks.2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 46
  42. 42. The relationship problem…• Relations provided by RDFS, FOAF, SIOC, … – rdfs:subClassOf, owl:EquivalentClass, owl:sameAs, foaf:knows, rdfs:seeAlso, …• Are limited and not suitable to connect all the world’s services.• One approach – Connect services via multiple types of connection layers – Capture the richness and characteristics of services• This goes well beyond the connection of services treated simply as unidimensional nodes2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 47
  43. 43. US USDL DL Limitations of existing approaches <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Amsterdam> owl:sameAs <http://rdf.freebase.com/ns/...> ; owl:sameAs <http://sws.geonames.org/2759793> ; ... (?) <http://sws.geonames.org/2759793> owl:sameAs <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Amsterdam> wgs84_pos:lat "52.3666667" ; wgs84_pos:long "4.8833333"; geo:inCountry <http://www.geonames.org/countries/#NL> ; ... 48
  44. 44. OSSR model2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 49
  45. 45. The smallest network: a dyad OSSR OSSR USDL USDL2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 50
  46. 46. Populating models • How to bootstrap service networks? – Web scraping, crawling, Web mining, and crowdsourcing – Snowballing process (identify only providers -- recursively)t – Advertisements in service marketplaces (e.g. SDB*) – Databases (Thomson’s Financial SDC Platinum and Connexiti) – Native descriptions (e.g. USDL) *http://sdbmarketplace.cloudapp.net/ http://sdb.sapo.pt/en/index.html 2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 51
  47. 47. OSSN bootstrap&evolution• Where will the tipping point be*? time ? *the moment of critical mass, the threshold, the boiling point2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 52
  48. 48. Constructing service networks • Facts – Globally distributed models • Task – Accessed, retrieved, store and integrated models • Requirements – Parallel approaches and scalable storage systems are indispensable.2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 53
  49. 49. OSSN construction• Top-down/bottom- 3 up?• Similar to LOD, SN, and WWW 2 – Leaves decisions in the hands of market player – Consumers indicate 1 providers – Increase visibility Bottom-up2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 54
  50. 50. Applications and tools• Crawlers with load-balancing capabilities – e.g. LDSpider• Efficient RDF repository – e.g. Virtuoso and Sesame• Parallel algorithms2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 55
  51. 51. Service network reasoning/analysis • Analytical, mining and reasoning algorithms – Provide insights on how worldwide economies operate – Forecast and control – Understand mechanisms leading to • Decentralized control • Self-organization • Emergent behavior • Adaptation and robustness2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 56
  52. 52. Thank you for listening• Accessing retrieving and constructing OSSN/to/• Analyze, manage, and control service- based economies• Questions?2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 57
  53. 53. End2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 58

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