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Ten years of service research from
a computer science perspective

Jorge Cardoso
CISUC/Dept. Informatics Engineering, Univ...
Abstract
…It has been more than 10 years since a strong research stream on services started from
the field of computer sci...
Semantic Web Services

11/1/2013

Semantic Web Services
Service Descriptions
Quality of Service
Process Complexity
Interne...
A simple problem to solve

Request message
010101110100101

Response message
0101001011101001

Client

11/1/2013

Internet...
Almost 15 years to “Solve”
•
•
•
•
•
•

Web services (WSDL/SOAP)
Java Remote Method Invocation (Java RMI)
Distributed Comp...
The Problem (2000)
The web

Intraorganizational

Response message
0101001011101001
11/1/2013

Request message
010101110100...
The Search & Matching Problem

?
?

?

11/1/2013

Ten years of service research from a computer science perspective

7
Previous Approaches
• Keyword-based
• Information Retrieval
Techniques

11/1/2013

Ten years of service research from a co...
The Idea (2002)
Ontology with background
knowledge

?
?
?
Cardoso, J. and Sheth, A. Semantic e-Workflow Composition. In Jo...
Example of an ontology

11/1/2013

Ten years of service research from a computer science perspective

10
Semantic Descriptions
• Web Service Technology

Ontology

– Automated
discovery, selection, compositio
n,
– Web-based exec...
Semantic Matching = Ontology
Similarity ?
Concepts from the same Ontology
a) Concepts are the same (O=I)
b) Concept I subs...
Semantic Matching <> Ontology
1,
SemS ' (O, I )

O

I

1,
O
| p (O ) |
,
O
| p( I ) |
Similarity' (O, I ), O

I

I subsume...
Other aspects to match
Similarity ?

• Quality of Service
A1

CalendarDate

Event

…

…

A2

…
Web Service

Web Service

1...
Another matching problem…

10000 *

11/1/2013

Ten years of service research from a computer science perspective

15
The (same) Idea
Ontology with background
knowledge

?
?
?
Cardoso, J. and Sheth, A. Semantic e-Workflow Composition. In Jo...
Semantic Process Composition
0.76
0.14
0.98

ADV2

ADV1

0.31 0.68

ADV3

Match Function

0.43

Conference Registry
Servic...
Semantic Web Services
•

•
•
•

Cardoso, J. The Semantic Web Vision: Where Are We?. In IEEE Intelligent Systems, Vol. 22 (...
Semantic Web Services

11/1/2013

Semantic Web Services
Service Descriptions
Quality of Service
Process Complexity
Interne...
Remember our problem…
Service Description

We were looking for
apples
Web Services

(…a procedure or function…)

11/1/2013...
What about more complex services?
From
apples
to more
complex
fruits

11/1/2013

Ten years of service research from a comp...
In other words
WEB-BASED SERVICES
HUMAN-COMPUTER INTERACTION
USER INTERFACE
CUSTOMER EXPERIENCE

TYPE II

CLOUD SERVICES
C...
The Idea (2008)
Made for c omputers (S O A)
Addres s
P ort
Arguments
D ata type
…

T ec hnic al

WS DL

Made for people (I...
Services Description (2009-13)

C

P

C

P

P

P

C

P
C

P

C

P

P

C

C

C

P

P

P

P

C

P
C

P

P

* advertise and d...
USDL:INTERACTIONPOINT C
•

Blueprint
–

•

line of interaction

E.g. face-to-face actions between
employees and customers
...
Resources

http://www.linked-usdl.org/

11/1/2013

https://github.com/linked-usdl/

Ten years of service research from a c...
History
•

a-USDL/2009

– Initial version of USDL [CBM+2010] ready in 2009.
– Later renamed to a-USDL (pronounced alpha-US...
Applications
Consider cost, compatibility, space, speed, etc.

API

Cloud Services

Decision Maker
11/1/2013

Ten years of...
Service Descriptions
•

•

•

•

•

Cardoso, J.; Binz, T.; Breitenbucher, Uwe; Kopp, O. and Leymann, F. Cloud Computing Au...
Semantic Web Services

11/1/2013

Semantic Web Services
Service Descriptions
Quality of Service
Process Complexity
Interne...
Does this slide look familiar !?
-- 17 --

The Problem
How to evaluate the Quality of Service?
0.76
0.14

ADV2

ADV1

0.31...
The Problem
How to evaluate the Quality of Service?
Send Report

t6
xor

xor

t1
Prepare
Sample

t2
Prepare
Clones

xor

t...
The Idea (2002)
p4

QoS

Send Report

t6
p1

p3

xor

xor

t1
Prepare
Sample

t2
Prepare
Clones

xor

p2

t3
Sequencing

x...
Research Questions
• Specification
– What dimensions need to be part of the QoS model for processes?

• Computation
– What...
QoS Estimation
a)

QoSDim(t)

Designer AverageDim(t)

b)

QoSDim(t)

wi1* Designer AverageDim(t) + wi2* Multi-Workflow
Ave...
QoS Reduction Rules
Sequential
Parallel
Conditional
Loop
Fault-tolerant
Network
t2

(a)

tn

+

pon

tb

ta

p1n

t1n

pb
...
Stochastic Workflow Reduction
(SWR) algorithm
Apply a set of reduction rules to a process until
only one atomic* task exis...
e.g. DNA Sequencing

11/1/2013

Ten years of service research from a computer science perspective

38
Semantic Web Services

11/1/2013

Semantic Web Services
Service Descriptions
Quality of Service
Process Complexity
Interne...
How Complex is a Process?
Product
Catalogue
Authoring at
Supplier

Data
Migration
System

Catalogue Authoring

External
Pr...
The Idea (2005)
Software Complexity

Process Complexity

Node Statement
(1)
(2)
(3)

while(x<100){
1
if (a[x] % 2 == 0) {
...
Views on Process Complexity

11/1/2013

Ten years of service research from a computer science perspective

43
Control-flow Complexity
Fan-out of the split

CFC ( P )
CFC XOR
i { XOR splits of P}

split

(i )

2n-1,where n is the
fan...
Understandability
Which one is more difficult to understand?

Start

Start
AND

A

XOR
XOR

XOR
OR

XOR

XOR

AND

XOR
A

...
The Idea (2006)

“… the average connector degree is the
most convincing factor that relates to
model understandability, fo...
Semantic Web Services

11/1/2013

Semantic Web Services
Service Descriptions
Quality of Service
Process Complexity
Interne...
The Problem
Service Engineering

11/1/2013

Ten years of service research from a computer science perspective

48
The Idea (2008)
Mental model

A Service

Model

Cardoso, J. The Internet of Services. In Proceedings of the 4th Internatio...
The Idea (2008)
Definition

Requirements

Implementation Preparation Market Market Lunch

Design

Method =Technique and
Pr...
ISE Workbench
Executive

Manager

Business Analyst

Process Architect
Cardoso, J.; Winkler, M.; Voigt, K. and Berthold, H....
Semantic Web Services

11/1/2013

Semantic Web Services
Service Descriptions
Quality of Service
Process Complexity
Interne...
…energy grids, water systems, wireless mobile networks...

The importance of networks

World Wide Web

Linked Data

Financ...
Service descriptions
•

Customers
• Avis Scandinavia

•

Supliers
• Oracle 11g or IBM DB2 database support
services.

•

C...
The relationship problem
•

Given two services
– Does a relationship exists between
them?
– What is the support for the
re...
The relationship problem

11/1/2013

Ten years of service research from a computer science perspective

56
The centrality problem
•

Given a node and its neighbors
–

•

(Traditional) degree centrality
– A= 6

•

B

Popularity, p...
Structural hole (Burt)
• Hypothesis
– People near holes in a social structure
are at higher risk of having
innovative idea...
The Idea (2012)
Service System & Relationships

The first steps …

Open Semantic Service
Relationship (OSSR)
•
•
•
•

Serv...
Thank You
for Listening
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Ten years of service research from a computer science perspective

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…It has been more than 10 years since a strong research stream on services started from the field of computer science. The main trigger was without a doubt the introduction of the Web Service Description Language (WSDL), a specification to represent a piece of software functionally which could be remotely invoked. Nonetheless, this was only the “tipping point”. The generalized interest on this new development was followed by interesting topics of research on the application of semantics to enhance the description of services, the composition of services into processes, the analysis of the quality of services, the complexity of processes supporting services, and the development of comprehensive service description languages. This seminar will provide an overview of the main research topics around services and will glimpse at a new research field on the analysis of service networks...

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Ten years of service research from a computer science perspective

  1. 1. Ten years of service research from a computer science perspective Jorge Cardoso CISUC/Dept. Informatics Engineering, University of Coimbra, Portugal Karlsruhe Service Research Institute, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany jorge.cardoso@kit.edu; jcardoso@dei.uc.pt Departamento de Engenharia Informática FCTUC FACULDADE DE CIÊNCIAS E TECNOLOGIA da UNIVERSIDADE DE COIMBRA
  2. 2. Abstract …It has been more than 10 years since a strong research stream on services started from the field of computer science. The main trigger was without a doubt the introduction of the Web Service Description Language (WSDL), a specification to represent a piece of software functionally which could be remotely invoked. Nonetheless, this was only the “tipping point”. The generalized interest on this new development was followed by interesting topics of research on the application of semantics to enhance the description of services, the composition of services into processes, the analysis of the quality of services, the complexity of processes supporting services, and the development of comprehensive service description languages. This seminar will provide an overview of the main research topics around services and will glimpse at a new research field on the analysis of service networks... Karlsruhe, 15 Jun 2013 Jorge Cardoso 11/1/2013 Ten years of service research from a computer science perspective 2
  3. 3. Semantic Web Services 11/1/2013 Semantic Web Services Service Descriptions Quality of Service Process Complexity Internet of Services Service Networks Ten years of service research from a computer science perspective 3
  4. 4. A simple problem to solve Request message 010101110100101 Response message 0101001011101001 Client 11/1/2013 Internet Ten years of service research from a computer science perspective Server 4
  5. 5. Almost 15 years to “Solve” • • • • • • Web services (WSDL/SOAP) Java Remote Method Invocation (Java RMI) Distributed Component Object Model (DCOM) Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) Remote Procedure Calls (RPC) Socket Programming (SP) SUN RPC (1985) 24.04.2013 CORBA (1992) DCOM (1996) JAVA RMI (1996) Service Oriented Computing II – SS 2013 Berkeley SP (1983) WSDL/SOAP (2000)
  6. 6. The Problem (2000) The web Intraorganizational Response message 0101001011101001 11/1/2013 Request message 010101110100101 Ten years of service research from a computer science perspective 6
  7. 7. The Search & Matching Problem ? ? ? 11/1/2013 Ten years of service research from a computer science perspective 7
  8. 8. Previous Approaches • Keyword-based • Information Retrieval Techniques 11/1/2013 Ten years of service research from a computer science perspective 8
  9. 9. The Idea (2002) Ontology with background knowledge ? ? ? Cardoso, J. and Sheth, A. Semantic e-Workflow Composition. In Journal of Intelligent Information Systems (JIIS), Vol. 21 (3): 191-225, 2003. 11/1/2013 Semantic Matching Ten years of service research from a computer science perspective 9
  10. 10. Example of an ontology 11/1/2013 Ten years of service research from a computer science perspective 10
  11. 11. Semantic Descriptions • Web Service Technology Ontology – Automated discovery, selection, compositio n, – Web-based execution of services • Semantic Web Technology – Allow machine supported data interpretation – Ontologies as data model • Semantic Web Services – as integrated solution for realizing the vision of the next generation of the Web 11/1/2013 WSDL Ten years of service research from a computer science perspective 11
  12. 12. Semantic Matching = Ontology Similarity ? Concepts from the same Ontology a) Concepts are the same (O=I) b) Concept I subsumes concept O (O>I) c) Concept O subsumes concept I (O<I), or d) Concept O is not directly related to concept I (O I). CalendarDate … A1 Event … … Web Service Web Service ST1,2 (output) SO1,2,3,4 (input) Time ontology b) Time ontology Temporal-Entity Time Interval Time Domain Temporal-Entity Time-Point {absolute_time} a) Time Interval 2 Time Domain Time-Point 1 {year, month, day} Car subsumes 2-Wheel drive Date {absolute_time} 1 Time {hour, minute, second} {year, month, day} Event Calendar-Date {dayOftheWeek, monthOftheYear} c) Scientific-Event Time Date 3 2 Calendar-Date A2 {hour, minute, second} 4 Event {dayOftheWeek, monthOftheYear} {millisecond} Scientific-Event {millisecond} d) 11/1/2013 Ten years of service research from a computer science perspective 12
  13. 13. Semantic Matching <> Ontology 1, SemS ' (O, I ) O I 1, O | p (O ) | , O | p( I ) | Similarity' (O, I ), O I I subsumes O I O subsumes I I O has no subsumes relation with I (Remember) Car subsumes 2-Wheel drive similarity' (O, I ) | p(O) | p(O) p( I ) | | p(O) p( I ) | * p( I ) | | p( I ) | p(X) = properties of X Based on Tversksy (1977) feature model Cardoso, J. Discovering Semantic Web services with and without a Common Ontology Commitment. In The 3rd International Workshop on Semantic and Dynamic Web Processes (SDWP 2006), 11/1/2013 Ten years of service research from a computer science perspective 13
  14. 14. Other aspects to match Similarity ? • Quality of Service A1 CalendarDate Event … … A2 … Web Service Web Service 1 SynNS ( R.sn, ADV.sn) 2 1 SynSimilarty( R, ADV ) 2 OpSimilarity(R, ADV ) 3 SynDS( R.sd , ADV.sd ) and 1 , 2 [0..1], [0..1] QoSdimD( R, ADV , time) * QoSdimD( R, ADV , cost ) * QoSdimD( R, ADV , reliability) OpSimilarity(R, ADV ) 3 QoSdimD( R, ADV , time) * QoSdimD( R, ADV , cost ) * QoSdimD( R, ADV , reliability) QoSdimD(R, ADV , dim) Cardoso, J.; Miller, J. A.; Sheth, A.; Arnold, J. and Kochut, K. Quality of service for workflows and web service processes. In Journal of Web Semantics, Vol. 1 (3): 281-308, 2004. 11/1/2013 3 dcdmin ( R, ADV , dim) * dcdavg ( R, ADV , dim) * dcdmax( R, ADV , dim) dcd m in ( R, ADV , dim) 1 | min( ADV .qos(dim)) min( R.qos(dim)) | min( R.qos(dim)) Ten years of service research from a computer science perspective 14
  15. 15. Another matching problem… 10000 * 11/1/2013 Ten years of service research from a computer science perspective 15
  16. 16. The (same) Idea Ontology with background knowledge ? ? ? Cardoso, J. and Sheth, A. Semantic e-Workflow Composition. In Journal of Intelligent Information Systems (JIIS), Vol. 21 (3): 191-225, 2003. 11/1/2013 Semantic Matching Ten years of service research from a computer science perspective 16
  17. 17. Semantic Process Composition 0.76 0.14 0.98 ADV2 ADV1 0.31 0.68 ADV3 Match Function 0.43 Conference Registry Service Process 0.34 0.74 f(R, ADV1) 0.99 f(R, ADV2) ? f(R, ADV3) Hotel Reservation Service Date Date Duration Duration City City Conference Start Get Conference Information A Employee ID 11/1/2013 User Name User Name Address Address Itinerary Itinerary B ST R Travel Reservation End Hotel Reservation Get User Information Ten years of service research from a computer science perspective 17
  18. 18. Semantic Web Services • • • • Cardoso, J. The Semantic Web Vision: Where Are We?. In IEEE Intelligent Systems, Vol. 22 (5): 8488, 2007. Cardoso, J. The Semantic Web: A mythical story or a solid reality. In Metadata and Semantics, pages 253257, Springer, Heidelberg, 2008. Cardoso, J.; Miller, J. A. and Emani, S. Tutorial Lectures: Web Services Discovery Utilizing Semantically Annotated WSDL. In 4th International Summer Patterson, R.; Miller, J. A.; Cardoso, J. and Davis, M. Bringing Semantic Security to Semantic Web Services. In The Semantic Web: Real-World 11/1/2013 Ten years of service research from a computer science perspective 18
  19. 19. Semantic Web Services 11/1/2013 Semantic Web Services Service Descriptions Quality of Service Process Complexity Internet of Services Service Networks Ten years of service research from a computer science perspective 19
  20. 20. Remember our problem… Service Description We were looking for apples Web Services (…a procedure or function…) 11/1/2013 Service Endpoint Binding Interface Operation Types Ten years of service research from a computer science perspective 20
  21. 21. What about more complex services? From apples to more complex fruits 11/1/2013 Ten years of service research from a computer science perspective 21
  22. 22. In other words WEB-BASED SERVICES HUMAN-COMPUTER INTERACTION USER INTERFACE CUSTOMER EXPERIENCE TYPE II CLOUD SERVICES Complex interfaces Dependencies between calls Pricing, legal aspects, SLA SOAP, REST, etc. WEB SERVICES TYPE I COMPLEXITY TYPE III INTERNET/WEB-BASED SELF-SERVICE TECHNOLOGY (I/W-SST) 11/1/2013 Simple invocations Simple atomic, singular services Intra-organizations Machine-machine interaction Ten years of service research from a computer science perspective 22
  23. 23. The Idea (2008) Made for c omputers (S O A) Addres s P ort Arguments D ata type … T ec hnic al WS DL Made for people (IoS ) P rotocols P rovider Addres s C ons umer P orts B undling B T ec hnic al … Marketing us ines s US DL L egal … O perational O perations F unctionality R es ources … Cardoso, J. Service Engineering for Future Business Value Networks. In Tenth International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems (ICEIS 2008), pages 15-20, Barcelona, Spain, ISBN: 978-989-8111-37-1, 2008. 11/1/2013 Ten years of service research from a computer science perspective 23
  24. 24. Services Description (2009-13) C P C P P P C P C P C P P C C C P P P P C P C P P * advertise and discover P services * selection, composition and interoperation of services 11/1/2013 C C Cardoso, J.; Barros, A.; May, N. and Kylau, U. Towards a Unified Service Description Language for the Internet of Services: Requirements and First Developments. In IEEE International Conference on Services Computing, 2010. Ten years of service research from a computer science perspective 24
  25. 25. USDL:INTERACTIONPOINT C • Blueprint – • line of interaction E.g. face-to-face actions between employees and customers NAME: usdl:InteractionPoint DESCRIPTION: rdfs:comment """<p>An InteractionPoint represents an actual step in accessing and performing operations of the service. On a technical level this could translate into calling a Web Service operation. On a professional level, it could mean that consumer and provider meet in person to exchange service parameters or resources involved in the service delivery (e.g. documents that are processed by the provider). An InteractionPoint can be initiated by the consumer or the provider. Since InteractionPoints may take time and have an ordering with respect to other InteractionPoints, this is a subclass of TimeSpanningEntity. One can therefore express temporal relationships between InteractionPoints such as before or after. For richer expressions the time ontology constructs could be used.</p>"""@en . SUBCLASS: rdfs:subClassOf usdl:TimeSpanningEntity; 22.05.2013 Service Oriented Computing II – SS 2013
  26. 26. Resources http://www.linked-usdl.org/ 11/1/2013 https://github.com/linked-usdl/ Ten years of service research from a computer science perspective 26
  27. 27. History • a-USDL/2009 – Initial version of USDL [CBM+2010] ready in 2009. – Later renamed to a-USDL (pronounced alpha-USDL). – http://www.genssiz.org/research/service-modeling/alpha-usdl/ • USDL/2011 – A W3C Incubator group was created USDL was adapted and extended based on industry feedback at the end of 2011. – http://www.w3.org/2005/Incubator/usdl/ • Linked-USDL/2012--? – In order to make the specification gain a wider acceptance, a version called Linked USDL emerged using Semantic Web principles. Its development is still in progress. – http://linked-usdl.org/ Cardoso, J.; Winkler, M. and Voigt, K. A Service Description Language for the Internet of Services. In First International Symposium on Services Science (ISSS'09), Leipzig, Germany, ISBN: 978-3-8325-2169-1, 2009. 11/1/2013 Ten years of service research from a computer science perspective 27
  28. 28. Applications Consider cost, compatibility, space, speed, etc. API Cloud Services Decision Maker 11/1/2013 Ten years of service research from a computer science perspective 28
  29. 29. Service Descriptions • • • • • Cardoso, J.; Binz, T.; Breitenbucher, Uwe; Kopp, O. and Leymann, F. Cloud Computing Automation: Integrating USDL and TOSCA. In CAiSE, Springer, LNCS, Vol. , 2013. Cardoso, J. and Miller, J. A Internet-Based Self-Services: from Analysis and Design to Deployment. In The 2012 IEEE International Conference on Services Economics (SE 2012), IEEE Computer Society, Hawaii, USA, 2012. Cardoso, J.; Barros, A.; May, N. and Kylau, U. Towards a Unified Service Description Language for the Internet of Services: Requirements and First Developments. In IEEE International Conference on Services Computing, IEEE Computer Society Press, Florida, USA, 2010. Cardoso, J.; Voigt, K. and Winkler, M. Service Engineering for The Internet of Services. In Enterprise Information Systems, pages 15-27, Springer, ISBN: 978-3-642-00669-2 (Print) 978-3-642-00670-8 (Online), 2009. Cardoso, J.; Winkler, M. and Voigt, K. A Service Description Language for the Internet of Services. In First International Symposium on Services Science (ISSS'09), Leipzig, Germany, ISBN: 978-3-8325-21691, 2009. 11/1/2013 Ten years of service research from a computer science perspective 29
  30. 30. Semantic Web Services 11/1/2013 Semantic Web Services Service Descriptions Quality of Service Process Complexity Internet of Services Service Networks Ten years of service research from a computer science perspective 30
  31. 31. Does this slide look familiar !? -- 17 -- The Problem How to evaluate the Quality of Service? 0.76 0.14 ADV2 ADV1 0.31 0.68 0.98 0.43 Conference Registry Service 0.34 0.74 f(R, ADV1) Process ADV3 Match Function Hotel Reservation Service 0.99 f(R, ADV2) ? f(R, ADV3) Date Date Duration Duration City City Conference Start Get Conference Information A Employee ID 11/1/2013 User Name User Name Address Address Itinerary Itinerary B ST R Travel Reservation End Hotel Reservation Get User Information Ten years of service research from a computer science perspective 31
  32. 32. The Problem How to evaluate the Quality of Service? Send Report t6 xor xor t1 Prepare Sample t2 Prepare Clones xor t3 Sequencing xor t4 t5 Sequence Processing Create Report and and t8 Send Bill t7 How much does it costs? How much time does it take? How reliable it is? 11/1/2013 Ten years of service research from a computer science perspective Store Report 32
  33. 33. The Idea (2002) p4 QoS Send Report t6 p1 p3 xor xor t1 Prepare Sample t2 Prepare Clones xor p2 t3 Sequencing xor t4 Sequence Processing p5 t5 and and Create Report t8 Send Bill t7 Store Report QoS Time Cost Reliability Fidelity QoS QoS QoS QoS QoS QoS Cardoso, J.; Miller, J. A.; Sheth, A.; Arnold, J. and Kochut, K. Quality of service for workflows and web service processes. In Journal of Web Semantics, Vol. 1 (3): 281-308, 2004. 11/1/2013 Ten years of service research from a computer science perspective 33
  34. 34. Research Questions • Specification – What dimensions need to be part of the QoS model for processes? • Computation – What methods and algorithms can be used to compute, analyze, and predict QoS? • Monitoring – What kind of QoS monitoring tools need to be developed? • Control – What mechanisms need to be developed to control processes, in response to unsatisfactory QoS metrics? 11/1/2013 Ten years of service research from a computer science perspective 34
  35. 35. QoS Estimation a) QoSDim(t) Designer AverageDim(t) b) QoSDim(t) wi1* Designer AverageDim(t) + wi2* Multi-Workflow AverageDim(t) c) QoSDim(t, w) wi1* Designer AverageDim(t) + wi2* Multi-Workflow AverageDim(t) + wi3*Workflow AverageDim(t, w) d) QoSDim(t, w, i) wi1* Designer AverageDim(t) + wi2* Multi-Workflow AverageDim(t) + wi3* Workflow AverageDim(t, w) + wi4* Workflow AverageDim(t, w) Instance Workflow AverageDim(t,w, i) Designer AverageDim(t) Average specified by the designer in the basic class for dimension Dim Multi-Workflow AverageDim (t) Average of the dimension Dim for task t executed in the context of any workflow Average of the dimension Dim for task t executed in the context of any instance of workflow w QoS dimensions computed at runtime Instance AverageDim(t, w, i) Runtime, design time, between workflows, instances, etc. Min value Time Cost Reliability Fidelity.ai 0.291 0 0.63 Basic class Avg value 0.674 0 100% 0.81 Average of the dimension Dim for task t executed in the context of instance i of workflow w Designer, multi-workflow, workflow and instance average Max value 0.895 0 0.92 Distributional class Dist. Function Normal(0.674, 0.143) 0.0 1.0 Trapezoidal(0.7,1,1,4) Task QoS for an automatic task (SP FASTA task) 11/1/2013 Ten years of service research from a computer science perspective 35
  36. 36. QoS Reduction Rules Sequential Parallel Conditional Loop Fault-tolerant Network t2 (a) tn + pon tb ta p1n t1n pb pai * T(ti) 1 i .n (b) + pl1 pln T (t i ) 1 - pi C (t i ) 1 - pi tb R(tli) = T(t1n) = (a) tli (b) C(tli) = pnb pan po1 T(tli) = p1b p2b + + … + pa2 ti … ta + … t1 pa1 pi … • • • • • • (1 - pi ) * R (ti ) 1 - pi R (ti ) F(tli).ar = f(pi, F(ti)) pai * C(ti) C(t1n) = 1 i .n pai * R(ti) R(t1n) = 1 i .n F(t1n).ar = f(pa1, F(t1), pa2, F(t2), …, pan, F(tn)) 11/1/2013 Ten years of service research from a computer science perspective 36
  37. 37. Stochastic Workflow Reduction (SWR) algorithm Apply a set of reduction rules to a process until only one atomic* task exists Process w For each rule applied, the process structure changes After several iterations only one task will remain N1 Sub-process w1 A N2 B C D The final task contains the QoS of the process under analysis Sub- process w2 N3 E N4 F qos(x1,..,xn) Sub- process w3 G 11/1/2013 H I J k Ten years of service research from a computer science perspective L 37
  38. 38. e.g. DNA Sequencing 11/1/2013 Ten years of service research from a computer science perspective 38
  39. 39. Semantic Web Services 11/1/2013 Semantic Web Services Service Descriptions Quality of Service Process Complexity Internet of Services Service Networks Ten years of service research from a computer science perspective 40
  40. 40. How Complex is a Process? Product Catalogue Authoring at Supplier Data Migration System Catalogue Authoring External Production Model Processing Product Catalogue Authoring at Customer Product Catalogue Authoring updated on Jan 3rd 2007 (Jens Freund) -- interactions from dependent objects not included yet Product Data Management Business Planning Production Model Management Opportunity / Customer Quote Processing at Supplier Product Catalogue Publishing Service Request Processing at Provider Activity Management Supply Chain Control RFQ Processing Catalogue Publishing In-House Requirement Processing RFQ Processing Purchasing Contract Processing SAP Support Request Processing Campaign Management RFQ Processing at Customer Supply and Demand Matching Source of Supply Determination External Procurement Trigger and Response SAP Service Delivery Processing IT Change Management Service Request Processing at Requester System Administration Service Request Processing at Provider A Customer Quote Processing Customer Requirement Processing IT Service and Application Management Software Problem Reporting Service Request Processing Purchasing Internal Request Processing Opportunity Processing Demand Forecast Processing Sales Contract Processing at Supplier Requisitioning Service Delivery Processing at SAP Customer Relationship Management Lead Processing Groupware Demand Planning Engineering Change Processing Service Contract Processing System Administration at Provider A A Production Trigger and Response Project Management Purchase Request Processing Project Processing Logistics Execution Control Customer Complaint Processing Purchase Order Processing at Customer A Sales Order Processing at Supplier Customer Project Invoice Preparation Purchase Order Processing Sales Order Processing A Data Flow Verification Service Order Confirmation Processing at Customer Service Order Processing Production and Site Logistics Execution Production A A A Business Configuration A Goods and Service Confirmation at Supplier Customer Return Processing Goods and Service Acknowledgement A Outbound Delivery Processing at Supplier Inbound Delivery Processing Outbound Delivery Processing Inbound Delivery Processing at Customer Service Confirmation Processing Information Lifecycle Management A A Document Management Supplier Invoicing Customer Invoice Processing at Supplier Supplier Invoice Processing Organisational Management Supplier Invoice Processing at Customer Financial Accounting A Financial Accounting Master Data Management CN Employer Regulatory Compliance Tax Processing at Authority Due Item Management DE Employer Regulatory Compliance Human Capital Master Data Management Compensation Management FR Employer Regulatory Compliance GB Employer Regulatory Compliance Employee Payroll Administration Due Item Processing At Business Partner Expense and Reimbursement Management Expense and Reimbursement Management Due Item Processing Balance Of Foreign Payment Management Processing of Product Tax Declaration at Tax Authority A Processing of European Community Sales List Report at Tax Authority A Input and Output Management A Data Migration System Processing of Withholding Tax Declaration at Tax Authority Costing Cash Management Resource Data Management Migration Data Dispatching Payment Payroll Accounting Business Document Flow Processing Migration Adapter IT Employer Regulatory Compliance US Employer Regulatory Compliance Payroll Processing at Provider Customer Invoice Processing A Personnel Administration A Identity Management Customer Invoicing Inventory Processing Business Partner Data Management Human Capital Management Time and Labour Management Physical Inventory Processing A Data Migration System A Data Migration System Site Logistics Processing Material Inspection Processing Supplier Invoice Verification Exception Resolution at Processor Payment Processing at Business Partner Payment Processing Installed Base Data Management Site Logistics Model Management Location Data Management Inspection Master Data Management Logistics Area and Storage Management Logistic Unit Data Management A Further Cash Management Relevant Component Payment Master Data Management Payroll Processing Payment Order Processing at House Bank Bank statement creation at bank Bill Of Exchange Processing at House Bank LockBox File creation at provider Settlement Processing at Clearing House Price Master Data Management Financial Market Data Management Price Master Data Management at Customer External Bank Directory Management A Deployment Unit 11/1/2013 Enterprise Service Interaction (cross Deplyoment Unit) Direct Interaction (intra Deployment Unit) Process components not assigned to a deployment unit belong to foundation Process Component Ten years of service research from a computer science perspective Process Component at Business Partner Third Party Process Component 41
  41. 41. The Idea (2005) Software Complexity Process Complexity Node Statement (1) (2) (3) while(x<100){ 1 if (a[x] % 2 == 0) { parity = 0; } 2 else { 3 4 (4) parity = 1; (5) } 5 (6) switch(parity){ case 0: (7) println( “a[“ + i + “] is even”); 6 case 1: (8) println( “a[“ + i + “] is odd”); 9 7 8 default: (9) println( “Unexpected error”); 10 } (10) x++; 11 } (11) p = true; MCC=e - n + 2, where e and n are the number of edges and nodes in the graph Cardoso, J.; Mendling, J.; Neumann, G. and Reijers, H. A Discourse on Complexity of Process Models. Second International Workshop on Business Process Intelligence, 2006. 11/1/2013 Ten years of service research from a computer science perspective 42
  42. 42. Views on Process Complexity 11/1/2013 Ten years of service research from a computer science perspective 43
  43. 43. Control-flow Complexity Fan-out of the split CFC ( P ) CFC XOR i { XOR splits of P} split (i ) 2n-1,where n is the fan-out of the split CFCOR split ( j) j {OR splits of P} CFC AND split (k ) k { AND-splits of P} 1 Cardoso, J. Business Process Control-Flow Complexity: Metric, Evaluation, and Validation. In International Journal of Web Services Research, Vol. 5 (2): 49-76, 2008. 11/1/2013 Ten years of service research from a computer science perspective 44
  44. 44. Understandability Which one is more difficult to understand? Start Start AND A XOR XOR XOR OR XOR XOR AND XOR A B C I K L Q J M N XOR XOR B C I XOR R D U V M N XOR XOR D R S U V W XOR OR P O XOR AND T F Q W XOR OR E L XOR S XOR K J XOR G XOR OR H E F OR P O G T OR XOR XOR H AND OR XOR XOR End 11/1/2013 End Ten years of service research from a computer science perspective 45
  45. 45. The Idea (2006) “… the average connector degree is the most convincing factor that relates to model understandability, followed by a model’s density” The average connector degree refers to the number of input and output arcs of a routing element Mendling, J.; Reijers, H. and Cardoso, J. What Makes Process Models Understandable?. In The 5th International Conference on Business Process Management (BPM 2007), 2007. 11/1/2013 Ten years of service research from a computer science perspective 46
  46. 46. Semantic Web Services 11/1/2013 Semantic Web Services Service Descriptions Quality of Service Process Complexity Internet of Services Service Networks Ten years of service research from a computer science perspective 47
  47. 47. The Problem Service Engineering 11/1/2013 Ten years of service research from a computer science perspective 48
  48. 48. The Idea (2008) Mental model A Service Model Cardoso, J. The Internet of Services. In Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Software and Data Technologies , 2009 11/1/2013 A model is an abstraction A model only focus on certain aspects A model is created to describe a phenomena Ten years of service research from a computer science perspective 49
  49. 49. The Idea (2008) Definition Requirements Implementation Preparation Market Market Lunch Design Method =Technique and Process A Method produces models Service Workflow Data People Rules Scope Model {contextual} TXT, VISIO, PPT description of services TXT, VISIO, PPT description of the workflow TXT, VISIO, PPT description of data assets TXT, VISIO, PPT description of organizational units TXT, VISIO, PPT Goals and strategy Business Model {conceptual} Formal definition of functional/ non-functional requirements Formal definition of functional/ non-functional, BPMN Interrelations between semantic data assets Organizational chart Business plan (rules and constraints) Logical Model {system} A specific construct supporting a method (semantic) Interface, message, format, data, etc BPMN+ Semantic data model Interaction between people and service/processes Business rule model Technical Model {physical} SAWSDL, WSDL, SOAP, WS-Policy, XML Schema, XML, WSMO, etc WS-Policy, WS-CDL, WS-CI, BPEL OWL, RDFS, XML Schema, XML GUI between people and services/processes. Security model WS-policy RuleML, SWRL Runtime {operational} WP7/WP10 WP7/WP10 WP7/WP10 WP7/WP10 WP7/WP10 A sequence of actions leading to some result Underlying concepts (paradigm) E.g. service-oriented development 11/1/2013 Ten years of service research from a computer science perspective 50
  50. 50. ISE Workbench Executive Manager Business Analyst Process Architect Cardoso, J.; Winkler, M.; Voigt, K. and Berthold, H. IoS-Based Services, Platform Services, SLA and Models for the Internet of Services. In Software and Data Technologies, Springer. 2009. 11/1/2013 Ten years of service research from a computer science perspective 51
  51. 51. Semantic Web Services 11/1/2013 Semantic Web Services Service Descriptions Quality of Service Process Complexity Internet of Services Service Networks Ten years of service research from a computer science perspective 52
  52. 52. …energy grids, water systems, wireless mobile networks... The importance of networks World Wide Web Linked Data Financial/Political Networks Railway Network 11/1/2013 Ten years of service research from a computer science perspective Social Networks Food chain Networks 53
  53. 53. Service descriptions • Customers • Avis Scandinavia • Supliers • Oracle 11g or IBM DB2 database support services. • Competitors • SalesForce.com Sales Cloud, Microsoft OnDemand Dynamics CRM, and Oracle CRM OnDemand • Complementors • Sage ERP and Sugar ERP Business Suite are complementors of SugarCRM [CPL+12] Cardoso, J.; Pedrinaci, C.; Leidig, T.; Rupino, P. and Leenheer, P. D Open semantic service networks. In The International Symposium on Services Science (ISSS 2012), pages 1-15, Leipzig, Germany, 2012. 11/1/2013 Ten years of service research from a computer science perspective 54
  54. 54. The relationship problem • Given two services – Does a relationship exists between them? – What is the support for the relationship? – What is the type of the relationship [Car13]? – What is the direction of the relationship? – What is the strength of the relationship? [Car13] Cardoso, J. Modeling Service Relationships for Service Networks. In 4th International Conference on Exploring Service Science (IESS 1.3), pages 114-128, Springer, LNBIP, Porto, Portugal, 2013. 11/1/2013 Ten years of service research from a computer science perspective 55
  55. 55. The relationship problem 11/1/2013 Ten years of service research from a computer science perspective 56
  56. 56. The centrality problem • Given a node and its neighbors – • (Traditional) degree centrality – A= 6 • B Popularity, power, collaboration G How to calculate Service centrality?      + aG+aF - bB - bC + cE + dD C A F D E Customers Supliers Competitors Complementors Ten years of service research from a computer science perspective 57 Can it be proved? 01-11-2013
  57. 57. Structural hole (Burt) • Hypothesis – People near holes in a social structure are at higher risk of having innovative ideas • Level – Individual • What are the implications for services? • Leads to – Power, influence, money, advanceme nt, access, advantage Competitive advantage is a matter of access to structural holes in relation to market transactions [Bur09] – Discover new markets – Evaluate the innovative potential of organizations [Bur09] Burt, Ronald S, Structural Holes: The Social Structure of Competition, Harvard University Press. 2009. 11/1/2013 Ten years of service research from a computer science perspective 58
  58. 58. The Idea (2012) Service System & Relationships The first steps … Open Semantic Service Relationship (OSSR) • • • • Service description Relationship description Follows Linked Data principles Means for publishing and interlinking distributed services [CPL+13] Cardoso, J.; Pedrinaci, C. and Leenheer, P. D Open Semantic Service Networks: Modeling and Analysis. In 4th International Conference on Exploring Service Science (IESS 1.3), pages 141-154, Springer, LNBIP, Porto, Portugal, 2013. 01-11-2013 Ten years of service research from a computer science perspective 59
  59. 59. Thank You for Listening

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