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2023.24 Unit 4 - Spain in the 19th century (Presentation).pdf

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UNIT 4
SPAIN IN THE 19TH CENTURY
1.The reign of Fernando VII (1814-1833)
2.Latin American independence
3.The reign of Isabel II (1833-1868)
4.The Six Revolutionary Years (1868-1874)
5.The Bourbon Restoration
6.The economic modernisation of Spain
1814 → Fernando VII returned to Spain.
After the War of Independence.
Confrontation between liberals (bourgeoisie and
intellectuals) and absolutists (privileged estates).
1814-20 - Absolutist Sexennium
1820-23 - Liberal Triennium
1823-33 - The Ominous Decade
1. THE REIGN OF FERNANDO VII
He abolished the 1812 Constitution, reforms and laws of the Cortes de Cádiz
denied national sovereignty.
Support of the majority of the population.
Absolutist generals, soldiers and politicians.
Policies:
o Inability to lead the country.
o Unable to carry out political and economic reforms.
o Insurrection of the American colonies.
o Repression of liberals (exile).
1820 → Coup d’état directed by Rafael de Riego in Cabezas de San Juan (Sevilla)
→ Successful → New stage for the reign.
1. The Absolutist Sexennium (1814-20)
“[...] mi real ánimo es no
solamente no jurar ni acceder
a dicha Constitución, ni a
decreto alguno de las Cortes
[...] sino el de declarar aquella
Constitución y aquellos
decretos nulos y de ningún
valor ni efecto, ahora ni en
tiempo alguno, como si no
hubiesen pasado jamás tales
actos”
4th May, 1814
2. The Liberal Triennium (1820-23)
1820 → Pronunciamiento de Riego.
Liberal and popular uprisings accross the country.
Fernando VII accepted the Constitution of Cádiz
§ Contitutional monarchy.
§ Liberal regime.
§ Return of exiled liberals.
§ Call for parliamentary elections.
Difficulties:
v Differences between moderates and extremists
(exaltados)
v International opposition (absolutist restoration).
1823
Holy
Allegiance
Cien Mil Hijos
de San Luis
Absolutist
restoration

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2023.24 Unit 4 - Spain in the 19th century (Presentation).pdf

  • 1. UNIT 4 SPAIN IN THE 19TH CENTURY
  • 2. 1.The reign of Fernando VII (1814-1833) 2.Latin American independence 3.The reign of Isabel II (1833-1868) 4.The Six Revolutionary Years (1868-1874) 5.The Bourbon Restoration 6.The economic modernisation of Spain
  • 3. 1814 → Fernando VII returned to Spain. After the War of Independence. Confrontation between liberals (bourgeoisie and intellectuals) and absolutists (privileged estates). 1814-20 - Absolutist Sexennium 1820-23 - Liberal Triennium 1823-33 - The Ominous Decade 1. THE REIGN OF FERNANDO VII
  • 4. He abolished the 1812 Constitution, reforms and laws of the Cortes de Cádiz denied national sovereignty. Support of the majority of the population. Absolutist generals, soldiers and politicians. Policies: o Inability to lead the country. o Unable to carry out political and economic reforms. o Insurrection of the American colonies. o Repression of liberals (exile). 1820 → Coup d’état directed by Rafael de Riego in Cabezas de San Juan (Sevilla) → Successful → New stage for the reign. 1. The Absolutist Sexennium (1814-20) “[...] mi real ánimo es no solamente no jurar ni acceder a dicha Constitución, ni a decreto alguno de las Cortes [...] sino el de declarar aquella Constitución y aquellos decretos nulos y de ningún valor ni efecto, ahora ni en tiempo alguno, como si no hubiesen pasado jamás tales actos” 4th May, 1814
  • 5. 2. The Liberal Triennium (1820-23) 1820 → Pronunciamiento de Riego. Liberal and popular uprisings accross the country. Fernando VII accepted the Constitution of Cádiz § Contitutional monarchy. § Liberal regime. § Return of exiled liberals. § Call for parliamentary elections. Difficulties: v Differences between moderates and extremists (exaltados) v International opposition (absolutist restoration).
  • 6. 1823 Holy Allegiance Cien Mil Hijos de San Luis Absolutist restoration
  • 7. Back to absolutism → Harsh repression Economic problems → Bankrupcy. Loss of American colonies. No tax reform (no taxation of privileged classes). 3. The Ominous Decade (1823-33) Vivan las cadenas, Viva la opresión: Viva el Rey Fernando, Muera la Nacion El fusilamiento de Torrijos en 1831
  • 8. Dyanstic problems Pragmatic Sanction → Repealed the Salic Law (which excluded women from succession) His daughter Isabel (born 1830) could reign → Opposition of absolutists. Civil War when Fernando VII died in 1833 → FIRST CARLIST WAR. Absolutists (supporting Carlos María Isidro, Fernando’s brother) Vs Moderates and Liberals (supporting Isabel)
  • 9. • Spread of liberal ideas (freedom, equality, national sovereignty) from USA and France. • Increasing power and disillusion of local bourgeoisie. • Taxed, but no control over trade and political power. • Criollos (white people born in America with Spanish ancestry) discriminated in the colonial administration. • Situation in the Peninsula: War of Independence, restoration of absolutism, weakness of Fernando VII. • Foreign support. 2. LATIN AMERICAN INDEPENDENCE 1. Causes of the independences
  • 10. 2. Development of the independences Led by the criollos and liberal generals → José de San Martín and Simón Bolívar.
  • 11. o Spanish War of Independence: o First organised resistance in Argentina (San Martín) and Venezuela (Bolívar and Sucre). o 1811 → Paraguay declared its independence. o 1814 → Attempts to control by Fernando VII, but no effective control over Río de la Plata and Venezuela. o Post-war situation: independence of Argentina and Chile. o Liberal Triennium → Gran Colombia (Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador and Panama), Mexico and Central American countries. o Ominous Decade → Peru and Bolivia. Only Cuba and Puerto Rico remained Spanish. American countries: republican states, with critical problems → electing political systems, border issues, huge power of military leaders, the critical situation of native people and lower classes, etc.
  • 12. 3. THE REIGN OF ISABEL II (1833-1868) The First Carlist War (1833-39) Regency of María Cristina de Borbón (1833-1840) Regency of Espartero (1840-43) The Reign of Isabel II (1843-1868) Moderate Decade (1844-54) Progressive Biennium (1854-56) Moderate Biennium (1856-58) Liberal Union Government (1858-63) Final Crisis (1863-68)
  • 13. 1833 → María Cristina de Borbón assumed the recency (Isabel was underage). Support of moderate and liberals. Absolutists, traditionalists and conservative forces → They did not recognise Isabel’s legitimacy → Don Carlos María Isidro as legitimate. 1. The First Carlist War and the Regencies (1833-43) Españoles: ¡Cuán sensible ha sido a mi corazón la muerte de mi caro hermano! [...] No ambiciono el trono; estoy lejos de codiciar bienes caducos; pero la religión, la observancia y cumplimiento de la ley fundamental de sucesión, y la singular obligación de defender los derechos imprescriptibles de mis hijos y todos los amados consanguineos, me esfuerzan a sostener y defender la corona de España del violento despojo que de ella me ha causado una sanción tan ilegal como destructora de la ley que legítimamente y sin interrupción debe ser perpetuada. Desde el fatal instante en que murió mi caro hermano (que santa gloria haya), creí se habrían dictado en mi defensa las providencias oportunas para mi reconocimiento; y si hasta aquel momento habría sido traidor el que lo hubiese intentado, ahora lo será el que no jure mis banderas; a los cuales, especialmente a los generales, gobernadores y demás autoridades civiles y militares, haré los debidos cargos, cuando la misericordia de Dios me lleve al seno de mi amada Patria, y a la cabeza de los que me sean fieles. Encargo encarecidamente la unión, la paz y la perfecta caridad. [...] El orden es el primer efecto de la justicia; el premio al bueno y sus sacrificios, y el castigo al malo y sus inicuos secuaces es para Dios y para la ley, y de esta suerte cumplen lo que repetidas veces he ordenado. Manifiesto de Abrantes, 1º de Octubre de 1833. – Carlos María Isidro de Borbón.
  • 14. FIRST CARLIST WAR (1833-9) è Isabelinos/Cristinos Vs Carlistas ○ Carlism à support in rural areas, North-east of Spain (Aragón and Cataluña, for recovering Fueros after the Decretos de Nueva Planta), País Vasco and Navarra. “Dios, Patria, Rey y Fueros”. ○ Isabel II à supported by liberals, moderates and urban areas. Foreign help (GB, FR, POR). They controlled the institutions, the army and the main cities. 1839 à The ‘cristinos’ triumphed è Convention of Vergara (end of the civil war). Carlism persisted as anti-liberal force throughout the 19th century (and 20th century).
  • 16. REGENCY OF MARÍA CRISTINA DE BORBÓN (1833-40) • Liberal government. • PM: Mendizábal → economic and political reforms (desamortización). • 1837: Constitution. • Progressive policies, moderate liberalism. • National sovereignty, separation of Church-State, census suffrage, bicameral parliament, etc. • Conservative government. • 1840: forced to step down (political situation, corruption, etc.).
  • 17. REGENCY OF ESPARTERO (1840-43) Progressive liberal. Hero in the Carlist Wars. o Many political problems. o Authoritarian and militaristic. o Severe repression of uprisings. o 1843 à Moderate liberal coup led by Generals Serrano and Narváez.
  • 18. 1843 à Legal age of Isabel II à Her personal reign began. Because of the problems during Espartero’s regency. ISABEL II’S REIGN à Divided into several periods • Moderate Decade (1844-54) • Progressive Biennium (1854-56) • Liberal Union Government (1856-63) • Final Crisis (1863-68) 2. The reign of Isabel II (1843-68)
  • 19. Characteristics: Implementation of a constitutional and liberal regime based on a system of political parties. • Three main options: • Moderate party (General Narváez): moderate reforms, power to the monarchy. • Liberal Union (General O’Donnell and General Serrano): intermediate. • Progressive Party (General Espartero and General Prim): progressive reforms, limit of the royal authority. • Exclusion of new political groups: Democratic Party, Republican Party, absolutists, socialists and anarchists, etc. • Constant political instability (led to several constitutions). Importance of the espadones (army generals). • Social instability, economic crisis à Uprisings. • Constant interference of the Queen in the political life supporting the Moderate party (increasingly conservative). • Influence of the Church in the Queen.
  • 20. Achievements: • Consolidation of a liberal regime • Introduction of a capitalist economic system and beginning of the industrialisation. • Financial reforms (liberalisation of banking), new laws (Ley de Ferrocarriles, for example), associations, etc. • Implementation of a centralist system. • Modern reform of the administration. • Creation of the Guardia Civil (military police) • Desamortizaciones: expropiation of lands from the Church. • Concordat with the Papacy.
  • 21. THE END OF ISABEL’S II REIGN: 1863: the elections meant the victory of progressive liberals, democrats and republicans à But Narváez (moderate) in power, and almost dictatorial. 1866: Pact of Ostend: Democrat, Republican, Progressive and Liberal Union parties. Proposed to overthrow the Queen, summon Cortes by universal male suffrage and the implementation of a democratic political system in Spain. 1868: Revolución Gloriosa à Exile of Isabel II. 1º, destruir lo existente en las altas esferas del poder; 2º, nombramiento de una asamblea constituyente, bajo la dirección de un Gobierno provisorio, la cual decidiría la suerte del país, cuya soberanía era la ley que representase, siendo elegida por sufragio universal directo. (Pacto de Ostende, 1866)
  • 23. 4. THE SIX REVOLUTIONARY YEARS (1868-1874)
  • 24. Causes of the Revolution • Crisis of the monarchy, moderate government and political favouritism. • Economic crisis. • Political monopoly of moderate and progressive liberals. Beginning of the Gloriosa. Leaders: General Juan Prim, General Francisco Serrano and Admiral Topete. 1868 à Military uprising in Cádiz by Topete. Battle of Alcolea à Victory of the rebels. 30th September, 1868 à Queen Isabel II forced to exile. 1. The Glorious Revolution and the provisional government
  • 25. MANIFIESTO «¡VIVA ESPAÑA CON HONRA!» Españoles: La ciudad de Cádiz puesta en armas, con toda su provincia, con la Armada anclada en su puerto, y todo el departamento marítimo de la Carraca, declara solemnemente que niega su obediencia al gobierno de Madrid, segura de que es leal intérprete de todos los ciudadanos que en el dilatado ejercicio de la paciencia no hayan perdido el sentimiento de la dignidad, y resuelta a no deponer las armas hasta que la Nación recobre su soberanía, manifieste su voluntad y se cumpla. Hollada la ley fundamental, convertida siempre antes en celada que en defensa del ciudadano; corrompido el sufragio por la amenaza y el soborno, dependiente la seguridad individual, no del derecho propio, sino de la irresponsable voluntad de cualquiera de las autoridades; muerto el municipio; pasto la Administración y la Hacienda de la inmoralidad y del agio; tiranizada la enseñanza; muda la prensa y sólo interrumpido el universal silencio por las frecuentes noticias de las nuevas fortunas improvisadas, del nuevo negocio, de la nueva real orden encaminada a defraudar el Tesoro público; de títulos de Castilla vilmente prodigados; del alto precio, en fin, a que logran su venta la deshonra y el vicio. Tal es la España de hoy. (…) Acudid a las armas, no con el impulso del encono, siempre funesto; no con la furia de la ira, siempre débil, sino con la solemne y poderosa serenidad con que la justicia empuña su espada. ¡Viva España con honra! Cádiz 19 de Septiembre de 1868. Duque de la Torre. Juan Prim. Domingo Dulce. Francisco Serrano Bedoya. Ramón Nouvilas. Rafael Primo de Rivera. Antonio Caballero de Rodas. Juan Topete
  • 26. The provisional government (1868-70) Prim + Serrano à Provisional government and Constituent Courts è Constitution of 1869. • Progressive. • Parliamentary monarchy (needed to find a king) è Prim will be in charge. • Division of powers. • Universal male suffrage. • Extensive code of individual rights. • Separation Church-State.
  • 27. • Little support: Prim assassinated right before he arrived in Spain, opposition of Carlists (Third Carlist War, 1872), republicans, conservatives, etc. Internal divisions, and political economic and social problems. War in Cuba (1868-78) 2. The reign of Amadeo I (1871-73) Amadeo de Saboya è New king of Spain. Abdication in 1873.
  • 28. Resignation of Amadeo I à The Cortes voted for a Republic. "La Asamblea Nacional resume todos los poderes y declara como forma de gobierno de la Nación la República, dejando a las Cortes Constituyentes la organización de esta forma de gobierno...” 11th February, 1873 3. The First Spanish Republic (1873-4)
  • 29. Republican Federal Party in the government à Program of social reforms. Great instability à 4 presidents in 11 months (Figueras, Pi I Margall, Salmerón and Castelar). Divisions among Republicans. Cantonalism à Looking for a federal republic.
  • 30. January 1874 à Coup of General Pavía Serrano head of State àFew supporters à Paved the way to the Bourbon restoration.
  • 31. 5. THE BOURBON RESTORATION (1874-1898) December 1874 à General Martínez Campos proclaimed Alfonso of Bourbon king of Spain è ALFONSO XII. Cánovas del Castillo Prime Minister.
  • 32. New Monarchy è Political system created by Antonio Cánovas del Castillo Democratic, conservative and constitutional monarchy based on: 1. Constitution of 1876. • Conservative. • Shared sovereignty: cortes and the king. • Limited male suffrage. • Moderate code of freedoms and rights. 1. The Bourbon Restoration and the Canovist System
  • 33. 2. Turnismo: rotation of the Conservative and Liberal (former Progressive, led by Práxedes Mateo Sagasta) parties in power. o Liberal party: led by Sagasta. o Conservative party: led by Cánovas. o They both guaranteed the defense of the monarchy, the Constitution and the centralist state.
  • 35. 3. The electoral fraud (pucherazo): for guaranteeing the turnismo, maintaining other parties (republicans, nationalists, left-wing, etc.) out of power. Methods: o Caciques (powerful people in rural areas forcing peasants to vote their choice). o Lazarus vote: votes of deceased people were registered. o Cuneros vote: voters and representatives were registered in regions where they did not have any relation.
  • 38. These measures guaranteed the required stability, mostly after Alfonso XII’s death in 1885. Pact of El Pardo (1885) REGENCY OF MARÍA CRISTINA DE AUSTRIA (1885-1902)
  • 39. 2. Opposition and problems of the Restoration 1. Political opposition to turnismo: Carlists, Republicans, PSOE (1879), etc. 2. The labour movement: industrailisation led to the establishment of trade unions and left-wing associations: § Marxist socialism: Unión General de Trabajadores (UGT), 1888. § Anarchism: Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (CNT), 1910. 3. Regionalisms and nationalisms. 4. The loss of Cuba and Puerto Rico in 1898. 5. The Regenerationism: intellectual, educational and political movement led by Joaquín Costa which proposed a scientific study of the causes of the Spanish decline and also proposed solutions that could save Spain from the crisis. Different versions: Generation of ’98 (literary branch), Free Learning Institution of Giner de los Ríos (educational branch), etc.
  • 40. New centralised state + Romanticism è New nationalist movements as reaction in some regions 3. The Rise of Nationalist Movements Cataluña (Catalunya): Renaixença movement. Reviving Catalan language and culture. Autonomy è Demanded by Unió Catalanista and Lliga Regionalista.
  • 41. País Vasco (Euskadi): fueros revoked after the Third Carlist War (1876). Sabino Arana à Father of Basque nationalism. 1894 à Founder of the PNV (Nationalist Basque Party). Regularisation and codification of Basque language, and creation of symbols (Euzkadi, ikurriña, Basque anthem, etc.)
  • 42. Galicia (Galiza): Rexurdimento. Mainly cultural (reviving of Galician language). Castellanos de Castilla, tratade ben ós galegos; cando van, van como rosas; cando vén, vén como negros. Cando foi, iba sorrindo, cando ven, viña morrendo; a luciña dos meus ollos, o amantiño do meu peito […] Permita Deus, casteláns, casteláns que aborrezo, que antes os galegos morran que ir a pedirvos sustento. […] Van probes e tornan probes, van sans e tornan enfermos, que anque eles son como rosas, tratádelos como negros. ¡Casteláns de Castela, tendes corazón de aceiro, alma coma as penas dura, e sen entrañas o peito![…] Que Castela e Casteláns, todos nun montón, a eito, non valen o que unha herbiña destes nosos campos frescos.
  • 43. 1895 à Nationalist movement in Cuba è War of Cuban Independence. Support of USA à Declared the war to Spain in 1898. 1898 à End of Cuban War. 4. The Crisis of 1898 Spain è lost Cuba, Puerto Rico and the Philippines è Sense of frustration and pessimism in Spain è Regenerationist movement è Critique of the situation in Spain, looking for political, economic, social and cultural changes.
  • 44. 5. THE ECONOMIC MODERNISATION OF SPAIN 1. Agrarian transformations 19th century à Most of Spanish population (grew from 10 to 17 million) à Rural lifestyle. Agriculture à Main economic activity. Problems (ownership, exploitation, lack of development…) à Tried to be corrected. Main measures: 1. Abolition of the feudal regime: • More power to the administration (justice, control, sales…). • Privatized the properties (turned them into interchangeable goods). 2. Desamortizaciones: disentailment and sale of non-productive lands owned by the Church, the nobility and the City Councils. o Objectives: reduce the public debt, offer the peasantry an opportunity to own lands and increase the extension of cultivated land and therefore the agrarian goods. o Mendizabal (1836-1837) over clerical properties and Madoz (1855) over municipalities’ possessions. 3. Introduction of agrarian improvements and machinery: it allowed to increase the yield of key crops, such as cereal, vineyard and olive trees. Also, expansion of irrigated land (fruit trees and garden products) and an increase in the use of fertilizers.
  • 45. 2. Spanish Industrialisation Industrial Revolution in Spain à late start, and initially incomplete. Lagged economy behind the rest of Europe. Causes: • Raw materials: scarcity or difficult exploitation of some resources and raw materials. • Loss of the American colonies • Lack of capital • Lack of entrepreneurial spirit among the bourgeoisie • Political instability • Spanish relief, which complicated the creation of transportation networks. Three industrial sectors that guided the Spanish industrialization:
  • 46. Mining Coal (Asturias) Iron (País Vasco) Foreign companies (UK and France): mercury, copper or lead
  • 47. Iron and steel industry: Initially à Andalucía More important à País Vasco. Proximity to raw materials. Implementation of innovations Trade with northern Europe.
  • 48. Textile sector. Cataluña. Cotton. British innovations and machinery. Other sectors: construction, food industries, paper, chemical and electrical sector.
  • 49. Transport modernisation: promoted since the mid 19th century. Objective: creating a radial network, joining the country together. National and foreign investors (railroads, for example). Railroad: 1848 Barcelona-Mataró; 1851 Madrid-Aranjuez. Scarce development