Hungary in the Hapsburg Empire


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Hungary in the Hapsburg Empire

  1. 1. Hungary in the Hapsburg Empire
  2. 2.  Consequences of the expulsion of the Turks Disastrous economy needs to be reborn!! Hungary has a chance to recovery of confidenceafter many decades of economic stagnation and declineHOW? That is the questionTravellers’ experiences: The country is the land of contradictions:land with fertile soil but vast areas with fallow, marshlands(2.4 % cultivated in 1720), population thin, miserable
  3. 3. Hungary hardly exceeded 3.5 millionit had around 1500!Ways of growing of population: Migration: Inner movements peasants moved to the Great PlainsSettling supported by the Court (official way of migration) Immigration ( from Transylvania, Serbia, eg) form of the new settlement
  4. 4. Western Europe/  HungaryHapsburg Empire crop rotation agriculture  pasture-ground , two- was supported by the field system Court in some areas of the Western part: three-field s. more industrialised  remained traditional agricultural country  guilds manufactures  poor extensive trade infrasturcture, agrarian towards capitalisation trade (WE) 
  5. 5.  NOBILITY:  PEASANTS : serfdom, exemption of taxes (’nobles  obligations: oblige’)  socage (corve`e) still existed! ARISTOCRACY: loyal to the COURT  3-4days/week, inter-marriage integrate  rent for the land, privileges returned constitutional  state taxes (war tax) independence guaranteed LOWER NOBILITY: loyal to the aristocracy, loyal to the Hapsburgs
  6. 6. Charles III’s dilemma: no male heir !1722-23 the Diet accepted the succession ofthe female heir ,perpetual personal union ‚(until 1918) IN RETURN: the king agreed (1712-15) to takethe Coronation Oath, call the diet regularly,Hungarian nobilities’ right to vote for the wartax, recruits
  7. 7.  A woman on the throne in Mid-Europe? claimants to the throne (e.g.Prussian Frederick II) Wars, long wars for what? SILESIA Why was it important to obtain or to have it? the most industrialised, economically powerful area of all Hapsburg possession) The young Queen was alone Hungarian nobilities’ offer: ‚Vitam et sanguinem’ for the Queen at her personal appeal to the diet an act of prudence
  8. 8.  Hungarian nobility was eager to help the Queen What was offered by them? 4 million florins of subsidy, 35,000 recruits, the noble’s insurrection WHY ?no suitable pretender in H, Ottoman threat still there for Hungary Support meant defence long-term effect was more profitable Long war with moderate succeed : In the Peace Treaty in Dresden 1745: Frederick acknowledged the Queen’s husband as Holy Roman Emperor ….at last Then plus three years the war ended with the Treaty of Aachen 1748, the validity of PS Reinforced the status quo (before the war!) in the Treaty of Hubertusburg (1763)
  9. 9.  Hungary: in the focus of Vienna’s interest: vast territory, natural resources were badly needed These facts destined to Hungary for a central role of the Monarchy’s power On the throne
  10. 10. ADMINISTRATIVE SOCIAL, EDUCATIONAL  Huge amount of socage work (3-4Separation of administration and days/weekjurisdiction at highest levelCouncil of State 1761, the main  the income of the state dependedadvisory body on the serfsFrom 1765 the Queen ruled by decree  1767 Urbarial Decree/Urbarium:1754 Tariff Regulation (mercantilism):  Regulated and unified the serfs’ a) to protect Austrian and Bohemian dutiesindustries  1777 Ratio Educationis regulated b)extra source of income (nobles’ tax educationfree privilege) outerDouble borders innerResult:H the major supplier ofcheap food and raw material for the westernprovinces