MOTTO:
The difficult we do immediately,
The impossible takes a little longer

Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging ...
The value of ISS/microgravity research
Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office

STC

ISS-US taxpayers inv...
International Space Station Truss
Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office

STC

Challenged by the extreme...
Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office

STC

1. Connecting the dots: products in our daily lives emerged...
PRODUCT:
Metallic
Glass
hardware/Liquidmetal
Technologies & Materion (mass scale manufacturing)
Ames Research Center, Spac...
Microgravity research:
Viscous Liquid Foam-Bulk Metallic Glass
Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office

S...
PRODUCT: Optical fibers for telecommunications, optical
computers, etc
Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space O...
ISS: ZBLAN-fluoride glass fiber/Physical Optics
Corporation

Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office

STC...
PRODUCT: cosmetics, household items, packaging
Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office

P&G studies syste...
ISS: binary colloids and phase diagrams
Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office

STC

With gravity turned...
ISS: binary colloids and phase diagrams
Courtesy: NASA/Peter Lu et al., Harvard University

Ames Research Center, Space Po...
ISS: binary colloids and surface crystallization
Courtesy: NASA/Arjun Yodh and Jiang Zhang, Penn State

Ames Research Cent...
PRODUCT: ZEOLITE CRYSTALS
Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office

STC

Honda hydrogen
storage tanks
Lanf...
ISS: ZEOLITES CRYSTAL GROWTH
Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office
STC
Zeolites are microporous, alumin...
PRODUCT: SE-FIT SOFTWARE; Advanced Wicking
Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office

STC

• Software desig...
ISS: Capillarity and bubble migration in mg
Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office
STC
Single and multi-...
ISS: Advanced Environmental Monitoring and Control
Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office

STC

The JPL ...
PRODUCT: Photodynamic therapy
Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office

STC

SpectraLife-custom fabricated...
Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office
ISS INVESTIGATION:Advanced Astroculture (ADVASC)

STC

Objectives...
PRODUCT: BrightMark Tissue Site Marker/NuVue Chemo
Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office

STC

Diagnost...
PRODUCT: CHI hair styling products/Farouk
Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office

STC

1. Nanoceramic ma...
ISS: microencapsulation

Courtesy: NASA/Denis Morrison

Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office

Microenc...
PRODUCT: ZEN perfume by Shiseido
Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office

STC

23
The most romantic space experiment?
Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office

STC

A lab technician demons...
PRODUCT:
engineering

Microgravity-enhanced

genetic

plant

Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office

STC...
PRODUCT: Low-lignin OR high-lignin trees
Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office

STC

• Environmental fr...
PRODUCT: Proleukin/Chiron and Alendronate/Merck
Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office

STC

• Space was...
Microtumors to validate chemo-drugs efficacy
Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office

STC

28
Tissue engineering
Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office

STC

Cartilage growth-osteoporosis

29
Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office

STC
Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office

STC
Statements regarding microgravity
Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office

•

•

When the force of gravit...
Microgravity benefits for material science
Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office

1.
2.
3.
4.

STC

Def...
Microgravity benefits for life science
Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office

STC

Contrary to earlier ...
Microgravity benefits for life science
Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office

STC

1. SEM of 3D culture...
Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office

•
•
•

The Game Changer
Commercial space services
Transportation...
The Game Changer
Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office

Commercial cargo and crew enables:
1. Increased...
Dragon Lab
Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office

STC

Dragon Lab is a free-flying microgravity laborat...
Nanoracks
Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office

Perform all aspects of space operations (testing, safe...
BioServe
Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office

Specialized in conducting microgravity life science res...
Current on-orbit transportation infrastructure
Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office

UPMASS
CAPABILITY...
Enhanced/customized transportation infrastructure
Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office

STC

DOWNMASS ...
Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office

STC
Changing Landscape
Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office

STC

•

Billionaires have started their own s...
ISS, a learning platform in space: one facet oriented
towards the Earth, the other towards the depths of space
Ames Resear...
Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office

STC
Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office

1.

STC

Proactively support national and commercial needs and t...
Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office

STC

2. Introduce new areas of microgravity research and new res...
Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office

STC

3. Annually improve ISS access and operability and upgrade ...
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Microgravity4 innovation

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As a scientist/physicist I view microgravity as another system state parameter: in early stages, systems behavior was studied at standard temperature and pressure. Next, observations took place over an entire range. Significant scientific discoveries and engineering advances were made when observing systems at low temperatures or low pressures. There is an immense database of information specific to 1g. Microgravity would provide a second dataset to explore further values of gravity ranges...
As a pragmatic person (entrepreneur? business? maker?) I view microgravity as benefiting and improving life on Earth in almost every aspect of it as a result of the serendipitous and cascading effects originating in the new knowledge gained in space.
I hope the presentation speaks to this effect

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Microgravity4 innovation

  1. 1. MOTTO: The difficult we do immediately, The impossible takes a little longer Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office Microgravity: The future of innovation Ioana Cozmuta Science and Technology Corporation Space Portal, NASA Ames Research Center For further inquiries including citation or distribution of material contained herein please contact: Ioana.cozmuta AT nasa.gov STC
  2. 2. The value of ISS/microgravity research Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office STC ISS-US taxpayers investment ~$70 billion spent over 30 years What is the ISS’s Return on Investment ? Return on Innovation? Reformulate question: What is the cost of NOT innovating and NOT exploring in microgravity? Resources, capabilities Yes Ground Desired outcome State of the art No Disruptive innovation and technologies Space otherwise-not-accessible-knowledge Keep track of: Publications Patents Spin-offs Comprehensive, searchable, public microg database
  3. 3. International Space Station Truss Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office STC Challenged by the extreme environment, severe mass limitations and the innate desire to explore the Universe in which we live, humanity has developed many innovative space technologies and acquired unique knowledge with great ancillary benefits here on Earth. 3
  4. 4. Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office STC 1. Connecting the dots: products in our daily lives emerged out of microgravity research – Microgravity impact for basic science 2. Capabilities 3. Cultural Adjustments opportunities for improved outcomes and
  5. 5. PRODUCT: Metallic Glass hardware/Liquidmetal Technologies & Materion (mass scale manufacturing) Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office STC Adopting this technology are products manufactured by Motorola, 5 Samsung and LG Electronics, Sandisk, Apple
  6. 6. Microgravity research: Viscous Liquid Foam-Bulk Metallic Glass Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office STC Bulk Metallic Glasses are a new family of glasses obtained by undercooling an alloy (Zr, Ti, Cu, Ni, Be) and forming a solid, non-crystalline structure under precise conditions (STS 1990’s) Properties: -low surface roughness: <0.05mm (Cu, steel, Fe=5-150) -high yield strength: 1900 MPa (alumina, aluminum, boron carbide ~100-300 MPa) -high corrosion and wear resistance (>336 hours) -unique acoustical properties - lightweight with considerably reduced thermal conductivity. Caltech has an Electrostatic Levitation (ESL) facility for containerless materials processing. It is used to manufacture glass-forming alloys and measure thermal properties of materials SPINOFF: http://liquidmetal.com/ 6
  7. 7. PRODUCT: Optical fibers for telecommunications, optical computers, etc Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office STC IBM –integrates optical computing onto standard (90 nm) silicon 7 chips
  8. 8. ISS: ZBLAN-fluoride glass fiber/Physical Optics Corporation Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office STC Fluoride Glass Fibers (blend of zirconium, barium, lanthanum, aluminum and sodium) uniquely manufactured in space. On Earth gravity causes convection or mixing in a melt thus the melt becomes more fluid/less viscous and tends to crystallize before glass can form. -attenuation rate ~0.0001dB/km (current Si-based fibers have an attenuation rate of 0.2dB/km) -ensure wide spectral band optical transmission for satellite track systems -enable expansion of the detection range from UV to midinfrared wavelengths (for satellite spectral identification) ZBLAN-prepares superior infrared transmitting optical fibers with applications to both optical and quantum computers Payload is selfcontained and automated (left) a defect-free ZBLAN fiber pulled during a low-g arc aboard the KC-135; (right) a crystallized fiber pulled from the same apparatus under 1-g. 8
  9. 9. PRODUCT: cosmetics, household items, packaging Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office P&G studies systems in space that we will all benefit from in 9 everyday life: improved shelf life, enhanced product quality and STC
  10. 10. ISS: binary colloids and phase diagrams Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office STC With gravity turned on, a binary mixture prepared with a composition between the binodal and the spinodal curves spontaneously decomposes, quickly driving the composition to the coexistence curve. Microgravity can 'fixate' unstable regions in the phase diagram. The spinodal is the limit of stability of a solution, denoting the boundary of absolute instability of a solution to decomposition into multiple phases. Below this curve, "infinitesimally small fluctuations in composition and density will lead to phase separation via spinodal decomposition. Outside of the curve, but below the binodal 10 (coexistence) curve, the solution is metastable with respect to fluctuations. It is in this region where microgravity experiments can afford new materials with new properties.
  11. 11. ISS: binary colloids and phase diagrams Courtesy: NASA/Peter Lu et al., Harvard University Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office STC BCAT–3 critical point samples evolving in microgravity. Colloidal/polymer mixtures that are near the critical point are already starting to phase separate into two components: a colloid-rich phase (blue areas) and a colloid-poor phase (black areas). The quickly changing dynamic data captured in these photographs will help determine the 11 boundary conditions for future models of critical behavior. The long-term observation of which samples phase separate will allow to precisely determine the critical point of this colloidal mixture. (Colloidal engineering)
  12. 12. ISS: binary colloids and surface crystallization Courtesy: NASA/Arjun Yodh and Jiang Zhang, Penn State Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office STC BCAT–3 two months following mixing. The pink region is the phase separation region showing possible indication of surface crystallization. The black asterisk indicates possible bulk crystal nucleation. Results help scientists develop fundamental physics concepts previously unobserved due to the effects of gravity. Ordered arrays of 12 these micron-sized particles may be ideal for the development of next generation optical devices.
  13. 13. PRODUCT: ZEOLITE CRYSTALS Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office STC Honda hydrogen storage tanks Lanfax Labs: Phosphate free detergents • The reversible physisorption of hydrogen on porous solid state materials is important for storing hydrogen and scales with the surface area • Reduction of by-products, increased cleaning/detoxification efficacy 13
  14. 14. ISS: ZEOLITES CRYSTAL GROWTH Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office STC Zeolites are microporous, aluminosilicate minerals with pore diameters less than 2nm. The pores make zeolites highly adsorbent; materials are attracted to the zeolite and adhere to the surface without changing state. Production challenges for synthetically produced zeolites are: 1.Elucidation of the nucleation and growth mechanism of zeolites 2.Controlling zeolite crystal size and growth 3.Preparation of extra-large pore zeolites and layered zeolites 4.Synthesis of zeolitized mesoporous materials and chiral zeolites 5.Preparation of true molecular sieve membranes The ZCG investigations examined how subtle changes in the chemical formulation affected nucleation and growth of zeolite crystals. The microgravity environment allowed researchers to grow larger (average >10%) and higher-quality crystals. The nutrients have to be added to the solution at a precise moment after onset of crystallization to result in larger crystals. These crystals have a number of useful commercial applications as catalysts and absorbents, chemical sensors. SUSTAINABILITY: Everywhere we go today we come across pollutionZEOLITES =“nature’s detoxifier Zeolite Crystals grown on the ground (left) are smaller than the ones grown in space (right) Scanning Electron Microscopy image of flight (a) and Earth (b) control zeolite crystals
  15. 15. PRODUCT: SE-FIT SOFTWARE; Advanced Wicking Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office STC • Software design of fluid systems for spacecraft life support, thermal control, cryogen and liquid propellant management (bubbles, droplets and unexpected wetting have significant effect on system performance, crew activity and comfort) • Complex interface design for microfluidic devices • Capillary action and fluid surface tension in small scale devices 15
  16. 16. ISS: Capillarity and bubble migration in mg Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office STC Single and multi-bubble migration and phase separation are driven passively by specific control of container shape. A taper in a polygonal sectioned conduit leads to capillary pumping of liquid from right to left driving bubble left to right. Application: fluid systems aboard spacecraft to separate and store fluids by phase without moving parts SUSTAINABILITY: Use knowledge from Microgravity to design better tools that on earth are used for microfluidic applications for energy and sustainability: • enzymatic conversion of biofuels • rapid microfluidic analysis of cellular processes in species with significant impact on the global carbon cycle • biohydrogen generation Various container shapes change transition in fluid location. As a central vane is rotated in the elliptic cylinder container, critical wetting geometries are established leading to wicking along the vane-wall gap and/or a shift of fluid from right to left SPINOFF 16
  17. 17. ISS: Advanced Environmental Monitoring and Control Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office STC The JPL Electronic Nose (ENose) is a full-time, continuously operating event monitor designed to detect air contamination from spills and leaks in the crew habitat in the International Space Station. It fills the longstanding gap between onboard alarms and complex analytical instruments. ENose provides rapid, early identification and quantification of atmospheric changes caused by chemical species to which it has been trained. • • Use the electronic nose for dangerous airborne chemicals, monitor cleanup processes after a leak or a spill, etc Sniffer for lung and brain cancer detection (City of Hope, World Brain Mapping) 17
  18. 18. PRODUCT: Photodynamic therapy Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office STC SpectraLife-custom fabricated monochromatic array of GaAiAs light emitting diodes to emit diffused monochromatic light Prof. Harry T Whelan (Medical College of Wisconsin) uses photodynamic therapy as an unprecedented, unique treatment of brain tumors in children and adults (Clinical Trials.gov identifier: NCT01682746) Photodynamic therapy uses light mediated activation of a photosensitizer (Photofrin) that is selectively accumulated in the target tissue causing tumor cell destruction through singlet oxygen production CERES-solid state modular LED lighting system for life science applications (JSC use for small-scale food plant production) 18 Quantum Devices, Inc: www.quantumdev.com/
  19. 19. Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office ISS INVESTIGATION:Advanced Astroculture (ADVASC) STC Objectives: To understand the effects of gravity on plant life by: 1. Determine if plants can complete their seed-to-seed life cycle in microgravity 3. Determine the effects of microgravity on gene expression levels Secondary objective: Develop a plant growth chamber w controlled environmental parameters Light source used to simulate photosynthesis in the growth chamber needs to: 1. Deliver high intensity light energy with specific peak photon wavelengths 2. Should not heat/overheat chamber SUSTAINABILITY: Light source (light emitting diode) used for mimicking natural light indoors? SPINOFF: Quantum Devices Inc/QBMI PhotoMedicine 1. PDT (Photodynamic Therapy) for cancer treatment: intravenous injection of a photosensitizer that accumulates preferentially in cancer cells. Activated by the light source the photosensitizer results in free radical generation and cell death 2. Increased effectiveness of wound healing upon exposure to the light SPINOFF: http://www.quantumdev.co m/ Second Phase of Clinical Trials in the US and foreign hospitals with extremely good results from the first round of tests (healing of bone marrow transplant patients, mucositis, pediatric brain cancer)
  20. 20. PRODUCT: BrightMark Tissue Site Marker/NuVue Chemo Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office STC Diagnostic: Microcapsule for biopsy site marker lodged in the interstitial space of tissue without migration for ultrasound monitoring via repeat biopsies, or for marking the site before and/or after surgery. Current tissue site markers typically consist of metal clips that tend to migrate within tissue, and so do not reliably mark the targeted tissue with accuracy over the long term. Therapy: Encapsulated FDA approved generic chemotherapy drugs for the deposition, retention and imaging of the drug in the tissue; microcapsules designed for release in a specific time desired timeframe SPIN-OFF: http://www.nuvuetherapeutics.com/ 20
  21. 21. PRODUCT: CHI hair styling products/Farouk Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office STC 1. Nanoceramic materials used in the CHI hair iron, brushes, curling irons, nail lacquers and hair dryers 2. Liquid formulation line for hair color protection, nutrition and conditioning The combination of (1) and (2) improves moisture retention during the styling process 1. Incorporation of nanosiliver particles inhibits microbial growth 2. Scalp healing and stimulation of growth phase of hair follicles that have become dormant Microgravity finding: -liquid filled microballoons formed an outer membrane in space -ceramic nanoparticles containing unique mixture of metal oxides for controlled delivery -efficiency of microencapsulation of three antioxidants -application of near-infrared light for improved skin healing and bone cell replacement in astronauts Farouk Systems: http://www.farouk.com/ official hair care sponsor of Miss 21 Universe-first experiments sent in outer space by a hair care company
  22. 22. ISS: microencapsulation Courtesy: NASA/Denis Morrison Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office Microencapsulation containing anti-tumor drugs made on ISS STC Single cell microencapsulation The Microencapsulation Electrostatic Processing System-II experiment (MEPS-II), included innovative encapsulation of several different anti-cancer drugs, magnetic triggering particles, and encapsulation of genetically engineered DNA. The experiment system improved on existing microencapsulation technology by using microgravity to modify the fluid mechanics, interfacial behavior, and biological processing methods as compared to the way the microcapsules would be formed in gravity. Two immiscible liquids were combined in such a way that surface tension forces (rather than fluid shear) dominated at the interface of the fluids. The significant performance of the space-produced microcapsules as a cancer treatment delivery system (Le Pivert et al. 2004) motivated the development of the Pulse Flow Microencapsulation System (PFMS), which is an Earth-based system that can replicate the quality of the microcapsules created in space. 22 SPIN-OFF: http://www.nuvuetherapeutics.com/
  23. 23. PRODUCT: ZEN perfume by Shiseido Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office STC 23
  24. 24. The most romantic space experiment? Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office STC A lab technician demonstrates the use of a silicon fiber to collect scent-molecules from a rose. Credit: International Flavors & Fragrances. How do roses smell in space? Overnight Scentsation cultivated by International Flavors and Fragrances. In microgravity the rose produced fever volatiles than it did on Earth but the fragrance that it did generate was critically altered. Scents were collected using a tiny silicon fiber coated with a special liquid to which molecules around the flower petal adhere. The fragrance was analyzed on ground and it is made up of nearly 200 different compounds. Every sampling of the rose was different and the average of those samplings resulted in a new fragrance incorporated in ZEN 24 PRODUCT: Perfume ZEN by Shiseido
  25. 25. PRODUCT: engineering Microgravity-enhanced genetic plant Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office STC Agriculture and food production: transgenic soybeans for more appetizing taste, texture; pest resistance; transfer of one plant characteristic to another (cotton, corn) Target market: $14 billions a year (even 1% product improvement has significant interest) Microgravity finding: • In the low gravity environment of space, the transfer of genetic information from one kind of plat to another is enhanced due to lack of gravity induced buoyancy and convection effects • Leads to improved or new agricultural products 25
  26. 26. PRODUCT: Low-lignin OR high-lignin trees Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office STC • Environmental friendly/less expensive paper production: lowlignin trees would reduce the necessity of chemically removing lignin from trees • Stronger wood products for the lumber industry: high-lignin trees Microgravity finding/BioServe •Plants growing in space produce less lignin •The reminder metabolic energy leads to production of secondary metabolites used by the pharmaceutical industry ($50 billion/year) Key to BioServe success was the development of a set of generic space-flight hardware that can be shared by multiple life 26 science disciplines –increased/shared utilization
  27. 27. PRODUCT: Proleukin/Chiron and Alendronate/Merck Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office STC • Space was used to advance the development of drugs • Proleukin: used for treating metastatic renal cell cancer, immune disorders, influenza, some infections due to AIDS • Biophosphonates/Alendronate: used effectively to maintain bone mass, slow down evolution of Paget disease, osteoporosis Microgravity finding: • Space induced immune-system depression in mice was used to test effectiveness of the drug resulting in a shortened testing schedule for the drug • Astronauts treated with Biophosphonates showed reduced 27 bone loss and reduced risk of renal stone formation
  28. 28. Microtumors to validate chemo-drugs efficacy Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office STC 28
  29. 29. Tissue engineering Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office STC Cartilage growth-osteoporosis 29
  30. 30. Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office STC
  31. 31. Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office STC
  32. 32. Statements regarding microgravity Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office • • When the force of gravity is present other forces are lost in the noise OR when you remove the force of gravity other forces become predominant and drive a different system dynamics Gravity is another physical parameter defining the state and behavior of a system (similar to pressure or temperature). Similarly, earlier on, major breakthroughs and innovations were achieved when systems were studied for example at low temperatures. STC
  33. 33. Microgravity benefits for material science Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office 1. 2. 3. 4. STC Defect free materials Containerless processing Avoidance of nucleation or single nucleation No contribution from convective flow (purely diffusive transport at L-S interface) 5. Free suspensions 6. Perfect spherical shape 7. Symmetric growth 8. Controlled growth (good success with dendritic systems) 9. Low undercooling 10. No solute buildup 11. No sedimentation 12. No wetting 13. Larger stable crystals with improved resolution vs ground controls 14. More homogeneous materials
  34. 34. Microgravity benefits for life science Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office STC Contrary to earlier beliefs microgravity induces changes in single cells or simple organisms not only in large, complex organisms Response to gravity is complex: •Cells affected by gravity/lack thereof: The molecular mechanisms by which gravity affects biological systems are still largely unknown. A “gravity sensor” has not yet been identified •Cells respond to gravity/lack thereof: Adaptation to force of Earth’s gravity (updown asymmetry, structural strength, sensory systems) is encoded in genes. An organism expects to experience the physical effects of unit gravity: sedimentation, convection, transport processes, hydrostatic pressure, boundary conditions, friction 1. 2. 3. 4. Presence of pressure: cell structure, adhesion and signaling Sedimentation and buoyancy (root growth) Stirring/thermal convection-slower heat and nutrient exchange Surface forces-important for “chemical communication”: development, disease, function (different gene expression, activation/deactivation of mechanisms for inflammation, immunity, bacterial growth)
  35. 35. Microgravity benefits for life science Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office STC 1. SEM of 3D cultures in space more closely resembled natural tumor cells found in cancer patients than ground controls grown on Earth 2. Cytoskeletal modifications affect cell proliferation in microgravity 3. Alteration in genes involved in the response of the microbe to the space flight environment were observed. Increase virulence (Salmonella, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, candida albicans)-vaccine resulted 4. Lymphocyte/monocyte system is most affected by space flight 5. Protein Crystal Growth-microgravity stimulates growth of structurally superior crystals and polymers of biomolecules. Helps elucidate the structure of hormones, enzymes, nucleic acids, other proteins –design of more effective drugs 6. Tissue engineering: 3D tissue models of small intestine, placenta, lung, bladder, neurons, prostate, ovarian, breast endocrine (NIH) 7. Human Research-developing and testing drug countermeasures (muscle, bone loss, improved immune response ) 8. Regenerative nanomedicine: BioNanoScaffolds
  36. 36. Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office • • • The Game Changer Commercial space services Transportation infrastructure STC
  37. 37. The Game Changer Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office Commercial cargo and crew enables: 1. Increased frequency of flight 2. Sample return capability 3. New perspective on the commercial value of ISS 1. 2. 3. 4. How to engage key US ground technologies? What are the customers needs? What are the business/commercial opportunities that open up? How do we appropriately communicate the value of ISS microgravity research? STC
  38. 38. Dragon Lab Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office STC Dragon Lab is a free-flying microgravity laboratory, unmanned, designed for research and testing in microgravity 6000 kg total bulk upmass capability 3000 kg bulk downmass-10m3 pressurized and 14m3 unpressurized payload volume Payload integration timeline: nominal: L-14 days; Late-load: T-9 hours Payload return: nominal EOM+14 days; Early Access: EOM + 6hours www.spacex.com/
  39. 39. Nanoracks Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office Perform all aspects of space operations (testing, safety, paperwork, manifesting on launch vehicle, astronaut services, data retrieval) for affordable, low costs NanoLabs-1U: 10cmx10cmx10cm with a circuit board that activates the experiment Centrifuge to simulate Earth, Moon and Mars gravity Microplate reader-repeatable experiments; returnable samples Microscope-operated by the astronauts MixStix-24 per module, 3 levels of containment for biological samples; fluid and biological research External Platform Program: access to the extreme environment of space (sensor development, testing of materials and electronics) Nanoracks.com STC
  40. 40. BioServe Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office Specialized in conducting microgravity life science research; designing and developing space flight hardware to support it Full service organization with its own full suite of space flight certified hardware available to use: 1. Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (CGBA) for life and physical science 2. Fluid Processing Apparatus (FPA) for microorganisms, small invertebrates, plants/seed germination, viruses, Protein crystal growth, biomaterials 3. Group Activation Pack (GAP) for cell and tissue culture, microbiology 4. Culture Habitat (CHAB) for cell and tissue culture, microbiology, small and model organisms http://www.colorado.edu/engineering/Bi oServe/about.html STC
  41. 41. Current on-orbit transportation infrastructure Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office UPMASS CAPABILITY ATV ORBITAL HTV SPACE-X/DRAGON CYGNUS/ORBITAL STC DOWNMASS/ LANDING CAPABILITY SPACE-X/DRAGON Bulk mass return from ISS 1-3/year
  42. 42. Enhanced/customized transportation infrastructure Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office STC DOWNMASS CAPABILITY BULK MASS for supplies CUSTOMIZED /on-demand Ballistic L/D Targeted Not powered Frequent: 1/week Targeted Controlled Powered Frequent: 2/month MARKETS: New materials; communication, next-gen computers; Biotech; Genetic Engineering, etc
  43. 43. Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office STC
  44. 44. Changing Landscape Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office STC • Billionaires have started their own space program and are driving down costs while opening the door to a more diverse set of customers. • An increasingly space capable international community is developing • More customers want to fly smaller payloads so aggregation/integration of multiple customers makes sense • NASA is an important -- but no longer primary! It is a customer of the space industry. • Focus needs to be on developing new customers: – – Payload Aggregation and Commitment to purchase multiple flights containing smaller payloads opens new opportunities at lower costs Important new opportunities emerge if you can return CUSTOMIZED ON-DEMAND payloads from orbit . • Future space industry advances and commercialization both on ground and in space will rely on: 1. 2. 3. a solid, reliable and frequent transportation infrastructure to (upmass) and from orbit (downmass, customized on-demand) identification of products that can be UNIQUELY manufactured in microgravity identification of products that require microgravity research to ENABLE new terrestrial products or breakthroughs
  45. 45. ISS, a learning platform in space: one facet oriented towards the Earth, the other towards the depths of space Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office STC Different people can realize different kinds of possibilities. Realizing these possibilities together makes the impossible possible. Very different futures are available to those that thrive beyond their planet of origin versus those whose destinies are constrained to a single world.
  46. 46. Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office STC
  47. 47. Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office 1. STC Proactively support national and commercial needs and track microgravity results based on their relevance to key national technology needs and opportunities rather than only ISS disciplines of origin to provide a more direct route of assessing their true potential for commercialization and to better define the necessary infrastructure (facilities, instrument, transportation, operations) improvements necessary to support emerging markets. • Determine where gravity limits or precludes advances in key US terrestrial technology and public health arenas and assess the potential of microgravity to provide unique solutions. Provide near term opportunities to validate most promising areas in space. • Increase the dialog between NASA and the external technical community. Engage, learn from, educate and incentivize the private sector and nonaerospace sectors by supporting ISS scientists and technologists to regularly attend key meetings and conferences of the external communities to understand their needs and discuss opportunities offered by space flight. Provide an annual process to recommend to ISS management and decision makers where there are new opportunities for growth and development and how those serve the general welfare of the United States.
  48. 48. Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office STC 2. Introduce new areas of microgravity research and new researchers annually to ensure a steady stream of new ideas, discoveries and innovation and provide the hardware improvements and operational practices to support them. • • • • • Seek and motivate new and unexpected areas of research to be added annually to the current pool of ISS investigations through an open call for innovative and exploratory research ideas in addition to current targeted NRAs. Keep the opportunity open for multiple years so that researchers know it is available and can begin to develop wellconceived research ideas. Institutionalize the process of obtaining feedback from the external community that translates into new best practices that enable new discoveries and developments. Provide sufficient government funds to explore a wider range of exploratory developments to accelerate public benefits. Provide guides, mentors, and investment support to help new entrants in the field craft successful flight experiments and upgrade or develop new hardware to enable new classes of research. No laboratory researcher on Earth conducts research as it must be done in space. Incentivize the research community at large by introducing a microgravity prize in their field of research and microgravity sessions at major conferences in all the fields of research. Microgravity results remain mostly unknown. It is not customary for scientists and engineers without spaceflight experience to explore opportunities for solutions beyond Earth.
  49. 49. Ames Research Center, Space Portal/Emerging Space Office STC 3. Annually improve ISS access and operability and upgrade facilities and capabilities, to support new science/technology endeavors. This will enable the ISS to maintain the breadth of the existing investigations and add the required depth (statistical aspects), and enable new discoveries, increased synergies and growth in important areas. Some commonly requested improvements include: • Install a greater range of on-board analytical equipment for “on-site” sample qualitative and quantitative analysis; allow ground teleoperation of equipment; upgrade data downlink speed and amount; enable better options for sample return. • Enable and encourage scientist and technologists to conduct research in person on-board the ISS. • Synergize and increase flight research opportunities across platforms by supporting research on multiple spacecraft, e.g. ISS-NL, DragonLab, Bigelow Laboratory, robotic free-flying laboratories, etc.

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