3 industry reform rtm final


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  • 1. Kebijakan yang terarah, tujuan dan strategi pencapaian yang realistis  mengembangkan angkutan bis
    2. Struktur industri yang patuh terhadap peraturan dan mampu menyediakan layanan yang reponsif terhadap permintaan.
    Ada 4 jenis struktur industri: monopoli, oligopoli, campuran operator umum/swasta besar/kecil, dan berbagai operator perorangan swasta
    3. Kerangka perencanaan dan peraturan yang mampu mencapai tujuan-tujuan kebijakan
    4. Perencanaa dan regulator yang handal
  • 1. Kebijakan yang terarah, tujuan dan strategi pencapaian yang realistis  mengembangkan angkutan bis
    2. Struktur industri yang patuh terhadap peraturan dan mampu menyediakan layanan yang reponsif terhadap permintaan.
    Ada 4 jenis struktur industri: monopoli, oligopoli, campuran operator umum/swasta besar/kecil, dan berbagai operator perorangan swasta
    3. Kerangka perencanaan dan peraturan yang mampu mencapai tujuan-tujuan kebijakan
    4. Perencanaa dan regulator yang handal
  • 3 industry reform rtm final

    1. 1. Strategy for Public Transport Revitalization The Reform of the Urban Bus Industry: Industry Structure, Planning, Regulation and Institutions Richard Meakin Legal and Institutional Specialist
    2. 2. 2 Challenges • Falling bus ridership, increasing car and m/cycle use • Traffic congestion affecting buses – a vicious cycle • Private vehicle restraint is not politically feasible until public transport offers an acceptable level of service • Must avoid escalating subsidy: buses must be: – demand-responsive – efficient – value for money • Consolidation of the bus industry is complex: – many stakeholders – well-entrenched – low cost/low quality equilibrium
    3. 3. 3 Key Constraints on Bus Industry Reform Current System Proposed System Route permits & control card. Perpetual, no service obligations Limited-duration contracts with performance standards Fleet owned by individuals, organised into cooperatives No service obligations Fleet owned by company Setoran daily rental to drivers Drivers employed, paid a wage Flat fares Graduated fares based on distance, service quality
    4. 4. 4 Opportunities • Jakarta (non-BRT) buses all recover operating costs from revenue. Retain this key threshold. • Commercial operation and cost recovery imperative will impose financial discipline and market sensitivity on planners, operators, regulators. • BRT and MRT will adopt electronic ticketing – enables flexible pricing, data collection, secure revenue, passenger convenience. Promote a common ticket. • MRT ridership will depend on effective integration • Tendered contracts promote competition and demand-responsive • Operation by companies will: – mobilize market incentives, management expertise, capital – enable internal cross-subsidy – enable performance standards – consolidate bus industry into a manageable number of clients
    5. 5. 5 Requirements for Successful Management of Urban Buses 1. A coherent and progressive policy with clear objectives and time frame 2. A manageable industry structure 3. An appropriate regulatory framework (laws, regulations, standards etc) 4. A capable institution for monitoring, planning and regulation
    6. 6. 6 Keberhasilan Pengelolaan Bis Empat Pilar Keberhasilan Pengelolaan Bis 6
    7. 7. 7 Pillar 1 - A Coherent Policy Keberhasilan Pengelolaan Bis
    8. 8. 8 Why Draft a Policy Statement? • Encourages a formal, rational and comprehensive approach • Successive statements enable a progressive, long-term, approach • Notifies stakeholders and community of government’s proposals and provides a focus for consultation • Difficult dilemmas require community consensus and support • Guides day-by-day decision-making • Discourages short-term, political expediency • Government’s performance can be measured against its policy • Promotes investors’ confidence • Can develop common strategies for many cities - mutual learning • Provides a basis for transport law
    9. 9. 9 The Mayor of London’s Transport Policy 2009 Fast Forward Copenhagen 2003 Draft for Consultation Examples of Urban Transport Policy Papers
    10. 10. 10 Does Jakarta have a Transport Policy? No specific policy paper Policy can be inferred from a variety of sources: Government publications: • Pola Transportasi Makro (PTM) 2007 - a transport infrastructure plan • Grand Design draft 2010 - management principles, (not published) Consultants studies: • JAPTraPIS* 2012 a transport masterplan, advocates bus industry consolidation Laws and regulations: • Law UU 22 of 2009 on Transport • DKI Perda of 2013 on Transport Ministers statements and actions DKI Transport Policy is not coherent, progressive Still scope for short-term, ad hoc, expedient measures Laws tend to pre-empt policy, most transport operations now illegal * Jabodetabek Public Transport Policy Implementation Strategy’ (Japtrapis)
    11. 11. 11 Keberhasilan Pengelolaan Bis Pillar 2 – An Industry Structure Amenable to Regulation, Responsive to Demand
    12. 12. 12 Current Industry is too Fragmented to Regulate Effectively – Must Consolidate 14,000 angkots 2,200 medium bus 1,600 big bus • Each vehicle licensed separately by Route Permit and Control Card - no service obligations • Each setoran vehicle is a separate business, must recover costs each day • Co-operatives act as intermediaries • Illicit regulation fills the ‘regulatory vacuum’ • Setoran separates owners from drivers • Nobody is accountable for service delivery
    13. 13. 13 Keberhasilan Pengelolaan Bis Pillar 3 – A Regulatory Framework Appropriate to Industry Composition and Policy Objectives
    14. 14. 14 Some Principles of Regulation • Operators’ incentives should align with policy objectives, eg to maximise ridership, respond to demand • Competition is the most effective incentive • Operators must be accountable for service delivery • Some functions should be left to the operators: eg minor changes to fares and routes • Severing the link between revenue and cost (eg by pay- by-km) requires complex management, financial accountability, and incurs a high risk of escalating subsidy
    15. 15. 15 Conditions to Attract Private Investment Contracts must attract commercial, corporate operators with experience, qualified management and financial resources Government must minimize risks: – Risk of ‘unfair’ competition (low cost, low quality, no service obligations) from angkots, illegal modes, and government buses – Risk of fare constraints for socio-political reasons despite rising costs – Risk of congestion reducing bus productivity and efficiency – Risk of imposing unprofitable service obligations – Risk of high front-end investment (eg depots) Contract conditions must give a reasonable assurance of cost-recovery over the life of the contract
    16. 16. 16 Best Practice in Commercial Contracts • Minimum contract - one route. Can be area network • Private companies with resources and management skills • Operating under multi-year, fixed-term, contracts • Service obligations with sanctions • Competition for contracts • Market incentives, some commercial freedom • Cost recovery, no operating subsidy • Fares to reflect market and costs
    17. 17. 17 The National Law Provides for Bus Reform National Law UU22 on Transport: • Encourages ‘healthy competition’ (198) • Main routes must be served by big buses (158) • Small buses may not operate parallel to big buses (158) • Operating right may be a limited-duration contract, or an area network (174) • Contracts to be awarded by ‘selection or tender’ (174) • No individual may operate a fixed-route transport service (139) • Fares for non-economy routes set by the operator (185) • Non-economy services may not be subsidised (185) • All public transport operators to comply with minimum service standards, to be elaborated by regulation (198) • No Ministers regulations yet made under UU22
    18. 18. 18 The DKI Perda of 2013 – A Missed Opportunity? • Does not expand the reform provisions of UU22 • Many matters left to Governor’s regulation • May subsidise passengers (conflicts with UU22) • Route or area contracts awarded by ‘selection’ or tender, but 5-year Route Permits and 1-year control cards retained (97–106) • Operators submit monthly performance reports (102) • Maximum age of buses 7-10 years (Art 51). Euro 2 (54). • Small buses to be replaced by large buses on expiry (52) • DKI government to ‘monitor and evaluate’ each bus route annually (112) • Head of Dishub must evaluate the performance of the transport system every year (205)
    19. 19. 19 Keberhasilan Pengelolaan Bis Pillar 4 - A Capable Agency to Manage Reform and to Plan, Monitor, Regulate
    20. 20. 20 Key Roles of the Agency • Manage the reform process • Plan – Annual 5-year network, service and financial planning cycle – Coordination with other government agencies (economic affairs, land use, infrastructure, police etc) – Draft transport policy and strategy • Monitor – Monitor the performance of the PT system and all operators vs demand, affordability, policy objectives – Introduce measures to address deficiencies in the annual plan • Regulate – Procure transport services under contracts – Take measures to remedy deficiencies, improve performance – Maintain balance of supply/demand, revenue/cost/affordability
    21. 21. 21 • Established and defined by a regulation • Governed by an appointed board • Clear objectives • Accountable for performance • Some autonomy, within legal limits: - revenue and expenditure - staffing and conditions - operations Features of a Transport Authority
    22. 22. 22 • To procure public transport services using formal and transparent competitive procedures •To coordinate and integrate several transport modes, eg to manage the modal share between bus and rail • To coordinate transport strategies and financial arrangements between multiple local governments • To provide political accountability for subsidies from public funds •To concentrate limited resources – expertise and funds. • To reduce opportunities for direct political interference in service provision • To focus policy attention and funding on urban transport • To coordinate the programmes of different departments responsible for different aspects of urban transport. • Sometimes a condition of donor project funding to manage funds, ensure supervision and accountability. Functions of a Metropolitan Public Transport Authority
    23. 23. 23 Steps in the Transition Towards a Jabodetabek Transport Authority Phase 1 - Strengthen Dishub’s capability: – to plan, monitor, regulate – to manage the consolidation and reform of the industry Phase 2 – Create a DKI Public Transport Authority based on the strengthened Dishub public transport division Phase 3 – Extend the jurisdiction of the TA to Jabodetabek