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A TIMELINE OF THE
HISTORY OF LINGUISTICS
By: Christine Mae D. Bautista
Angel Belgera
The Sumerians, an ancient civilization in Mesopotamia (c.
4500-1900 BC), are credited with inventing cuneiform, the
earliest writing system. Cuneiform, a logographic script,
used symbols to represent words or concepts and was
inscribed on clay tablets using a stylus. It served as a
versatile method to record administrative, legal, literary,
and religious texts, not only in Sumerian but also in
languages like Akkadian and Elamite.
THE SUMERIANS
Their high literacy rates and diverse use of
cuneiform significantly influenced writing's
evolution globally. Cuneiform remained in use
for over 3,000 years, dominating the Middle
East until the ascendancy of the Persian
Empire in the 6th century BC.
THE SUMERIANS
Hindu tradition, among the oldest and most
diverse religions globally, began in India over
4,000 years ago and has extended its influence
worldwide. Language holds immense
significance in Hinduism, with Sanskrit, an
ancient language, considered sacred and utilized
in rituals, ceremonies, and revered scriptures like
the Vedas and Upanishads.
HINDU TRADITIONS
Hindu tradition boasts a profound
history of linguistic scholarship, where
early Hindu scholars made substantial
contributions to linguistic development,
establishing some of the earliest
foundations in the field of linguistics.
HINDU TRADITIONS
BHARTRHARI
Bhartṛhari, an influential 7th-century Indian philosopher
and grammarian, is revered for his significant contributions
to Indian philosophy and Sanskrit grammar. His renowned
work, the Vakyapadiya, delves into the philosophy of
language, asserting that language forms the fundamental
basis of the world, implying that all of reality is inherently
linguistic. Bhartṛhari's work remains a subject of study for
contemporary scholars, serving as a continual source of
inspiration for both philosophers and linguists alike.

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a timeline of the history of linguistics- BAUTISTA- BELGERA.pdf

  • 1. A TIMELINE OF THE HISTORY OF LINGUISTICS By: Christine Mae D. Bautista Angel Belgera
  • 2. The Sumerians, an ancient civilization in Mesopotamia (c. 4500-1900 BC), are credited with inventing cuneiform, the earliest writing system. Cuneiform, a logographic script, used symbols to represent words or concepts and was inscribed on clay tablets using a stylus. It served as a versatile method to record administrative, legal, literary, and religious texts, not only in Sumerian but also in languages like Akkadian and Elamite. THE SUMERIANS
  • 3. Their high literacy rates and diverse use of cuneiform significantly influenced writing's evolution globally. Cuneiform remained in use for over 3,000 years, dominating the Middle East until the ascendancy of the Persian Empire in the 6th century BC. THE SUMERIANS
  • 4. Hindu tradition, among the oldest and most diverse religions globally, began in India over 4,000 years ago and has extended its influence worldwide. Language holds immense significance in Hinduism, with Sanskrit, an ancient language, considered sacred and utilized in rituals, ceremonies, and revered scriptures like the Vedas and Upanishads. HINDU TRADITIONS
  • 5. Hindu tradition boasts a profound history of linguistic scholarship, where early Hindu scholars made substantial contributions to linguistic development, establishing some of the earliest foundations in the field of linguistics. HINDU TRADITIONS
  • 6. BHARTRHARI Bhartṛhari, an influential 7th-century Indian philosopher and grammarian, is revered for his significant contributions to Indian philosophy and Sanskrit grammar. His renowned work, the Vakyapadiya, delves into the philosophy of language, asserting that language forms the fundamental basis of the world, implying that all of reality is inherently linguistic. Bhartṛhari's work remains a subject of study for contemporary scholars, serving as a continual source of inspiration for both philosophers and linguists alike.
  • 8. GREEK The Greek period in linguistics, from 6th to 2nd century BC, was a significant period in linguistic thought, involving systematic investigation of language aspects like phonology, morphology, syntax, and semantics.
  • 9. 10 Plato, an Athenian philosopher, debated the nature of language in his dialogue Cratylus, proposing two views: conventionalism and naturalism. Conventionalists argued language is arbitrary, while naturalists believed it reflects reality. Plato favored a moderate position, suggesting that language is partly conventional and partly natural.
  • 10. 10 Aristotle, Plato's student, made significant contributions to linguistics, focusing on logic and grammar. He proposed categories for language and distinguished between nouns and verbs, recognizing their roles in sentence structure.
  • 11. 10 Apollonius Dyscolus, a 2nd-century Greek grammarian, is considered the father of Greek syntax. His "Peri Syntaxeos"(Περὶ Συvτάξεως), is the first comprehensive treatise on Greek syntax, analyzing sentence structure and establishing the foundation for Western syntactic theory. His work laid the groundwork for the development of syntactic theory in the Western tradition.
  • 12. ROMANS (1ST CENTURY BC TO APPROXIMATELY 500 AD)
  • 13. ROMANS During the 1st to 5th centuries BC, the Romans significantly contributed to linguistics, focusing on preserving and analyzing the Latin language, particularly in grammar, rhetoric, and the creation of Latin dictionaries and encyclopedias.
  • 14. 10 Marcus Terentius Varro, a Roman scholar and polymath, is a significant figure in Latin linguistics, known for his prolific writings on grammar, rhetoric, philosophy, and agriculture. His most notable work, "De Lingua Latina," influenced the study of Latin grammar and influenced future linguists. MARCUS TERENTIUS VARRO (116-27 BC)
  • 15. 10 Aelius Donatus, a Roman grammarian and teacher, is best known for his influential grammar textbook "Ars Grammatica," which introduced Latin grammar topics like morphology, syntax, and etymology, preserving and disseminating Latin grammatical knowledge throughout the Middle Ages. AELIUS DONATUS (4TH CENTURY AD)
  • 16. THE MEDIEVAL PERIOD (5TH - 14TH CENTURIES)
  • 17. MEDIEVAL The Medieval period saw significant contributions to linguistic study, particularly in the fields of grammar, translation, and the understanding of languages like Latin and Old English. Figures like Isidore of Seville, St. Jerome, Aelfric the Grammarian, and Thomas of Erfurt played pivotal roles in shaping linguistic discourse during this era.
  • 18. Isidore, a prominent scholar in the Medieval period, authored the influential work "Etymologiae," an encyclopedia covering various subjects including language, etymology, and grammar. Known for his translation of the Bible into Latin (the Vulgate), St. Jerome's scholarly work contributed significantly to the development of Latin grammar and Christian literature. ISIDORE OF SEVILLE (C. 560-636) ST. JEROME (C. 347-420)
  • 19. Aelfric was an English abbot and writer who composed works on grammar and translated parts of the Bible into Old English. The "First Grammatical Treatise" is considered one of the earliest known English works on grammar, discussing aspects of Old English grammar and syntax. AELFRIC THE GRAMMARIAN (C. 955-1010) FIRST GRAMMATICAL TREATISE Thomas was a German scholastic philosopher whose work focused on logic, metaphysics, and semantics, contributing to linguistic thought during the medieval scholastic period. THOMAS OF ERFURT (FLOURISHED IN THE 13TH CENTURY)
  • 20. THE RENAISSANCE (15TH - 17TH CENTURIES)
  • 21. RENAISSANCE The Renaissance period saw a resurgence of interest in classical languages, the development of vernacular languages, and significant advancements in linguistic thought across Europe.
  • 22. A Greek scholar, Chrysoloras, taught Greek language and literature in Western Europe, contributing to the revival of Greek studies during the Renaissance. Dante's "Divine Comedy" is a significant work in Italian literature and played a role in standardizing the Italian language. Known as Ramus, he was a French philosopher and educational reformer whose ideas influenced linguistic thought by proposing a new method of teaching grammar. MANUEL CHRYSOLORAS (C. 1355-1415) DANTE ALIGHIERI (1265-1321) PIERRE DE LA RAMÉE (1515-1572)
  • 23. Although not specifically during the Renaissance period, the School of Basra in the 8th century was significant for Arabic linguistics, as scholars like Sibawayh developed foundational works in Arabic grammar, influencing linguistic thought in later periods. The founding of the Royal Society in England led to scientific and intellectual advancements, including studies in linguistics, emphasizing empirical methods and inquiry. SCHOOL OF BASRA BRITISH ROYAL SOCIETY (1660) The Port-Royal Grammarians, including Antoine Arnauld and Claude Lancelot, were French linguists who developed grammatical theories emphasizing rational analysis and clarity in language. Their work, "Port-Royal Grammar," contributed significantly to the understanding of grammar and syntax. PORT-ROYAL GRAMMARIANS
  • 25. 18TH-CENTURY EUROPE The 18th century in Europe witnessed significant developments in linguistic thought, with scholars like J.G. Herder, James Harris, James Burnett, and Sir William Jones contributing to various aspects of language theory, grammar, historical linguistics, and the study of languages from different regions. Their works laid the foundation for further linguistic inquiry and the understanding of language diversity and evolution.
  • 26. Herder believed that language is an essential part of human culture and that it is intimately connected to the way we think and perceive the world. He believed that each language is unique and reflects the culture and history of the people who speak it An English philosopher and grammarian, Harris wrote "Hermes," a work discussing language theory and the principles of grammar. J. G HERDER JAMES HARRIS
  • 27. Lord Monboddo, a Scottish judge, scholar of linguistic evolution, philosopher and deist. He is most famous today as a founder of modern comparative historical linguistics A British philologist, Jones was known for his studies in Oriental languages and comparative linguistics. He founded the Asiatic Society of Bengal and proposed the Indo-European language family hypothesis. JAMES BURNETT SIR WILLIAM JONES
  • 29. 19TH - CENTURY PHILOLOGY The 19th century saw the development of the comparative method, allowing systematic comparison of languages based on sound systems, grammatical structure, and vocabulary, leading to the discovery of the Indo-European language family, including English, French, German, Hindi, and Russian.
  • 30. A German linguist and philosopher, Humboldt is known for his work on the philosophy of language. He emphasized the connection between language and thought, proposing the idea of linguistic relativity. He also contributed to the study of Native American languages. As a German poet, philosopher, and philologist, Schlegel played a key role in establishing the field of comparative philology, exploring the historical and comparative study of languages. WILHELM VON HUMBOLDT (1767-1835) FRIEDRICH VON SCHLEGEL (1772-1829)
  • 31. A Danish philologist, Rask made significant contributions to comparative linguistics, especially in the field of Indo-European languages. He is known for his work on Old Norse and for proposing the laryngeal theory in Proto- Indo-European studies. Alongside his brother Wilhelm Grimm, Jacob Grimm is famous for their collection of fairy tales. However, Jacob Grimm also contributed greatly to linguistics with his comparative studies, particularly Grimm's Law, outlining sound changes in the Germanic languages. RASMUS RASK (1787-1832) JACOB GRIMM (1785-1863)
  • 32. A German linguist, Bopp is considered one of the founders of comparative philology and historical linguistics. He made groundbreaking contributions to the study of Indo-European languages, particularly in Sanskrit and its relation to other Indo-European languages. German linguist, Pott focused on the classification of languages and their relationship within the broader framework of linguistic studies. He contributed significantly to the understanding of language evolution. FRANZ BOPP (1791-1867) AUGUST FRIEDRICH POTT (1802-1887)
  • 33. Schleicher was a German linguist known for his work in comparative linguistics and the development of the "Stammbaumtheorie" (family tree theory), which aimed to illustrate language relationships through a tree- like structure depicting their evolution. AUGUST SCHLEICHER (1821-1868)
  • 34. 20TH CENTURY These linguists played pivotal roles in shaping structuralism within linguistics, focusing on the structure, organization, and internal relationships within languages. Their works laid the foundation for various linguistic theories and methodologies, influencing the study of language structure and meaning in the 20th century and beyond.
  • 35. Swiss linguist Saussure, known for his influential work "Course in General Linguistics," introduced structural linguistics, emphasizing the structure of language and studying signs. He introduced concepts like langue and parole, laying the groundwork for structural linguistics, emphasizing synchronic aspects over historical aspects. FERDINAND DE SAUSSURE (1857-1913)
  • 36. Jakobson, a Russian-American linguist, was a key figure in structural linguistics and semiotics, co- founding the Prague School of linguistics. He contributed to phonology, morphology, syntax, and poetics, and is known for his communication theory model, "Jakobson's functions of language." ROMAN JAKOBSON (1896-1982)
  • 38. SAPIR-WHORF HYPOTHESIS Edgar Sapir and Benjamin Lee Whorf were linguists who developed the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, also known as linguistic relativity or linguistic determinism. This hypothesis suggests that the structure of a language influences the way its speakers perceive and think about the world.
  • 39. Sapir, an American anthropologist-linguist, emphasized the connection between language, culture, and thought, proposing that language influences thought patterns and cultural norms. Whorf, an American linguist and fire prevention engineer, argued that language structure influences speakers' cognitive processes, perception of reality, and cultural worldview, expanding Sapir's linguistic relativity. EDWARD SAPIR (1884-1939) BENJAMIN LEE WHORF (1897-1941)
  • 41. GENERATIVE GRAMMAR Generative grammar is a formal approach in linguistics developed by Noam Chomsky, focusing on describing the underlying structure and rules of language that generate grammatical sentences. It aims to uncover the innate linguistic knowledge present in the human mind that enables speakers to produce and understand an infinite number of grammatically correct sentences.
  • 42. KEY FEATURES OF GENERATIVE GRAMMAR INCLUDE: Universal Grammar (UG): Chomsky proposed the existence of a universal grammar, a set of inherent linguistic principles or rules shared by all human languages. UG provides a framework that enables individuals to acquire language naturally. 1.
  • 43. 2. Transformational-Generative Grammar: This is a specific framework within generative grammar that emphasizes the use of transformational rules to generate and transform sentences from one form to another. It addresses the hierarchical structure of sentences and how they are generated.
  • 44. Sapir, an American anthropologist-linguist, emphasized the connection between language, culture, and thought, proposing that language influences thought patterns and cultural norms. Whorf, an American linguist and fire prevention engineer, argued that language structure influences speakers' cognitive processes, perception of reality, and cultural worldview, expanding Sapir's linguistic relativity. EDWARD SAPIR (1884-1939) BENJAMIN LEE WHORF (1897-1941)
  • 45. Studying the history of linguistics provides invaluable insights into the development of human language, offering a deep understanding of how languages evolve and change over time. It allows us to comprehend the diverse structures and complexities of different languages, fostering a richer appreciation of linguistic diversity and cultural heritage.