History of linguistics(18th century_modern era)Presented by:Fariha asgharRoll no 1M-phil EnglishB.Z.U
THE RISE OF COMPARATIVE METHOD• Development of the comparative method was theoutstanding 19thcentury linguistic achievement• A set of principles to systematically compare languageswith respect to their sound systems, grammaticalstructure, and vocabulary.• As all Romance languages evolved from Latin, so Latin,Greek, and Sanskrit …Celtic, Germanic, and Slaviclanguages… had evolved from some earlier Proto-Indo-European language..
SIR WILLIAM JONES• The main impetus for the development of thiscomparative philology came toward the end of the 18thcentury, when it was discovered by an english orientalist,sir William Jones.• In the year 1786,sir William Jones,a judge in British courtin India,read his famous paper to the royal Asiaticsociety in Calcutta,wherein he established beyond doubtthe historical kinship of Sanskrit,the classical language ofIndia,with Latin,Greek and the Germanic languages.
Early 19thcentury• Four best known scholars in the linguisticscience of the early 19thcentury are:1.Dane r Rask2.J Grimm3.F .Bopp4.Von Humboldt
Ramsus rask• Rask, Grimm and Bopp were the founders ofscientific historical linguistics.• Rasmus Rask wrote the first systematicgrammars of old Norse and old English.Hedrew together the various threads ofhistorical linguistics of the day into acoherent system of principles forestablishing the relatedness of languages.
J.GrimmF.bopp• Grimms work is hailed as the start of Germanlinguistics. ’Grimms law’ is considered one of thefirst sound law to form the structure and support ofindo-european language families.• Franz Bopp established the importance of Sanskritin the comparative study of indo-Europeanlanguages.he attempted to describe the originalgrammatical structures of the languages,trace theirphonetic laws,and investigate the origin of theirgrammatical forms.
Wilhem von humboldt• The Prussian statesman, von Humboldt conceiveda theory of “inner” and “outer” form in language…astructural conception…outer - the raw sounds thelanguage; inner - the pattern of grammar - meaningimposed upon the raw material and differentiatedlanguages.• Another idea of Humboldt is language as dynamic -an activity…not the product of activity…not a set ofactual utterances produced by speakers but theunderlying principles or rules. These ideas influence- or emerge again in - Ferdinand de Saussure’sstructuralism and Noam Chomsky’stransformational-generative grammar.
Modern linguistics• Modern linguistics emerged in the late 19thandearly 20thcenturies with the shift of focus fromhistorical concerns of changes in languagesover time,to the idea that a language can beviewed as a self contained and structuredsystem situated at a particular point intime.this forms the basis for structuralistlinguistics.
structuralism• The Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure is widelyacknowledged as the founding father of modernlinguistics for his book ‘course in generallinguistics’.• Historically de Saussures ideas may be put underthree heads.1. He formalized and made explicit the fundamentaland indispensable dimensions of linguistic study i.esynchronicdescriptive linguistics anddiachronichistorical linguistics.
Ferdinand de saussure2. He distinguished linguistic competence ofthe speaker and the actual phenomena ordata of linguistic utterances as langue andparole.3. His theory of signs has been veryinfluential. His linguistic sign is a union ofthe signifier (the form, sound) and thesignified(the meaning, function).therelationship of sound and meaning isarbitrary.
Phonetics and phonology• Phonetics and phonology were dominant in earlymodern linguistics.• The international phonetic association (IPA)wasestablished in 1886 by a group of Europeanphoneticians. The British phonetician Henry sweetwas one of the leading figures in phonetics in 2ndhalf of the 19thcentury.• Sweet and polish linguist Courtenay wereindependently instrumental in development of thenotion of the phoneme or distinctive sound.
The Prague school• . The prague school is a tradition oflinguistic thought that is associated with agroup of czech and other linguistic circle ofprague,established in 1926.• The group held regular meetings andpublished a journal.• The primary interest of the circle wasphonological theory.
The Prague school…• Prague school phonology succeed inplacing the notion of the phoneme in thecentre of linguistic theory,as one of themost fundamental units.• They also made contributions to the field ofsyntax.
STRUCTURAL LINGUISTICS IN AMERICA1. Franz boas2. Edward Sapir3. Leonard Bloomfield
Franz boas• Franz boas is considered the founderof American linguistics and americananthropology.A major concern for himwas to obtain information as nativeAmerican languages and culturesbefore they disappear.
Edward Sapir• Edward Sapir (boas student) was highlyadmired during is life and is still somethingof a hero to many linguists.• He published extensively in both linguisticsand anthropology, did first hand field workon many American Indian languages,contributed to historical linguistics and wrotetheoretical works.
Leonard Bloomfield• Bloomfield is credited with giving Americanstructuralism its fundamental form, makinglinguistics an autonomous field.• His principal concern was to developlinguistics as a science. Bloomfield’s‘language’ is considered a milestone inlinguistics, the foundation of Americanstructuralist linguistic thinking.• He was heavily influenced by behaviourpsychology.
Noam chomsky and linguistictheory since 1957The main stream of linguistics since 1957,the year inwhich Chomskys ‘syntactic structures’ appeared hasbeen dominated by Noam Chomsky.it is difficult tooverestimate his impact on both linguistics andcontemporary ideas in general.
NOAM CHOMSKY• Unlike the bloomfieldians,Chomsky broughtback Mentalism.For him the goal of grammaris to account for the native speaker’scompetence, defined as what a nativespeaker knows of hisher language.• A generative grammar is a system of formalrules, principles and parameters which makesexplicit the finite mechanism available to thebrain to produce infinite sentences.
Chomsky…• In his review of skinner’s verbalbehavior he refuted the behavioristpsycology.he believed that languageis rooted in the biology, not behavior.