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3. Conquering Compaction

Exploring the data from Compaction events in 2019 from Dundas and Elgin and options to reduce the compaction threat. Ian Mcdonald & Alex Barrie, OMAFRA

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3. Conquering Compaction

  1. 1. Soil properties, Tire Configuration, Tire Evaluation, Measurement and Other topics Soil Compaction
  2. 2. What Is Soil Compaction?
  3. 3. A Management DecisionWhat Is Soil Compaction? 1. Timing of field operations 2. Type of field operations (freq + aggression) 3. Weight and configuration of equipment 4. Crop selection and rotations 5. Return of organic amendments 6. Soil management We Decide!
  4. 4. Let’s Beat Soil Compaction! 1. Build Better Soils 2. Avoid Wet Soils 3. BiggerTires 4. Lower Tire PSI 5. Use Inflation/Deflation Systems 6. Better Tires 7. More Tires/Axles 8. Less Passes 9. Control Traffic 10. Lower Load Weights
  5. 5. Phenomenon of Cyclic Loading On most implements: Axle Weight changes dramatically and continuosly during operation. Always increasing or decreasing The change is usually linear Exception is grain buggies and wagons! They get “pulses” of load!
  6. 6. Why is Soil Compaction so Complicated? Changing Soil Types, Slopes CHANGE Soil Moisture! A B
  7. 7. Soil Compaction = Reduced Porosity pre impact post impact 36 psi Source: Brunotte et al., vTI 7
  8. 8. Silt Soil: Ideal 8
  9. 9. Silt Soil: Compacted 9
  10. 10. Why Do We Care About Soil Compaction? Results in: 10 *
  11. 11. Why Do We Care About Soil Compaction?Results in: Decreased water infiltration Reduced water holding capacity Reduced root growth and rooting depth Increased soil erosion Reduced nutrient uptake Increased input cost Reduced yield Reduced water and soil quality 11 *
  12. 12. Håkansson I (2005) Machinery- induced compaction of arable soils, incidence – consequences – counter-measures. SLU, Uppsala, Reports from the Division of Soil Management. No. 109, 154 pp. Compaction Compaction Compaction Compaction Compaction Compaction Compaction Surface Compaction https://pub.epsilon.slu.se/5517/1/hakansson_i_101206.pdf
  13. 13. Single Subsoil Compaction Event Consequences Year after compaction Relativeyield(%) 80 85 90 95 100 105 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Håkansson I (2005) Machinery-induced compaction of arable soils, incidence – consequences – counter-measures. SLU, Uppsala, Reports from the Division of Soil Management. No. 109, 154 pp. Compaction
  14. 14. Depth and Impact of Soil Compaction Shearer and Fulton,OSU, CompactionSmart2016
  15. 15. Load Measurement
  16. 16. Everything is a Spring… We can measure soil pressure to compare tires on different vehicles 16
  17. 17. What are the loads on soil? Axle weight, tire pressure, contact area, length of contact are all factors. • Increased soil moisture increases depth of compaction. 17 *
  18. 18. What are the loads on soil? 6 inches 12 inches 20 inches 18
  19. 19. Compaction Action! And Elgin and Dundas Equipment fully loaded: maximum risk Equipment weighed Tire pressure set based on weight, speed Select equipment tested at road inflation pressure and field pressure 19
  20. 20. Compaction Fighting Tools Why?
  21. 21. Tires: Size, Volume and Technology Weight! Speed! Pressure! If You Aren’t Optimizing You Are Losing! • Safety • Tire wear and failure • Fuel economy • Soil Compaction • Crop Damage • Increased Input Costs • Decreased returns
  22. 22. 25
  23. 23. What are the loads on soil? 6 inches 12 inches 20 inches 27
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  25. 25. 29
  26. 26. 30
  27. 27. Tire Pressure
  28. 28. 2019 Dundas Soil and Crop Compaction Event Unit D31 Nuhn Quad-Steer 17000 Liquid Manure Spreader + Class Xeron 4500 Tractor
  29. 29. D31 A+B CLASS Xeron 4500 48,590 lbs (22 T) Tanker NUHN I7000 103,100 lbs (47 T) 12,780 600/60R42 11,930 600/60R42 15,510 17,25017,380 17,700 Tanker NUHN I7000 80,530 lbs (37 T) 13,820 13,60012,930 14,580 17,400 17,860 12,740 12,860 12,100 600/60R42 11,780 600/60R42 Tractor and Tankers equippedwith CentralTire Inflation System SpreaderTires: 35.5LR32which= 900/60R32
  30. 30. 2019 Dundas Soil and Crop Compaction Event Unit D22 New Holland SP275F SP Sprayer w Automated Inflation/Deflation System w 710s vs 380s
  31. 31. D22A+B L+R New Holland SP275F SP Sprayer 48,120/48,480lbs (21.8/22 T) 11,340/13,400 380/105R50 8,280/10,300 710/70R38 13,420/11,620 710/70R38 15,080/13,160 380/105R50 Weights: Boom In/Out Sprayer Equipped with Automated Inflation/Deflation System 1. 380’s – 45 vs 25 PSI 2. 710’s – 20 vs 15 PSI
  32. 32. 2019 Dundas Soil and Crop Compaction Event Unit D27 Agrimaster A600 Gravity Wagon with 425 Radials
  33. 33. Gravity Wagon Horst Agrimaster A600 40,600 lbs (18.4 T) 10,400 425/65R22.5 10,160 425/65R22.5 8,500 425/65R22.5 11,540 425/65R22.5 D27 70 PSI front Tires 50 PSI Rear Tires
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  35. 35. 2019 Dundas Soil and Crop Compaction Event Unit D28 Agrimaster A600 Gravity Wagon with 550 Bias
  36. 36. Gravity Wagon Horst Agrimaster A600 41,720 lbs (19 T) 10,640 550/60-22.5 10,500 550/60-22.5 8,180 550/60-22.5 12,400 550/60-22.5 D28 35 PSI Front Tires46 PSI Rear Tire 23 PSI Rear Tire
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  38. 38. 2019 Dundas Soil and Crop Compaction Event Unit D40 Class 750T Tracked Combine with CTIS
  39. 39. D40 A+B 7,200 28LR26 7,500 28LR26 31,500 Track 31,180 Track Steering Tires Equipped with CTIS to managePSI 77,380 lbs (35.1 T) CLAAS Lexion 750
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  41. 41. 2019 Dundas Soil and Crop Compaction Event Unit D18 JD S660 Big Singles Combine w 1250s
  42. 42. JD S660 63,120 lbs (32 T) 9,800 750/65R2 6 8,500 750/65R2 6 23,240 1250/50R32 21,580 1250/50R32 D18 20 PSI Rears 23 PSI Fronts
  43. 43. 2019 Dundas Soil and Crop Compaction Event Unit D16 CaseIH 8250 Dualed Combine w VF580s
  44. 44. CaseIH 8250Dualed Combine 69,460lbs(35 T) 8,700 VF750/65R26 9,000 VF750/65R26 14,120 IF580/85R42 12,720 IF580/85R42 D16 14,380 IF580/85R42 10,540 IF580/85R42 20 PSI 41 PSI
  45. 45. IF580/85R42CFO16,500@41
  46. 46. Tire Load and Soil Stress Location Normalized to 40 psi and 6-8 Ton Tire Load 90 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 NomralizedSoilPressure TireLoad (Tons) 6" Normalized Stress 12" Normalized Stress 20" Normalized Stress Linear (6" Normalized Stress) Linear (12" Normalized Stress) Linear (20" Normalized Stress)
  47. 47. Tire Pressure and Soil Stress Location Normalized to 40 psi and 6-8 Ton Tire Load 91 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 NomralizedSoilPressure TirePressure(psi) 6" Normalized Stress 12" Normalized Stress 20" Normalized Stress Linear (6" Normalized Stress) Linear (12" Normalized Stress) Linear (20" Normalized Stress)
  48. 48. Timing • Organic Matter and soil moisture all affect how strong the soil will be for any given moment. • Tire pressure or size alone cannot limit compaction. • Timing plays a major factor in the load placed on the soil. 92
  49. 49. Loads from Forage Equipment • For a majority of ag equipment, the load on the tires varies dramatically as equipment is loaded and unloaded. • Forage equipment is an exception to this rule. • the load may not vary at all as it travels across and field. • Balers,choppers and haybines havea fixed wheel weight that does not change. • This makes tire selection much more important. Selecting an appropriate tire will help reduce the load on the soil. 93
  50. 50. Options for avoiding Compaction and the challenges • Some options for limiting compaction can cost money up front • Newer Tires (IF,VF etc.) • CTIS • Additional Axles • Others can cost no money at all • Timing • Controlled Traffic • Reducing Axle Load 94
  51. 51. Tire Types and Construction Radial – Separate tread and sidewall allows tread face to remain flat as the tire flexes Bias – Integral sidewall alters tread face when tire flexes 95 Ag Tires - Practical Applications From Michelin TIRE TECHNICAL DATA BOOK 2017
  52. 52. Side Wall Information
  53. 53. Sidewall Information 710/70 R42 173D TL MACHXBIB 97 Ag Tires - Practical Applications
  54. 54. Sidewall Information 710/70 R42 173D TL MACHXBIB 98 Ag Tires - Practical Applications 710- Tread Width in millimeters 70 – Aspect Ratio ( % of sidewall height to Tread Width) R – Radial 42 – Rim diameter in inches 173– Load Index Rating (indication of maximum load) D – Speed Rating (maximum travel speed) TL – Tubeless MACHXBIB – Manufacturermodel name
  55. 55. Table Information 710/70 R42 173D TL MACHXBIB 99 Ag Tires - Practical Applications
  56. 56. Table Information 100 Ag Tires - Practical Applications
  57. 57. Table Information Some manufacturerstableswill include more information Rolling Circumference– useful for calibratinggrounddriven equipment Flat Plate Area – an indicationof the contactpatch(butnot necessarily floatation)on a hard surface at a given pressure and load SRI – Speed Radius Index – Useful for matchingfront and rear tires on power units 101 Ag Tires - Practical Applications
  58. 58. Air Pressure Setting
  59. 59. Table 1. Sample Tire Inflation Table (demonstration only) Tire Size Load Index Dimensions Load Capacity (lbs/tire) Width/Aspect Rim Diameter 000 … … … psi 12 15 20 … 50 mph 30 7000 8070 9890 … - 25 … … … … - 20 … … … … - 5 10200 11750 14410 … - … … …. … … … … … … … … Width/Aspect Rim Diameter 000 … … … Psi 12 15 20 … 50 Mph 30 7440 8430 10580 … - 25 … … … … - 20 … … … … - 5 10970 12430 15610 … - 103 Ag Tires - Practical Applications
  60. 60. Sidewall Information 710/70 R42 173D TL MACHXBIB 104 Ag Tires - Practical Applications
  61. 61. Questions? Thanks! Alex Barrie, MASc, P.Eng Soil Management Engineer (A) Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs E: Alex.Barrie@Ontario.ca C:226-979-4707 105

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