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13. Rotation Rules!

25 years of long-term rotation trials: what the data says, and how to use it on your farm. Dave Hooker, University of Guelph

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13. Rotation Rules!

  1. 1. Dr. Dave Hooker, Assoc. Professor University of Guelph, Dept. of Plant Agriculture, Ridgetown Campus Email: dhooker@uoguelph.ca @cropdoc2
  2. 2. 1.Overview 2.Impact on corn yields 3.Impact of underseeded red clover 4.Impact on corn N requirements 5.Impact on soybean yield 6.Impact vs. weather scenarios 7.Water storage vs. SOM? 8.Does fertilizer N reduce SOC? 9.Economic considerations
  3. 3. Dr. Bill Deen UG Plant Ag Dr. Laura Van Eerd UGRC SES Dr. Inderjot Chahal UGRC SES Doug Young UGRC Dr. Dave Hooker UGRC Plant Ag +OMAFRA colleagues
  4. 4. Jonathan Brinkman Scott JayKen VanRaay
  5. 5. Collaborative Projects 2017-current
  6. 6. No-tillnot usually associatedwith increased soil C (Deen and Kataki, 2003, Meyer-Aurichet al., 2006) Much attention has been on tillage …
  7. 7. “…no-till [often] reduces yields, yet this response is variable and under certain conditions no-till can produce equivalent or greater yields than conventional tillage. Importantly, when no-till is combined with … residue retention and crop rotation, negative impacts are [often] minimized. “ 5,463 pairwise comparisons across 610 studies Much attention has been on tillage …
  8. 8. Declining Crop Diversity in Ontario, 1981-2013 (Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, Field Statistics 2014) Harvested areas (hectares) of major field crops shown as % of total harvested area from 1970 to 2014 for Ontario. (Source: Statistics Canada, 2016.) (Reproduced from Deen et al., 2016)
  9. 9. Janzen et al. 2014(EJSS 66:19-32) Changes that occur slowly are measured in long-term experiments
  10. 10. • 7 Crop Rotations • C-C, S-S, C-S, C-S-W, C-S-Wrc, S-W, S-Wrc • 4 N rates in corn and wheat • 2 tillage systems (MB and NT/Strip-till) Ridgetown Long-term Tillage-N-Crop Rotation, clay loam 3300 CHU, 108 CRM hybrid = full season @cropdoc2
  11. 11. 2. Impact of diversity on corn yield?
  12. 12. GrainYield(bu/ac) Tillage x Crop Rotation on corn yields Ridgetown 2009-19 using 120-160 lbs fertilizer N/ac Note: Mean separation within tillage system(p=0.05) 173b 153b 165b 180a182a 186a 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 Plow No-Till C-S C-C C-S-W @cropdoc2 C-S C-C C-S-W
  13. 13. 3. Impact of underseeded red clover on subsequent corn yields?
  14. 14. 192.1 198.8 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 GrainYield(bu/ac)Corn Yields after Wheat +/- Red Clover Ridgetown 2010-19 Hooker (UG Ridgetown) Fertilizer N applied to all plots @ 180-240 lbs N/ac (N sufficient) * = difference significant at P=0.05 @cropdoc2 * -none Underseeded red clover +Redclover +6.7 No underseeded red clover
  15. 15. 4. Impact of crop rotation diversity on fertilizer N requirements for corn?
  16. 16. C-C 240 lbs N/ac C-C 15 lbs N/ac (starter)
  17. 17. Corn after wheat Corn after soybean
  18. 18. 94c 88d88c 112c111b 132b 147a 154a 50 70 90 110 130 150 Corn yield response to soil N capacity -- zero fertilizer N – Ridgetown 2010-2019 Hooker (UG) Yield (bu/ac) Tilled No-Till/Strip-Till n=40 observations per mean (4 reps x 10 years) Mean separation within tillage Fisher’s Protected LSD (0.05) CC CS CSW CSW rc @cropdoc2 CC CS CSW CSW rc
  19. 19. 5. Impact of crop rotation diversity on soybean yield?
  20. 20. GrainYield(bu/ac) Tillage x Crop Rotation on Soybean Yields Ridgetown 2009-19 Note: Mean separation within tillage system(p=0.05) 54c 58c58b 60c 63a 65ab65a 64ab 63a 66a 64a 64ab 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 Plow No-Till S-S C-S C-S-W C-S-Wrc S-Wrc S-W S-S C-S C-S-W C-S-Wrc S-Wrc S-W @cropdoc2
  21. 21. 6. Impact of crop rotation diversity in the future?
  22. 22. y = 0.956x- 1843.9 y = 2.0832x- 4039.3 y = 0.3583x- 677.21 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 1981 1983 1985 1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 2011 2013 2015 2017 2019 Yield(bu/ac) CORN SOY WHEAT Trending Yield in Ontario, 1981-2019 @cropdoc2
  23. 23. Higher crop yields require more water corn @cropdoc2
  24. 24. Can you improve resilience? 7. Crop Rotation and Stress Reduction? @cropdoc2
  25. 25. -5 10 -6 12 -6 15 -5 10 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 20 24 22 14 16 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Plow No-till/Strip-till C-S Rotation C-S-W Rotation Cool Hot/Dry Optimal Ave Cool Hot/Dry Optimal Ave Cool Hot/Dry Optimal Ave Cool Hot/Dry Optimal Ave Ridgetown corn yield responses under different weather scenarios 2009-2019 Rotationeffect (% from C-C) Rotationeffect (% from C-C) @cropdoc2 * * * * * * * * = Rotationresponse statisticallysignificant(P=0.05) *
  26. 26. Soybean after corn Soybean after wheat
  27. 27. 6 16 3 16 8 20 7 10 0 5 10 15 20 25 3 11 2 11 3 11 4 11 0 5 10 15 20 * Plow No-till/Strip-till C-S Rotation C-S-W Rotation Ridgetown soybean yield responses under different weather scenarios 2009-2019 Rotationeffect (% of S-S) Rotationeffect (% of S-S) Cool Hot/Dry Optimal Ave Cool Hot/Dry Optimal Ave @cropdoc2 * * * * * = Rotationresponse statisticallysignificant(P=0.05) Cool Hot/Dry Optimal Ave Cool Hot/Dry Optimal Ave
  28. 28. Organic matter and water holding capacity Available water double at 4.5% OM vs. 1.5% 7. Soil organic matter vs. available soil water?
  29. 29. 7. Soil organic matter vs. available soil water?
  30. 30. “ ….60 published studies with 50,000 measurements globally …” “ ….the effect [of SOC] on available soil water is negligible …” “ …. a 1% increase in SOC, increased available water 0.7 to 2 mm per 100 mm soil …” European J. Soil Sci. 69:39-47(2018) @cropdoc2
  31. 31. Soil OrganicMatter Mulch Aggregation Evaporation Soil temperature Water infiltration Runoff Porosityand aeration Water for cropuse Indirect effects of SOM on water Microbialactivity Nutrientcycling Modified from: Dr. B. Minasny (Univ. Sydney), 2018
  32. 32. 0 20 40 60 80 100 corn soybean-corn soybean soybean-wheat S-W-C Organiccarbon(Mgha-1) Crop rotation conventional no till Tillage-Crop Rotation Effect on SOC -- After 11 years at Ridgetown -- Van Eerd et al. 2014;Congreves et al. 2016 @cropdoc2
  33. 33. 8. Does N fertilizer decrease SOC? @cropdoc2
  34. 34. Fertilizer N Effect on SOC? – US Midwest Poffenbargeret al. (PLOSone2017)@cropdoc2
  35. 35. 9. Economics of a diverse rotation -- it’s more complicated than you may think --
  36. 36. Corn Soybean Wheat Marginal yield increase +10 bu/ac +5 bu/ac $/bu $5.00/bu $13.00/bu Crop value increase $50/ac $65/ac + N credit $35/ac $0 Marginal rev
  37. 37. Corn Soybean Wheat Marginal yield increase +10 bu/ac +5 bu/ac $/bu $5.00/bu $13.00/bu Crop value increase $50/ac $65/ac + N credit $35/ac $0 Marginal rev $85/ac $65/ac $150/ac
  38. 38. Corn Soybean Wheat Marginal yield increase +10 bu/ac +5 bu/ac $/bu $5.00/bu $13.00/bu Crop value increase $50/ac $65/ac + N credit $35/ac $0 Marginal rev $85/ac $65/ac $150/ac In equivalent wheat yield @ $6.50/bu +22 bu/ac OR in equivalent wheat price @ 100 bu/ac +$1.50/bu
  39. 39. • Other important considerations for wheat ……. - More timely seeding of corn and soybean ??/ac @cropdoc2
  40. 40. System Crop Acreage(ac) Yieldpotential Yieldloss from delayedplanting Cost of delay 1 Corn 1,500 Soybean 1,500 2 Corn 1,000 Soybean 1,000 Wheat 1,000 Impact of delayed planting to enterprise analysis
  41. 41. System Crop Acreage(ac) Yieldpotential Yieldloss from delayedplanting Cost of delay 1 Corn 1,500 100% on 1000 ac -20 bu/ac on last 500 ac @ $5/bu Soybean 1,500 100% on 1000 ac -5 bu/ac on last 500 ac @ $12/bu 2 Corn 1,000 100% on 1000 ac Soybean 1,000 100% on 1000 ac Wheat 1,000 100% on 1000 ac Impact of delayed planting to enterprise analysis
  42. 42. System Crop Acreage(ac) Yieldpotential Yieldloss from delayedplanting Cost of delay 1 Corn 1,500 100% on 1000 ac -20 bu/ac on last 500 ac @ $5/bu -$50,000 Soybean 1,500 100% on 1000 ac -5 bu/ac on last 500 ac @ $12/bu -$30,000 2 Corn 1,000 100% on 1000 ac Soybean 1,000 100% on 1000 ac Wheat 1,000 100% on 1000 ac Impact of delayed planting to enterprise analysis
  43. 43. System Crop Acreage(ac) Yieldpotential Yieldloss from delayedplanting Cost of delay 1 Corn 1,500 100% on 1000 ac -20 bu/ac on last 500 ac @ $5/bu -$50,000 Soybean 1,500 100% on 1000 ac -5 bu/ac on last 500 ac @ $12/bu -$30,000 2 Corn 1,000 100% on 1000 ac Soybean 1,000 100% on 1000 ac Wheat 1,000 100% on 1000 ac +$80/ac Impact of delayed planting to enterprise analysis
  44. 44. • Other important considerations for wheat ……. - More timely seeding of corn and soybean ??/ac - Machine/workload spread out ??/ac - Other cover crops than red clover ??/ac - Grazing/forage opportunities of cover crops ??/ac - Herbicide resistance management improved ??/ac - More opportunity to sustainably sell crop residue ??/ac - Future rotation corn-soy benefit may be much larger ??/ac - Increased potential for environmental service ??/ac @cropdoc2
  45. 45. Summary • Corn-soy “rotation” is associated with low unstable yields; low soil organic matter/poor soil structure; increased N requirement for corn, and reduced opp to incorporate cover crops compared to a CSW rotation • Wheat in rotation increased corn yields 6-17 bu/ac, soy 4-6 bu/ac; underseeded red clover increased corn yields a further 6 bu/ac with 70 lbs N/ac credit. • N fertilizer does NOT reduce SOC, if applied at economic rates • Latest lit review: SOC does not increase water storage, but may affect water indirectly Meyer-Aurich et al, 2006a; Meyer-Aurich et al 2006b; Sanscartier et al, 2013; Munkholmet al,2012; Munkholmet al, 2013; Muellera et al, 2009; Gaudin et al,2013; Gaudin et al.2014; Gaudin et al.2015, Kludze et al. 2013; Van Eerd et al.. 2014; Minasny and McBratney,2018; Poffenbarger et al., 2017 @cropdoc2
  46. 46. QUESTIONS? Dave Hooker dhooker@uoguelph.ca @cropdoc2

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