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22. Profitable Cover Crops

Basic strategies for managing cover crops profitably.
Steve Groff, Cover Crop Coaching

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22. Profitable Cover Crops

  1. 1. Profitable Cover Cropping Steve Groff The Cover Crop Coach
  2. 2. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com Started No-Till in 1982
  3. 3. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com Started Planting Green 1984
  4. 4. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com 1st Cover Crop Roller in U.S.- 1995
  5. 5. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com Birthplace of Tillage Radish- 2001
  6. 6. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com You can’t BUY soil health: It has to be MADE! Management!
  7. 7. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com Do you know how to MANAGE YOUR SOILS in the way they were designed to FUNCTION?
  8. 8. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com Do you know how to MANAGE YOUR SOILS in the way they were designed to FUNCTION?
  9. 9. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com Complexity/Diversity Your soils were formed by MULTIPLE SPECIES and had LIVING ROOTS in the soil at ALL TIMES
  10. 10. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com We Could Forage for Berries and Nuts!
  11. 11. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com 30 years ago!
  12. 12. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com Soil Covered with Living Roots all Year
  13. 13. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com Cedar Meadow Farm The Past 30 Years… Management! 2.0% 5.5% 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 OrganicMatter Organic Matter Changes 1985 2015
  14. 14. My Diversity Journey… 2019- 27+ Species Cash Crops Cover Crops Tomatoes Radish Squash Hairy Vetch Pumpkins Balansa Clover Oilseed rape Crimson Clover Hairy vetch Oilseed Rape Triticale Cereal Rye Malting barley Triticale Wheat Field Peas Corn (grain and silage) Annual Ryegrass Soybeans Pollinator mix Winter Peas Sunn Hemp Alfalfa/grass SorghumSudan grass Grass Sunflower Black Oats Phacelia Hemp Others… 1982- 7 Species Cash Crops Cover Crop Tomatoes Cereal rye Squash Wheat Corn (grain and silage) Alfalfa Grass
  15. 15. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com My Goals… ✓Lower pesticide and fertilizer use ✓No Commodity crops ✓Diversity, Diversity, Diversity ✓Profit!
  16. 16. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com In the Beginning… God saw all that He had made, and it was very good!
  17. 17. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com Working WITH Nature! We’ve been taught to control Nature with tools: “What am I gonna KILL today?” How do I get more LIFE on my operation? “How can I mimic nature- nurture it!”
  18. 18. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com “Tillage” in full swing!
  19. 19. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com The Result
  20. 20. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com 38 Years Later…
  21. 21. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com Treat Cover Crops Like Cash Crops!
  22. 22. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com The “Profit” is in the Management!
  23. 23. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com Water Erosion? What are you trying to Accomplish?
  24. 24. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com Interseeding Cover Crops into Knee High Corn
  25. 25. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 Untreated control Annual Ryegrass Legume mix Grass-legume mix CornYield(bu/a) Effect of Interseeded cover crops Penn State, 2013 +12 bu/A
  26. 26. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com 2014 PA Corn Grain Yields in On-Farm Study (year of interseeding) (no significant differencedue to cover crop)
  27. 27. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com Pennsylvania
  28. 28. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com Penn State University one pass Interseeder/sidedress/herbicide
  29. 29. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com PSU Interseeder Research
  30. 30. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com Jim Hershey/Brian Zimmerman, Pennsylvania
  31. 31. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com Interseeding Cover Crops Dawn Biologic
  32. 32. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com Last Cultivation
  33. 33. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com Interseeding/Sidedress N
  34. 34. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com The motorcycle method!
  35. 35. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com Ontario, Canada
  36. 36. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com Wisconsin
  37. 37. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com Interseeding with old drill
  38. 38. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com Interseeding Success- NY 2015
  39. 39. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com Central New York State Applying manure (dragline) on green growing cover crops Nov. 19 Interseeded last week of June
  40. 40. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com Interseeding Limitations
  41. 41. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com Interseeding Success- NY 2016
  42. 42. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com From looking great to looking bad…
  43. 43. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com …to looking great again!
  44. 44. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com Summary For Corn Herbicides Preliminary Recommendations for the Northeast Grass Herbicides Active Ingredient Injury Possible DualII Magnum 7.64EC s-metolachlor* Zidua 85 WG pyroxasulfone* Potentially Safe Products Prowl H2O 3.8 CS pendimethalin Outlook 6 EC dimethenamid-P* Harness 7 EC acetochlor* BroadleafProducts Active Ingredient Injury Possible Callisto 4 SC mesotrione* Impact 2.8SC topramezone* Balance Flexx 2 SC isoxaflutole* Potentially Safe Products Resolve 25 WG rimsulfuron Atrazine4 L atrazine(<1.0lb)* Sharpen 2.85 SC saflufenacil* *Premixed productsalso containmany of these active ingredients
  45. 45. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com Interseeding Limitations ✓Highly productive soils ✓Soybeans Research ideas ✓Corn populations/flex ear hybrids? ✓60” Corn?
  46. 46. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com Interseeding recommendations ✓Start with lower yielding soils ✓End rows? ✓Best Species ➢ Annual Ryegrass ➢ Radish ➢ Crimson Clover, Balansa or Red Clover ➢ Cereal Rye or Triticale?
  47. 47. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com Interseeding Limitations Cloudy days Day length (sunlight) Herbicides Corn population Upright vs. droopy leaves Hybrid maturity
  48. 48. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com Interseeding Cover Crops •No yield loss •Cover crop planting does not interfere with harvest •Potentially adds up to the equivalent of one more month of cover crop growth!
  49. 49. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com 11 Keys to Planting Green SuccessPlanting Green
  50. 50. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com Planting Green- 6 inches tall
  51. 51. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com Planting Green- 6 feet tall
  52. 52. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com Roll Crimping
  53. 53. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com Keys for Planting Green Success Termination timing Just before planting Make sure you can plant what you spray before next rain Spray before emergence
  54. 54. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com Planting Green- Maximizing N Control with 1.5 qts. Glyphosate and 1 pt. 2-4,D Terminating Crimson Clover
  55. 55. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com Roll/crimping Cover Crops
  56. 56. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com Keys for Planting Green Success Understand how to manage moisture
  57. 57. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com Keys for Planting Green Success Have proper planting equipment
  58. 58. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com Keys for Planting Green Success Row cleaner adjustments
  59. 59. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com Non- wrapping row cleaners
  60. 60. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com Row Cleaner adjustments
  61. 61. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com Need to eliminate hairpinning
  62. 62. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com Proper Seed Depth
  63. 63. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com Keys for Planting Green Success Seed firmer
  64. 64. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com Keys for Planting Green Success Closing wheels
  65. 65. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com Proper row closure
  66. 66. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com Monosem Closing Wheel Adjustment
  67. 67. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com Monosem Adjustable Closing Wheel Angle
  68. 68. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com Yetter Responds…
  69. 69. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com Adjustable Angle Closing Wheels
  70. 70. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com Keys for Planting Green Success In-row fertility
  71. 71. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com Assume no available N
  72. 72. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com Keys for Planting Green Success Over-all season fertility management For corn, more N up front
  73. 73. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com Beans Planted into Cereal Rye $$$$$$$$$$$
  74. 74. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com Bulgaria Planting Green
  75. 75. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com Bulgaria
  76. 76. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com The Proof!
  77. 77. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com The Proof! No-Till/No Cover Crops No-Till/Cover Crops past 5 years
  78. 78. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com On-Farm Cover Crop Research
  79. 79. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com Wide-Row Corn
  80. 80. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com
  81. 81. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com Who is your Mentor(s)?
  82. 82. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com Factors Influencing Cover Crop Adoption Regulations? Or The Market?
  83. 83. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com Keys to Cover Crop Success LEARN all you can UNDERSTAND where the FUTURE may be going…
  84. 84. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com With Wrangler in Greece
  85. 85. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com With Wrangler in Greece
  86. 86. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com Companies who have a Plan ✓ General Mills ✓ Land o Lakes ✓ Campbells Soup ✓ Tyson Foods ✓ Pepsi ✓ Wrangler ✓ Phillip Morris ✓ McDonalds ✓ Nestle/Purina ✓ Patagonia • Whole Foods • Blue Apron • Sweetgreen • Cargill • Walmart • Coca-Cola • ADM • Bonduelle • Unilever
  87. 87. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com New Book Coming Summer of 2020! Steve's story, and important practical lessons about business, farming and life in this compelling, fun read. Learn why you may have to change your mindset in order NOT to become obsolete in this ever-changing world! Join the waitlist so we can alert you when the book is ready! SteveGroff.com (Working title & design)
  88. 88. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com Public Perception! PA No-Till Alliance
  89. 89. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com 1. FARMERS trying cover crops for the FIRST TIME 2. FARMERS looking to take cover crops to the NEXT LEVEL 3. CONSULTANTS, TRAINERS OR EDUCATORS seeking a specific plan for their clients
  90. 90. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com The “Profit” is in the Management!
  91. 91. COVER CROP COACHING SteveGroff.com SteveGroff.com

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