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6. Opportunities for Dry Beans

The Ontario Bean Growers board is here for you! Come learn about OBG llllllactivities and project investments and hear from a dry bean farmer about tips on a successful harvest.Jennifer Mitchell, Ontario Bean Growers; Brendan Louwagie, dry bean grower and Thompsons Limited agronomist, Meghan Moran, OMAFRA Canola & Edible Bean Specialist

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6. Opportunities for Dry Beans

  1. 1. Opportunities for Dry Beans Ontario Bean Growers February 2020
  2. 2. Who we are • Formed in 2013 • Regulated by the Farm ProductsMarketing Commission • Approximately 1000 growers – mostly located in southwestern Ontario • Represented by a 7 member board of directors • Province is divided into 3 districts with 6 grower delegates representing each district
  3. 3. Howarewe funded? • Grower license fees (currently $6.80/MT) • Government and other funding programs
  4. 4. What do we do? MISSION: Our mission is to collaborate with industry partners through research and development,to build an innovative, sustainable business environment and promote the consumptionof dry edible beans, contributing to healthy growth for all stakeholders.
  5. 5. Areas of Focus RESEARCH MARKET PROMOTIONS & COMMUNICATIONS GROWER & AGRONOMIST RELATIONS ADVOCACY & GOVERNMENT RELATIONS
  6. 6. • Breeding • Weed Management • Pest/Disease Management • Agronomy • Health/Food Product Development Research To investin research that contributes to the productivityand profitability of farmers growing dry edible beans in Ontario.
  7. 7. BeanBreedingPrograms at theUniversityof GuelphandAAFC
  8. 8. Winter nursery Crossing in Greenhouse Plot Planting Head rows Yield Trials Registration Trials
  9. 9. F5 popln’s selfed F4 popln’s selfed crosses 2017 Bean Breeding F1 popln’s selfed bean germplasm parent selection currentyear 2017 previous year 2016 year 2015 year 2014 year 2013 next year 2018 F1 popln’s selfed crosses 2016 F1 popln’s selfed crosses 2015 F1 popln’s selfed crosses 2014 F1 popln’s selfed crosses 2013 bean germplasm parent selection headrows from selected plants evaluated single plants selected from each family F2 popln’s selfed F3 popln’s selfed
  10. 10. Preliminary Trial /Lines Selected from Headrows Preliminary Trials Not Inoculated (yield) Advanced Trials (yield, harvestibility, disease resistance, maturity, cooking, markers) Lines are entered into RegistrationTrials for two years (yield, cooking quality) Varieties are Registered Preliminary Trial Lines Inoculated with Anthracnose Selection(yield, disease resistance) Preliminary Trial Lines Inoculated with Xanthomonas In two years 2019 In three years 2020 In four and five years 2021/2022 In six years 2023
  11. 11. • Health professional conferences • Consumer events • Development and promotion of resource materials • Social Media • Partnerships with other commodities • Partnerships with food bloggers • School programs Market Promotions & Communications To support the profitability and sustainability of Ontario’s bean growers by carrying out activities that contribute to increased consumptionof dry edible beans
  12. 12. Do Beans Fight Cancer? • Research by Dr. Henry Thompson of the University of Colorado links bean consumptionwith an organism’s ability to fight the spread of cancer in rats. The study showed the more beans the rats ate, the greater their protection against cancer. While all the beans used in the research had some affect, white kidney beans (also called cannellini beans), in particular, had amazing results and inhibited the spread of the cancer by as much as 70 per cent.
  13. 13. GROWER & AGRONOMIST RELATIONS To engage with growers, potential growers and agronomists with an aim to transfer knowledge and encourage the inclusion of dry edible beans in crop rotations across the province. ADVOCACY & GOVERNMENT RELATIONS To engage with government and industry stakeholders on issues that affect the productivity, profitability and sustainabilityof Ontario’s bean growers.
  14. 14. Good Beans Grow in Ontario! Black turtle beans. Also known as black beans or pretos,these havea nut-like flavour and are very popular in Caribbean,Mexican and South American cuisine. Ontario blackbeans mainlyhead to the US and Mexico. White, pea or navy beans. White beans are the most popular edible bean crop grown in Ontario and are often used in soups,salads and baked bean dishes. Most of these are exported to the United Kingdom for baked beans. Cranberry beans. Known as romano or speckled sugar, cranberrybeans are very popular in Italian cuisine, and havethe highest folate count of all beans.They are also great beans to use in chili.
  15. 15. Good Beans Grow in Ontario! Dark red kidney beans. Great in soups, casseroles, chili and salads. They are a popular choice among Ontario and Quebec farmers. Light red kidney beans. These are kidney-shaped and maroon in colour. Because of their texture, these beans are great in salads, casseroles and Mexican-style recipes. White kidney beans. Also known as cannellini or alubia beans, they are white or cream coloured. When puréed, they are similar to creamy mashed potatoes and make a perfect low-fat base for dips and spreads.
  16. 16. Good Beans Grow in Ontario! Adzuki beans. The adzuki bean has been grown and used for many centuries in Asian countries and was introduced to Japan from China about 1,000 years ago. Its principal use is as a confectionery item. Otebo beans. Otebo beans are a specialty class of bean that is marketed to Japan for use in confectionary paste. Otebos are another great bean to use in chili.
  17. 17. 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000 70000 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 Lbs/acre Acres Crop Year Bean Production in Ontario White Black Cranberry Kidney Adzuki Japan/Other White2 Black3 Cranberry4 Kidney5 Adzuki6 Japan/Other7
  18. 18. Bean Acres in Ontario 2019 130,062 2018 107,107 2017 116,881 2016 107,119 2015 134,548 2014 119,945
  19. 19. 2017 Exports US - 58%, 5,145,499 Mexico - 32%, 2,776,032 Guatemala - 2%, 201,400 BLACKBEAN EXPORTSIN KILOGRAMS(TOP 3 COUNTRIES) Total kg exported worldwide8,806,488
  20. 20. 2017 Exports Japan - 63%, 13,209,862 Taiwan - 27%, 5,617,793 US - 3%, 621,360 ADZUKI BEAN EXPORTS Total kg exported worldwide20,992,666
  21. 21. 2017 Exports UK - 28.9%, 3,834,901 US - 28.7%, 3,799,984 Italy - 5.7%, 757,033 KIDNEY BEANEXPORTS Total kg exported worldwide13,224,076
  22. 22. 2017 Exports UK - 67%, 48,668,581 Italy - 11%, 7,779,894 New Zealand - 8%, 5,726,926 WHITE BEANEXPORTS Total kg exported worldwide72,400,146
  23. 23. 2017 Exports Italy - 26.5%, 6,048,273 Japan - 25.8%, 5,915,905 US -13.2%, 3,021,721 CRANBERRY BEANS,OTEBOBEANSAND OTHEREXPORTS Total kg exported worldwide22,861,436
  24. 24. 2017 Exports UK - 38%, 52,733,307 Japan - 15%, 20,400,123 Italy - 11%, 14,699,164 US - 10%, 14,235,211 New Zealand - 5%, 6,486,854 Taiwan - 4%, 5,901,739 Australia - 2%, 2,873,734 Mexico - 2%, 2,776,032 TOP EXPORTCOUNTRIES Total kg exported worldwide138,284,812
  25. 25. Why growdry beans? • ‘added value’ crop to increase revenue • Diversify rotation • Moretimely planting of winter wheat • Divide workload over a larger planting and harvestwindow • Plant late May/early June; harvestfrommid-September and Thanksgiving
  26. 26. Why grow dry beans? • However, growing dry beans also assumes more risk than growing soybeans • More sensitive to excess moisture, weed competition, and disease. Most market classes do not weather well if harvest is delayed Crop Budget Worksheet - 2020 Season As of: Jan 24, 2020 Conv. CROP RR CORN IP RR SOYS WHITE BEANS SOFT RED SOFT RED SEED $134.40 $85.40 $107.80 $66.95 $75.00 $75.00 N $86.10 $21.97 $66.87 $66.87 P $42.06 $22.95 $22.95 $27.00 $30.78 $30.78 K $29.93 $27.57 $27.57 $23.63 $13.47 $13.47 S $8.03 $8.03 HERBICIDE $33.55 $102.04 $54.53 $71.53 $8.95 $8.95 INSECTICIDE $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 FUNGICIDE $13.95 $0.00 $0.00 $43.25 $26.99 $26.99 PREHARVEST BDWN $14.39 $15.41 $5.36 $5.36 CROP INSURANCE $11.39 $8.58 $8.58 $16.93 $5.77 $5.77 TILLAGE $53.00 $0.00 $0.00 $65.00 $0.00 $0.00 ROLLING $7.00 $7.00 $7.00 PLANTING $21.00 $22.00 $22.00 $22.00 $23.00 $23.00 SPRAYING $18.00 $18.00 $18.00 $27.00 $18.00 $18.00 FERTILIZING $10.25 $10.25 $10.25 $10.25 $10.25 $10.25 PULL/WINDROW HARVEST $44.00 $43.00 $43.00 $44.00 $41.00 $41.00 TRUCKING $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 PICK CHARGES (5%) $16.36 DRYING (C 25%, WB 20%) $89.25 $0.00 $0.00 $17.11 $0.00 $0.00 LAND $300.00 $300.00 $300.00 $300.00 $300.00 $300.00 TOTAL COSTS $886.89 $661.18 $621.68 $795.39 $633.47 $633.47 YIELD BUSHEL/ACRE 200.00 50.00 55.00 95.00 85.00 PRICE PER BUSHEL $4.86 $11.63 $11.63 $6.98 $6.98 YIELD BAGS/ACRE 24.00 PRICE PER BAG $38.00 PREMIUM PER BUSHEL $3.25 VALUE OF STRAW $0.00 $0.00 TOTAL GROSS 972.00 744.00 639.65 912.00 663.10 593.30 NET PER ACRE $85.11 $82.82 $17.97 $116.61 $29.63 -$40.17 No-Till Conventional EARLY LATE
  27. 27. Tips for success • Field Selection • Fertility, drainage, croppinghistory • Weed/PestManagement • Proactive,few rescueoptions • Harvest Management • Equipmentprep and pre-harvestmanagement Dry beans aren’t soybeans!Work with an agronomist who has experiencewith dry beans. Aboveall else, remember that you get paid for QUALITY!
  28. 28. Field Selection • Dry beans have a smaller, less robust root system than other field crops • Moresusceptibleto root rots • Not good scavengers • Choose a well-drained field with good background fertility levels and good soil structure • Potash is especially important • Watch for SCN • Consider weed spectrum when choosing a field as well – perennial vs annual, resistance issues
  29. 29. Weed Control Herbicide options are more limited, especially in-crop, so timely, proactive weed control is critical • A good weed control program preventsa lot of harvest headaches Start with a good, solid pre-plant program – we’ve got the most options here • Work with your agronomist to tailor the program to your tillage practices and weed spectrum Goal is to do the bulk of the work pre-plant, and tidy up escapes in-season
  30. 30. Weed Control • When building your weed control program: • Know your weed spectrum • Resistance, problem weeds • Consider your tillage practices • Fleabane, herbicides that require incorporation • Dry beans are incredibly bad at competing with weeds! • Well studied by Dr. Sikkema
  31. 31. Disease Control • Anthracnose • Some varieties offer resistanceto one or multiple races of anthracnose • Best practice is to couple resistancewith effectivefungicides
  32. 32. Disease Control • White mold • Dependent on weather conditions • Rotate crops or avoid fields with a history of higher white mold incidence • Fungicides need to be applied preventatively • 2 passes may be required
  33. 33. Insects • Potato Leaf Hopper – usually kept in check by seed treatment, but can occasionallybreak through and will require control • Western Bean Cutworm – very difficult to scout for in dry beans and we don’t have a good measuring stick to use to decide when control is required. • Yield is not impacted; however, beans with insect feeding are pick
  34. 34. Harvest Management • Glyphosate is no longer an option as a pre-harvest aid • The product you use may depend on your weed pressure at this time • Lamb’s Quarters • Follow all recommendations on rates, water volume and application timing carefully • Bright, sunny warm day, 20+gal/ac water • Usually takes 7-10 days for crop to dry down to harvest
  35. 35. Harvest Management • Header set-up • An air reel is a must for clipping beans, even on a draper! • Knife shatter is common • Consider lifters if crop is lodged • Adjust knife/feeder house angle to get knife as close to the ground as possible • Watch for stones – you will pick some up. Check your stone trap!
  36. 36. HarvestManagement • Combine Set-up • Slow downs (edible bean kit) • Perforated screens • Slow down unloading system if possible • Operator’s Manual will have initial threshing settings • As well as any other specific adjustments
  37. 37. Harvest Management • You are paid for dry, clean, QUALITY beans • Don’t push harvestwindowearly in the morning or late at night when beans are ‘tough’ • Don’t harvestbeans beforethey are ready, even if wet weather is coming • If you are ‘mud tagging’ beans, QUIT • If you had heavy weed pressureat desiccation,you may need to wait longer for weeds to dry down • Avoid harvestinghigh-moistureOR low-moisture beans
  38. 38. Other Management Opportunities • Dry beans aren’t soybeans, but that doesn’t mean we can’t use some of the same tools • Variable rate planting • Some analytical data suggests dry beans have most consistentreturn to VR planting • Targeted fungicide applications • Improve ROI of 2nd white mold application by targeting high-risk areas
  39. 39. @ontariobeans

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