Urban Public Transport Strategic Priorities in China - Jiang Yulin - CATS - Transforming Transportation 2013 - EMBARQ and The World Bank
Urban Public Transport Development Strategic Priorities in China!! Presented at Transforming Transportation 2013!! Dr. Jiang Yulin!! Director, China Urban Sustainable Transport Research Center (CATS)!! Secretary General, National Technical Committee on Urban Passenger Transport of Standardization Administration of China!! Secretary General, National Committee on Rail Transit Operation Management of China Urban Mass Transit Association!Transforming Transportation 2013!
Urban Public Transport Development Strategic Priorities in China Dr. Jiang YulinDirector, China Urban Sustainable Transport ResearchCenter, CATS, Ministry of Transport, P. R. China Secretary General of National Technical Committeeon Urban Passenger Transport of StandardizationAdministration of China Secretary General of National Committee on RailTransit Operation Management of China Urban MassTransit Association
1. Background & Key challengesChina is going through a period of high-speed growth of bothurbanization and motorization. The urban transport in majorcities has become one of the key issues of social-economicdevelopment as well as urban functions in China. 70000 66558 60 59400 60667 62200 60000 56212 57706 54283 50 49.7 52376 50212 45.7 46.6 48064 43.9 44.9 50000 45906 41.8 43 43748 40.5 40 41608 39.1 39449 36.2 37.7 40000 37304 34.8 35174 33.4 30.5 31.9 29 30 30000 20 20000 10000 10 0 0 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 城市人口（单位：万人） 城镇化率（单位：%）In 2010,urbanization rate of China arrived 49.68%,about 19%of the world’s urban population lives in China.
Mode split has been changingl Bicycle share declined 1.9% annually;l Car share increased 1.1-1.2% annuallyl Public transport share increased Mode shi) from 1986 to 2010 in Beijing 0.5-1.1% annually.
Public transport service capacity lags behind social and economic development and transport demand growth Average share 全国平均分担率 17.53 rates l Low speed & low punctuality Population 10 人口100万以下城市 below 1million l Poor comfort Population 20 between 1 million 人口100∼300万城市 an 3million l Transfer Population 人口300万以上城市 30 inconveniently above 3 million 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 l Low coverageOverall, PT share is below 20%, and service quality is low
The cost of the congestion problem is high 拥堵经济成本（JEC） 占收入比例 400 12.50% 13.00% 350 12.00% 9.10% 11.00% 300 375 9.10% 9.10% 10.00% 250 9.00% 200 7.10% 6.60% 8.00% 273.8 228.2 7.00% 150 4.60% 4.60% 6.00% 100 142.6 136.8 132.6 5.00% 50 4.00% 92.6 69.4 0 3.00% 北京 广州 上海 武汉 重庆 南京 成都 西安
2 Actions of Prioritizing Urban Public Transport Development in China Overall of Objectives n public transportn To establish national integrated transport networks u Integratedn To decrease gap of development u efficient between rural and urban area u safen To balance transport u green development with high quality service of public transport u economical
Roles of different government in PT n The city governments should act as responsibility entity. n The provincial level governments have the monitoring and guiding responsibility. n The national governments should issue the law and policy. n The governmental departments should realize a fast and economic development by both working individually and having close cooperation together.
Action 1 Institutional reform 2008Institutional reform at all levels for theintegration of urban transport development MOB MOT Building and house Urban public Post civil aviation transport waterway Highway
Action 1 Institutional reform 2008Ministry of passenger and freightTransportation transportMinistry ofFinance FinanceMinistry ofBuilding & Urban master planningConstruction of rail transit plan &urban and rural constructionMinistry of Public traffic safety and fleetSecurity registration Overall national economic andNDRC social development, price control
Action 2 National public transport planning, 2010 Public transport development is included in "the 12th five-year plan for national economy and social development”, issued by the State Council. u To implement priority development strategy of public transport, and enhance public transport share u To plan rail transit network scientifically, and push orderly rail transit network construction u To actively develop BRT system, and improve the density and coverage of the line network u To guide private car use, and advocate non-motor transport u To integrate urban public transport and rural transport development
Rail transit development plann Urban Metro system ü 1471 km in operation by 2010, 3000 km in operation by 2015 . p The lines to open is longer than that of the past 40 years.
BRT development plann BRT ü By 2010: 514 km in operation ü By 2015: 1000 km 60 55.30 50 47.00 45.80 运营线路总长 （公里） 40 33.70 30 23.77 20 13.80 12.40 12.34 10 0 北京 杭州 昆明 济南 常州 大连 合肥 重庆
Action 3 Urban Passenger Transport Standardization 2012 • National Technical Committee on Urban Passenger Transport of Standardization Administration of China safety & Bus security Infrastructure BRT Construction Taxi Rail Rental car energy saving Ferry emission Operation … Management reduction
Action 4 National Transit Metropolis Program2012• Initiating action plan of the national transit metropolis, 30pilot cities by 2015. Beijing, Shenzhan, Taiyuan,Wuhan,Changsa,Nanjing,Wulumuqi,Zhengzou, Jinan,Kunming,Chongqin,ect. 15 /25 Cities have been approved.• MOT cooperated with local governments• Monitoring the process by developing the tools of ChinaUrban Transport Database (CUTD) v PT share rate: above 45% Punctuality rate: 2% v PT stop coverage in increased annually Accidents: 2% decreased downtown area: within annually 300m, 95% Bus depots entering:>90% v Bus speed: >20km/hour IC Card:>80%
Action 5 Guidelines of Prioritizing Urban Public Transport Development in China 2013 (Issued by the State Council No.〔2012〕64)Transforming transportation development pattern to take public transport as public good1. Strength planning control2. Speed up infrastructure construction3. Enhance jointed transport & land developments
Action 5 Guidelines of Prioritizing Urban Public Transport Development in China 2013 4. Increase government investment ü PT is included in city public budget ü Mass transit, integrated hub, Information Center ü Free of Vehicle Purchase Tax (VPT) ü Electronic subside of under rail, Fuel consumption subside of bus ü The value capture of integrated land development with transportation ü The income of staffs in PT company should be in creased regularly, not less than city’s average income 5. Increase government finance ü PPP, trust fund, private operators ect.
Action 5 Guidelines of Prioritizing Urban Public Transport Development in China 20136. Ensure road right priority7. Encourage ITS8. Improve ticket pricing mechanism9. Set up the technique standardization system10.Implement integrated transport managementTransport Demand management measures including law, economic and administrative tool such as Project traffic assessment
Action 5 Guidelines of Prioritizing Urban Public Transport Development in China 201311. Set up safety management regulation12. Regulate decision making procedures Public involvement such as road planning and pricing changing Reporting PT cost and server quality13. Setup performance evaluating systemDevelopment PT is the responsibility of local government, Provincial Gov. is in charge of surveillance and guides. Central Gov. made macro- development policy, laws and regulations.
Future Action 6 Urban Public Transport Law 2014 ü Keep the government as the major provider of public transport ü Ensure local investment and land acquirement for public transport ü Good insGtuGonal structure and cooperaGon scheme ü Decentralizing some of the power, like Local TDM l Rail transit l Bus including suburb and city center l Taxi l Strategic planning l Finance & regulations l Institutional responsibility l Market review & supervision
Future Action 7 Proposed Develop Sustainable Finance fuel tax highwayRoute A waterway vehicle purchase tax (bus exception) … fuel subsidy National public Central transport fund government Transferring public service: Local water supply local education public government transport … transport public fundRoute B • Land value • Congestion fee • Urban development and maintenance fee
Transport transfer from Central Gov. to Local Gov.should including public transport xx Yuan =（Length of highway (Km)× CostYuan/ km×30%+Population×average cost (Yuan/person)×20%+Number of counties× average cost ofexpenditure of counties×10%+Number of cars×average cost per car×10%+ area coverage× averagecost per ha×30%）×variation of land ”
o Changing low cost ticket price toward high quality service of sustainable public transportGovt. finance Costume company runningburden based service on debtTicket price for bus varies from 7 cent to 30 cent/ tripSubside from cities government 0 to 14 billion dependon the context of network and city finance capability
China Urban Sustainable Transport Research Center, CATS, Ministry of Transport, P. R. China Ministry of Ministry of Finance MOT Railways Long distance transport Highway construction Urban Transport Policy Bus CUSTReC waterway Aviation Rail Civil Post Private car Change on March， 2008 Taxi & from MHCRC to MOTThe CoE functions as A think tank to provide policy decision making and technical support to the central, MOT and the local city level
THANK YOU Jiangyulin@vip.sina.comhttp://www.urbansustrans.cn
Transforming Transportation 2013!! Co-organized by EMBARQ and The World Bank!! More information at:!! EMBARQ.org!! worldbank.org/transport!! Questions? Comments? Contact us at email@example.com!! Follow us on Twitter: @EMBARQnetwork!Transforming Transportation 2013!