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India on the Move

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UNICEF Mumbai presentation on urban India

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India on the Move

  1. 1. India On The MoveAn overview of Urbanization in India andImplications for UNICEFUNICEF Mumbai PresentationTransition States MeetingJuly, 2012
  2. 2. Trends in Urban Population900 833.1 1400 400 377.1800 742.5 Increase in Urban Population 1200 350700 628.7 286.1 Population (in Million) 1000 300600 523.8 439.1 800 250 217.6 In500 360.3 377.1 2011, urban400 200 159.5 600 286.1 constitute300 217.6 150 159.5 400 109.1 d 31.2 78.9200 78.9 109.1 100 percent100 200 50 of the 0 0 total 0 populatio 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 2011 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 n 2011 Total Population Rural Urban Period The Total Population of India in 2011 is 1210.2 Million of which Rural is 833.1 Million and Urban is 377.1 Million Source: India’s Urban Demographic Transition – National Institute of Urban Affairs, December 2011
  3. 3. Level of Urbanization 1400 82.0 80.1 90.0 An 76.7 1200 74.3 72.2 68.8 80.0 important 70.0 feature of as a percentage of total population 1000 60.0 urbanizatiPopulation (in Million) 800 on in India 50.0 40.0 600 during the 30.0 400 31.2 period 1981 25.7 27.8 20.0 200 19.9 23.3 to 2001 18.0 10.0 was the 0 0.0 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 2011 relatively Year small Total Population Rural Urban contributi on of migration from Source: India’s Urban Demographic Transition – National Institute of Urban Affairs, December 2011 rural to urban
  4. 4. Urbanization Ranking: Top 10 Major States of India, 2011 Tamil Nadu got ahead of Maharashtra and Gujarat in the race of urbanization in the Census 2001 when more than 1000 rural settlements were classified as urban in all states of India, of which nearly 400 were in Tamil Source: Report on Indian Urban Infrastructure & Services, March 2011 (Estimates based on Census of India data) Nadu
  5. 5. Metropolitan Cities: Number & Population The number of metropolitan (million plus) cities has risen sharply, out of which eight metropolitan cities are 5- million plus. The 50 metropolitan cities now account for 42.6% Source: Report on Indian Urban Infrastructure & Services, March 2011 (Based on Census of India data) of the total urban
  6. 6. Issues in Urban India
  7. 7. Urban Population Below Poverty Line 60.0 Though the urban 49.0 50.0 45.2 poor (defined as anyone living on Percentage of Urban BPL Population 40.8 38.2 40.0 less than 20 32.4 rupees a day) 30.0 25.7 accounted for 25.7% of the 20.0 countrys total urban population 10.0 in 2004-5 compared with 0.0 1973-74 1977-78 1983-84 1987-88 1993-94 2004-05 49.01% in 1973- Period 74, in absolute numbers it grew Source: Report on Indian Urban Infrastructure & Services, March 2011 from 60 million to 81 million
  8. 8. Slum Population in Key Metropolitan Cities 60 54.1 In India there are 50 49000 Slums with Percentage of Slum Population, 2001 an estimated 40 population of 93 32.5 Million. 70% of 30 India’s slums are in 20 18.9 18.7 19.4 5 States – 17.2 13.5 Maharashtra 10 10.0 (35%), Andhra Pradesh (11%), West 0 Bengal (10%), Tamil Nadu (7%) and Ahmedabad Bangalore Chennai Delhi Hyderabad Kolkata Mumbai Pune Metropolitan Cities Gujarat (7%) Source: Report on Indian Urban Infrastructure & Services, March 2011
  9. 9. State of Urban Service delivery Urban Sewerage and Sanitation Service Norms • Underground sewerage system for all cities • 100% collection and treatment of waste waterUrban Water Supply • Drain network covering 100% roadService Norms length on both sides for all cities• 100% individual piped water supply for all households including informal Status settlements for all cities • 94.2% cities/towns in India do not even have a partial sewerage network• Continuity of Supply: 24x7 water supply • Less than 20% of the road network is for all cities covered by storm water drains• Per capita consumption norm: 135 lpcd • 54th round of NSS reported 26% for all cities households having no access to latrines, 35% using septic tanks and 22%Status using sewerage system• 64% of urban population is covered by • Treatment facilities exist only for individual connections and stand-posts 3750 liters out of the total 15800• Duration of water supply range from 1 million liters waste water generated hour to 6 hours per day in 300 Class I cities• Per capita supply of water ranges from 35 to 298 lpcd for a limited duration• Average access to drinking water is 73% in Class I Cities, 63% in Class II, 61% in Class III and 58% in Class IV+ Cities
  10. 10. Urban Transportation Service Norms • Rail-based and Road-based mass rapid transit system (MRTS) for Class IA & Class IB cities, and city bus service for other class cities StatusUrban Solid Waste Management • Public transport accounts for only 22%Service Norms of urban transport in India, compared• 100% of solid waste with 49% in lower middle income collected, transported, and treated countries (e.g. Philippines, Venezuela for all cities as per Municipal Solid and Egypt) and 40% in upper middle Waste 2000 Rules income countries (e.g. South Africa, Korea, Brazil)Status • Share of public transport fleet in• It is estimated that about 115000 India has decreased sharply from 11% in metric tonnes of municipal solid 1951 to 1.1% in 2001 waste is generated daily in the • Only 20 out of India’s 85 cities with a country population of 0.5 million or more in• Waste collection coverage ranges 2009 had a city bus service from 70 to 90% in major metropolitan cities and is less than 50% in smaller cities• Less than 30% solid waste is segregated Source: Report on Indian Urban Infrastructure & Services, March 2011• Scientific disposal of waste is almost
  11. 11. Livelihood Food Security Despite National The percentage Policy on Urban of population Street Vendors with a calorie & Model Street intake of less Vendors Parks and Open than 1890 KcalHousing (Protection of per day has SpacesAgainst a basic Livelihood & increased from 2.7 Squareservice demand Regulation of 16.2% in 1999-2000 Meters perfor 30 Million Street Vending) to 16.7% in 2004- capita asAffordable Bill they 2005. compared toHousing continue to basic minimumunits, the remain poor. requirement ofcurrent Nearly 77% of 9 Square Metersavailability is 5 microcredit per capitaMillion units clients are in the rural sector and still the SHG-Bank Linkage Prog. remains a rural phenomena. Source: Report on Indian Urban Infrastructure & Services, March 2011
  12. 12. 7.6 Million children or 8th Every 8th child in India in the 1.7 Million children (0-6 years) in 13.1% of the age group of 0- Maharashtra total child 6 years stays in (highest in the population are slums country) are living in slums staying in slums29% Adolescent Girls are 12% Of India children aged 5 63% children of less than five married as to 14 years are years are child into labour anemic, among brides, among activities urban poor urban poor it 71.4% children is 48% are anemic33% Of children under five years 42 Out of 1000 live births is the IMR 42% Children total miss of age in urban in urban immunization India are areas, among before underweight, am urban poor it is completing one year, DLHS 3, 2007-08 among ong urban poor 55 Source: urban poor it it is 47% Growing-up in an ‘urbanizing’ India is 60%
  13. 13. Themes: VIPP How do we What kind of embed children partnership does issues in the UNICEF need to urban planning foster in urban Capacity process? Development Partnerships programming? •What do we Do we need to know about the Knowledge Decentralization focus only best practices Management / Governance governance & around children advocacy issues in urban areas? OR we also get •Need for into developing disaggregated models in select*Inclusionon urban included in all four areas data lens to be geographic areas areas? OR we do both?
  14. 14. Thank You!!!

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